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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4614, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929069

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a complex structure dependent upon multiple mechanisms to ensure rhythmic electrical activity that varies between day and night, to determine circadian adaptation and behaviours. SCN neurons are exposed to glutamate from multiple sources including from the retino-hypothalamic tract and from astrocytes. However, the mechanism preventing inappropriate post-synaptic glutamatergic effects is unexplored and unknown. Unexpectedly we discovered that TRESK, a calcium regulated two-pore potassium channel, plays a crucial role in this system. We propose that glutamate activates TRESK through NMDA and AMPA mediated calcium influx and calcineurin activation to then oppose further membrane depolarisation and rising intracellular calcium. Hence, in the absence of TRESK, glutamatergic activity is unregulated leading to membrane depolarisation, increased nocturnal SCN firing, inverted basal calcium levels and impaired sensitivity in light induced phase delays. Our data reveals TRESK plays an essential part in SCN regulatory mechanisms and light induced adaptive behaviours.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular , Escuridão , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Luz , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canais de Potássio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20171-20179, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747561

RESUMO

Extracellular electron transfer (EET) allows microorganisms to gain energy by linking intracellular reactions to external surfaces ranging from natural minerals to the electrodes of bioelectrochemical renewable energy technologies. In the past two decades, electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate EET in a wide range of microbes, with emphasis on dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, as model organisms. However, due to the typically bulk nature of these techniques, they are unable to reveal the subpopulation variation in EET or link the observed electrochemical currents to energy gain by individual cells, thus overlooking the potentially complex spatial patterns of activity in bioelectrochemical systems. Here, to address these limitations, we use the cell membrane potential as a bioenergetic indicator of EET by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells. Using a fluorescent membrane potential indicator during in vivo single-cell-level fluorescence microscopy in a bioelectrochemical reactor, we demonstrate that membrane potential strongly correlates with EET. Increasing electrode potential and associated EET current leads to more negative membrane potential. This EET-induced membrane hyperpolarization is spatially limited to cells in contact with the electrode and within a near-electrode zone (<30 µm) where the hyperpolarization decays with increasing cell-electrode distance. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the reported technique can be used to study the single-cell-level dynamics of EET not only on electrode surfaces, but also during respiration of other solid-phase electron acceptors.


Assuntos
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/fisiologia , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Shewanella/fisiologia , Benzotiazóis/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105568, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791376

RESUMO

An emerging Multi-Ion Toxicity (MIT) model for assessment of environmental salt pollution is based on the premise that major ion toxicity to aquatic organisms is related to a critical disturbance of the trans-epithelial potential across the gills (ΔTEP), which can be predicted by electrochemical theory. However, the model has never been evaluated physiologically. We directly tested key assumptions by examining the individual effects of eight different salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, MgSO4, KCl, K2SO4, CaCl2, and CaSO4) on measured TEP in three different fish species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas = FHM; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus = CC; bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus = BG). A geometric concentration series based on previously reported 96-h LC50 values for FHM was used. All salts caused concentration-dependent increases in TEP to less negative/more positive values in a pattern well-described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The ΔTEP responses for different salts were similar to one another within each species when concentrations were expressed as a percentage of the FHM LC50. A plateau was reached at or before 100 % of the LC50 where the ΔTEP values were remarkably consistent, with only 1.4 to 2.2-fold variation. This relative uniformity in the ΔTEP responses contrasts with 28-fold variation in salt concentration (in mmol L-1), 9.6-fold in total dissolved solids, and 7.9-fold in conductivity at the LC50. The Michaelis-Menten Km values (salt concentrations causing 50 % of the ΔTEPmax) were positively related to the 96-h LC50 values. ΔTEP responses were not a direct effect of osmolarity in all species and were related to specific cation rather than specific anion concentrations in FHM. These responses were stable for up to 24 h in CC. The results provide strong physiological support for the assumptions of the MIT model, are coherent with electrochemical theory, and point to areas for future research.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Sais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Eletrodos , Brânquias/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785272

