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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108798, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433962

RESUMO

Natural products are a valuable source of anticancer agents, with many naturally derived compounds currently used in clinical and preclinical treatments. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity and potential mechanism of action of