RESUMO

Here we examine a class of neurons that have been recently explored, the somatosensory neuronal subclass of cold thermosensors. We create a mathematical model of a cold sensing neuron that has been formulated to understand the variety of ionic channels involved. In particular this model showcases the role of TRPM8 and voltage gated potassium channels in setting the temperature dependent activation and inactivation threshold level. Bifurcation analysis of the model demonstrates that a Hodgkin-Huxley type model with additional TRPM8 channels is sufficient to replicate observable experimental features of when different threshold level cold thermosensors turn on. Additionally, our analysis gives insight into what is happening at the temperature levels at which these neurons shut off and the role sodium and leak currents may have in this. This type of model construction and analysis provides a framework moving forward that will help tackle less well understood neuronal classes and their important ionic channels.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Neurológicos , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Termorreceptores/fisiologia , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Animais , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 332, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cell biology, increasing focus has been directed to fast events at subcellular space with the advent of fluorescent probes. As an example, voltage sensitive dyes (VSD) have been used to measure membrane potentials. Yet, even the most recently developed genetically encoded voltage sensors have demanded exhausting signal averaging through repeated experiments to quantify action potentials (AP). This analysis may be further hampered in subcellular signals defined by small regions of interest (ROI), where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may fall substantially. Signal processing techniques like blind source separation (BSS) are designed to separate a multichannel mixture of signals into uncorrelated or independent sources, whose potential to separate ROI signal from noise has been poorly explored. Our aims are to develop a method capable of retrieving subcellular events with minimal a priori information from noisy cell fluorescence images and to provide it as a computational tool to be readily employed by the scientific community. RESULTS: In this paper, we have developed METROID (Morphological Extraction of Transmembrane potential from Regions Of Interest Device), a new computational tool to filter fluorescence signals from multiple ROIs, whose code and graphical interface are freely available. In this tool, we developed a new ROI definition procedure to automatically generate similar-area ROIs that follow cell shape. In addition, simulations and real data analysis were performed to recover AP and electroporation signals contaminated by noise by means of four types of BSS: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and two versions with discrete wavelet transform (DWT). All these strategies allowed for signal extraction at low SNR (- 10 dB) without apparent signal distortion. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the great capability of our method to filter subcellular signals from noisy fluorescence images in a single trial, avoiding repeated experiments. We provide this novel biomedical application with a graphical user interface at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11344046.v1 , and its code and datasets are available in GitHub at https://github.com/zoccoler/metroid .


Assuntos
Razão Sinal-Ruído , Software , Algoritmos , Animais , Automação , Corantes/química , Simulação por Computador , Fluorescência , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007996, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667909

RESUMO

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the propagation of a relatively slow wave in cortical brain tissue that is linked to a number of pathological conditions such as stroke and migraine. Most of the existing literature investigates the dynamics of short term phenomena such as the depolarization and repolarization of membrane potentials or large ion shifts. Here, we focus on the clinically-relevant hour-long state of neurovascular malfunction in the wake of CSDs. This dysfunctional state involves widespread vasoconstriction and a general disruption of neurovascular coupling. We demonstrate, using a mathematical model, that dissolution of calcium that has aggregated within the mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle cells can drive an hour-long disruption. We model the rate of calcium clearance as well as the dynamical implications on overall blood flow. Based on reaction stoichiometry, we quantify a possible impact of calcium phosphate dissolution on the maintenance of F0F1-ATP synthase activity.


Assuntos
Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical , Potenciais da Membrana , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Citosol/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Oscilometria , Oxigênio/química , Fosforilação , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/química , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18079-18090, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647060

RESUMO

Ion channels in excitable cells function in macromolecular complexes in which auxiliary proteins modulate the biophysical properties of the pore-forming subunits. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive HCN4 channels are critical determinants of membrane excitability in cells throughout the body, including thalamocortical neurons and cardiac pacemaker cells. We previously showed that the properties of HCN4 channels differ dramatically in different cell types, possibly due to the endogenous expression of auxiliary proteins. Here, we report the discovery of a family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane proteins that associate with and modulate HCN4. Lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (LRMP, Jaw1) and inositol trisphosphate receptor-associated guanylate kinase substrate (IRAG, Mrvi1, and Jaw1L) are homologous proteins with small ER luminal domains and large cytoplasmic domains. Despite their homology, LRMP and IRAG have distinct effects on HCN4. LRMP is a loss-of-function modulator that inhibits the canonical depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of HCN4 in response to the binding of cAMP. In contrast, IRAG causes a gain of HCN4 function by depolarizing the basal voltage dependence in the absence of cAMP. The mechanisms of action of LRMP and IRAG are independent of trafficking and cAMP binding, and they are specific to the HCN4 isoform. We also found that IRAG is highly expressed in the mouse sinoatrial node where computer modeling predicts that its presence increases HCN4 current. Our results suggest important roles for LRMP and IRAG in the regulation of cellular excitability, as tools for advancing mechanistic understanding of HCN4 channel function, and as possible scaffolds for coordination of signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Família Multigênica , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiologia , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiopatologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702063

RESUMO

The diagnosis of patients with malignancies relies on the results of a clinical cytological examination. To enhance the diagnostic qualities of cytological examinations, it is important to have a detailed analysis of the cell's characteristics. There is, therefore, a need for developing a new auxiliary method for cytological diagnosis. In this study, we focused on studying the charge of the cell membrane surface of fixed cells, which is one of important cell's characteristics. Although fixed cells lose membrane potential which is observed in living cells owing to ion dynamics, we hypothesized that fixed cells still have a cell membrane surface charge due to cell membrane components and structure. We used 5 cell lines in this study (ARO, C32TG, RT4, TK, UM-UC-14). After fixation with CytoRich Red, we measured the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells in solution using zeta potential measurements and fixed cells on glass slides, visualizing it using antibody-labeled beads and positively-charged beads. Furthermore, we measured the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells under different conditions, such as different solution of fixative, ion concentration, pH, and pepsin treatments. The zeta potential measurements and visualization using the beads indicated that the cell membrane surface of fixed cells was negatively charged, and also that the charge varied among fixed cells. The charge state was affected by the different treatments. Moreover, the number of cell-bound beads was small in interphase, anaphase, and apoptotic cells. We concluded that the negative cell membrane surface charge was influenced by the three-dimensional structure of proteins as well as the different types of amino acids and lipids on the cell membrane. Thus, cell surface charge visualization can be applied as a new auxiliary method for clinical cytological diagnosis. This is the first systematic report of the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas/ultraestrutura , Citodiagnóstico , Anáfase/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixadores/farmacologia , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pepsina A/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110082, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679424

RESUMO

A pandemic outbreak of a viral respiratory infection (COVID-19) caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) prompted a multitude of research focused on various aspects of this disease. One of the interesting aspects of the clinical manifestation of the infection is an accompanying ocular surface viral infection, viral conjunctivitis. Although occasional reports of viral conjunctivitis caused by this and the related SARS-CoV virus (causing the SARS outbreak in the early 2000s) are available, the prevalence of this complication among infected people appears low (~1%). This is surprising, considering the recent discovery of the presence of viral receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) in ocular surface tissue. The discrepancy between the theoretically expected high rate of concurrence of viral ocular surface inflammation and the observed relatively low occurrence can be explained by several factors. In this work, we discuss the significance of natural protective factors related to anatomical and physiological properties of the eyes and preventing the deposition of large number of virus-loaded particles on the ocular surface. Specifically, we advance the hypothesis that the standing potential of the eye plays an important role in repelling aerosol particles (microdroplets) from the surface of the eye and discuss factors associated with this hypothesis, possible ways to test it and its implications in terms of prevention of ocular infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Conjuntivite Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Olho/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Conjuntivite Viral/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Tamanho da Partícula , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Eletricidade Estática
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): e240-e255, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if endothelial dysfunction in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in obese humans is mediated by the suppression of endothelial Kir (inwardly rectifying K+) channels. Approach and Results: Endothelial dysfunction, observed as reduced dilations to flow, occurred after feeding mice a high-fat, Western diet for 8 weeks. The functional downregulation of endothelial Kir2.1 using dominant-negative Kir2.1 construct resulted in substantial reductions in the response to flow in mesenteric arteries of lean mice, whereas no effect was observed in arteries of obese mice. Overexpressing wild-type-Kir2.1 in endothelium of arteries from obese mice resulted in full recovery of the flow response. Exposing freshly isolated endothelial cells to fluid shear during patch-clamp electrophysiology revealed that the flow-sensitivity of Kir was virtually abolished in cells from obese mice. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the endothelial glycocalyx was stiffer and the thickness of the glycocalyx layer reduced in arteries from obese mice. We also identified that the length of the glycocalyx is critical to the flow-activation of Kir. Overexpressing Kir2.1 in endothelium of arteries from obese mice restored flow- and heparanase-sensitivity, indicating an important role for heparan sulfates in the flow-activation of Kir. Furthermore, the Kir2.1-dependent component of flow-induced vasodilation was lost in the endothelium of resistance arteries of obese humans obtained from biopsies collected during bariatric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that obesity-induced impairment of flow-induced vasodilation is attributed to the loss of flow-sensitivity of endothelial Kir channels and propose that the latter is mediated by the biophysical alterations of the glycocalyx.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Mecanotransdução Celular , Potenciais da Membrana , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
11.
J Oral Sci ; 62(3): 265-270, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493863

RESUMO

Orexins (Oxs) are multifunctional neuropeptides, secreted from the lateral hypothalamus, that stimulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure. In this study, the direct effects of Oxs on the membrane properties of trigeminal motoneurons (TMNs) were examined, which critically participate in the genesis of rhythmical oral motor activities underlying suckling and mastication. Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 day-old) were used to obtain whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from TMNs. Bath application of Ox-A depolarized the membrane potential and induced inward current, wherein Na+ and Ca2+ were charge carriers. Transient receptor potential channel activation potentially contributed to current and voltage responses by way of Ox-A. Ox-A increased the peak amplitude and duration at half-amplitude of the medium-duration after hyperpolarization following the action potential. The interspike frequency of steady-state firings during repetitive discharge was increased, along with a shift in the frequency-current relationship occurring toward the left. Extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ were involved in regulating modulatory effects, but a requisite level of intracellular Ca2+ was not essential for Ox-induced upregulation of the interspike frequency. Ox-A also enhanced conditional bursting induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate and 5-HT, suggesting it participates in modulating TMNs' discharge patterns during various oral motor activities.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Potenciais da Membrana , Orexinas , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516325

RESUMO

We previously reported that a single 5 ns high intensity electric pulse (NEP) caused an E-field-dependent decrease in peak inward voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) in isolated bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. This study explored the effects of a pair of 5 ns pulses on INa recorded in the same cell type, and how varying the E-field amplitude and interval between the pulses altered its response. Regardless of the E-field strength (5 to 10 MV/m), twin NEPs having interpulse intervals ≥ than 5 s caused the inhibition of TTX-sensitive INa to approximately double relative to that produced by a single pulse. However, reducing the interval from 1 s to 10 ms between twin NEPs at E-fields of 5 and 8 MV/m but not 10 MV/m decreased the magnitude of the additive inhibitory effect by the second pulse in a pair on INa. The enhanced inhibitory effects of twin vs single NEPs on INa were not due to a shift in the voltage-dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation but were associated with a reduction in maximal Na+ conductance. Paradoxically, reducing the interval between twin NEPs at 5 or 8 MV/m but not 10 MV/m led to a progressive interval-dependent recovery of INa, which after 9 min exceeded the level of INa reached following the application of a single NEP. Disrupting lipid rafts by depleting membrane cholesterol with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin enhanced the inhibitory effects of twin NEPs on INa and ablated the progressive recovery of this current at short twin pulse intervals, suggesting a complete dissociation of the inhibitory effects of twin NEPs on this current from their ability to stimulate its recovery. Our results suggest that in contrast to a single NEP, twin NEPs may influence membrane lipid rafts in a manner that enhances the trafficking of newly synthesized and/or recycling of endocytosed voltage-gated Na+ channels, thereby pointing to novel means to regulate ion channels in excitable cells.


Assuntos
Células Cromafins/fisiologia , Eletricidade , Glândulas Suprarrenais/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Células Cromafins/citologia , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14512-14521, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513714

RESUMO

Large-conductance Ca2+ and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels control membrane excitability in many cell types. BK channels are tetrameric. Each subunit is composed of a voltage sensor domain (VSD), a central pore-gate domain, and a large cytoplasmic domain (CTD) that contains the Ca2+ sensors. While it is known that BK channels are activated by voltage and Ca2+, and that voltage and Ca2+ activations interact, less is known about the mechanisms involved. We explore here these mechanisms by examining the gating contribution of an interface formed between the VSDs and the αB helices located at the top of the CTDs. Proline mutations in the αB helix greatly decreased voltage activation while having negligible effects on gating currents. Analysis with the Horrigan, Cui, and Aldrich model indicated a decreased coupling between voltage sensors and pore gate. Proline mutations decreased Ca2+ activation for both Ca2+ bowl and RCK1 Ca2+ sites, suggesting that both high-affinity Ca2+ sites transduce their effect, at least in part, through the αB helix. Mg2+ activation also decreased. The crystal structure of the CTD with proline mutation L390P showed a flattening of the first helical turn in the αB helix compared to wild type, without other notable differences in the CTD, indicating that structural changes from the mutation were confined to the αB helix. These findings indicate that an intact αB helix/VSD interface is required for effective coupling of Ca2+ binding and voltage depolarization to pore opening and that shared Ca2+ and voltage transduction pathways involving the αB helix may be involved.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Cátions Bivalentes/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/ultraestrutura , Potenciais da Membrana , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Prolina/genética , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xenopus laevis
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 882: 173237, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525005

RESUMO

Pirfenidone (PFD), a pyridone compound, is well recognized as an antifibrotic agent tailored for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, PFD based clinical trial has also been launched for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To what extent this drug can perturb membrane ion currents remains largely unknown. Herein, the exposure to PFD was observed to depress the amplitude of hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) in combination with a considerable slowing in the activation time of the current in pituitary GH3 cells. In the continued presence of ivabradine or zatebradine, subsequent application of PFD decreased Ih amplitude further. The presence of PFD resulted in a leftward shift in Ih activation curve without changes in the gating charge. The addition of this compound also led to a reduction in area of voltage-dependent hysteresis evoked by long-lasting inverted triangular (downsloping and upsloping) ramp pulse. Neither the amplitude of M-type nor erg-mediated K+ current was altered by its presence. In whole-cell potential recordings, addition of PFD reduced the firing frequency, and this effect was accompanied by the depression in the amplitude of sag voltage elicited by hyperpolarizing current stimulus. Overall, this study highlights evidence that PFD is capable of perturbing specific ionic currents, revealing a potential additional impact on functional activities of different excitable cells.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Sódio/metabolismo
15.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108436, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492375

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. HCN channels contain the glycine-tyrosine-glycine (GYG) sequence that forms part of the selectivity filter, a similar structure than some potassium channels; however, they permeate both sodium and potassium, giving rise to an inward current. Yet a second amino acid sequence, leucine-cysteine-isoleucine (LCI), next to GYG, is well-preserved in all HCNs but not in the selective potassium channels. In this study we used site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology in frog oocytes to determine whether the LCI sequence affects the kinetics of HCN2 currents. Permeability and voltage dependence were evaluated, and we found a role of LCI in the gating mechanism combined with changes in ion permeability. The I residue resulted critical to this function.


Assuntos
Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Proteínas de Xenopus/metabolismo , Xenopus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Potenciais da Membrana , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Xenopus/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/química , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 254: 117797, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417371

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial remodeling, including structural and electrical remodeling, is considered as the substrate in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Structural remodeling mainly involves atrial fibrosis, and electrical remodeling is closely related to the changes of ion channels in atrial myocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes of ion channels in atrial remodeling induced by CIH in rats, which provide the explication for the mechanisms of AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: Control and CIH group (n = 40). CIH rats were subjected to CIH 8 h/d for 30 days. Atrial epicardial conduction velocity, conduction inhomogeneity and AF inducibility were examined. Masson's trichrome staining was used to evaluate the extent of atrial fibrosis, and the expression levels of ion channel subunits were measured by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and IHC, respectively. The remaining 40 rats were used for whole-cell patch clamp experiments. Action potential, INa, ICa-L, Ito were recorded and compared between two groups. KEY FINDINGS: CIH rats showed increased AF inducibility, atrial interstitial collagen deposition, APD, expression levels of RyR2, p-RyR2, CaMKII, p-CaMKII, and decreased atrial epicardial conduction velocity, expression levels of Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Kv1.5, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 compared to the Control rats, and the current density of INa, ICa-L, Ito were significantly decreased in CIH group. SIGNIFICANCE: We observed significant atrial remodeling induced by CIH in our rat model, which was characterized by changes in ion channels. These changes may be the mechanisms of CIH promoting AF.


Assuntos
Remodelamento Atrial/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/biossíntese , Doença Crônica , Fibrose/complicações , Fibrose/patologia , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/biossíntese , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Ratos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/biossíntese
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453773

RESUMO

The heart is critically dependent on mitochondrial respiration for energy supply. Ischemia decreases oxygen availability, with catastrophic consequences for cellular energy systems. After a few minutes of ischemia, the mitochondrial respiratory chain halts, ATP levels drop and ion gradients across cell membranes collapse. Activation of cellular proteases and generation of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria during ischemia alter mitochondrial membrane permeability, causing mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation and eventually cell death. The mitochondria, therefore, are important targets of cardioprotection against ischemic injury. We have previously shown that ixazomib (IXA), a proteasome inhibitor used for treating multiple myeloma, effectively reduced the size of the infarct produced by global ischemia in isolated rat hearts and prevented degradation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel RyR2. The aim of this work was to further characterize the protective effect of IXA by determining its effect on mitochondrial morphology and function after ischemia. We also quantified the effect of IXA on levels of mitofusin-2, a protein involved in maintaining mitochondrial morphology and mitochondria-SR communication. We found that mitochondria were significantly preserved and functional parameters such as oxygen consumption, the ability to generate a membrane potential, and glutathione content were improved in mitochondria isolated from hearts perfused with IXA prior to ischemia. IXA also blocked the release of cytochrome c observed in ischemia and significantly preserved mitofusin-2 integrity. These beneficial effects resulted in a significant decrease in the left ventricular end diastolic pressure upon reperfusion and a smaller infarct in isolated hearts.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Quimotripsina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Ratos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453737

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Reprogramming autologous adult cells to pluripotent cells allows for relatively safe cell replacement therapy. This can be achieved by nuclear transfer, cell fusion, or induced pluripotent stem cell technology However, the epigenetic memory of the cell is considered as a great challenge facing the complete reprograming of cells by these methods. Introducing oocyte-specific factors into differentiated cells may present a promising approach by mimicking cellular reprogramming during fertilization. METHODS: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) were cultured with different concentrations of human metaphase II (M II) oocyte extract (0.1, 1, 5, 10, 30 ng/µl). Reprogramming was assessed at various exposure times (1, 4, 7 days). Cells were tested for their proliferation rate, morphological changes, expression of pluripotency markers, expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition markers, and mitochondrial rejuvenation. (mitochondrial localization, morphological changes, bioenergetics, transmembrane potential, and levels of reactive oxygen species, ROS). RESULTS: Treatment of human BM-MSCs with 10 ng/µl oocyte extract resulted in increased cell proliferation, which was associated with the upregulation of the pluripotency genes OCT-4, NANOG, and SOX-2 and a concomitant downregulation of mesenchymal-specific genes. MSCs exhibited small, immature round mitochondria with few swollen cristae localized proximal to the cell nucleus. This was accompanied by morphological cell changes, a metabolic shift towards oxidative phosphorylation, a high mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased ROS production. CONCLUSION: These data show that treatment with 10 ng/µl human MII-phase oocyte extract induced genetic and mitochondrial reprogramming of human BM-MSCs to a more embryonic phenotype.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2188, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366818

RESUMO

Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) use odour-induced intracellular cAMP surge to gate cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (CNG) channels in cilia. Prolonged exposure to cAMP causes calmodulin-dependent feedback-adaptation of CNG channels and attenuates neural responses. On the other hand, the odour-source searching behaviour requires ORNs to be sensitive to odours when approaching targets. How ORNs accommodate these conflicting aspects of cAMP responses remains unknown. Here, we discover that olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a major cAMP buffer that maintains the sensitivity of ORNs. Upon the application of sensory stimuli, OMP directly captured and swiftly reduced freely available cAMP, which transiently uncoupled downstream CNG channel activity and prevented persistent depolarization. Under repetitive stimulation, OMP-/- ORNs were immediately silenced after burst firing due to sustained depolarization and inactivated firing machinery. Consequently, OMP-/- mice showed serious impairment in odour-source searching tasks. Therefore, cAMP buffering by OMP maintains the resilient firing of ORNs.


Assuntos
AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Animais , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Cílios/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Midazolam/farmacologia , Odorantes , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/genética , Mucosa Olfatória/citologia , Mucosa Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/citologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
20.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(1): 61-71, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358165

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the brain. Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) comprise the BBB, and thus a delicate balance between their proliferation and death is required. Although the activity of ion channels in BCECs is involved in BBB functions, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the molecular components of Ca2+-activated Cl- (ClCa) channels and their physiological roles were examined using mouse BCECs (mBCECs) and a cell line derived from bovine BCECs, t-BBEC117. Expression analyses revealed that TMEM16A was strongly expressed in mBCECs and t-BBEC117 cells. In t-BBEC117 cells, whole-cell Cl- currents were sensitive to the ClCa channel blockers, 100 µM niflumic acid and 10 µM T16Ainh-A01, and were also reduced markedly by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of TMEM16A. Importantly, block of ClCa currents with ClCa channel blockers or TMEM16A siRNA induced membrane hyperpolarization. Moreover, treatment with TMEM16A siRNA caused an increase in resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). T16Ainh-A01 reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Either ClCa channel blockers or TMEM16A siRNA also curtailed cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, ClCa channel blockers attenuated the trans-endothelial permeability. In combination, these results strongly suggest that TMEM16A contributes to ClCa channel conductance and can regulate both the resting membrane potential and [Ca2+]cyt in BCECs. Our data also reveal how these BCECs may be involved in the maintenance of BBB functions, as both the proliferation and migration are altered following changes in channel activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), TMEM16A is responsible for Ca2+-activated Cl- channels and can regulate both the resting membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, contributing to the proliferation and migration of BCECs. The present study provides novel information on the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological functions of BCECs in the BBB and a novel target for therapeutic drugs for disorders associated with dysfunctions in the BBB.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Animais , Anoctamina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ácido Niflúmico/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
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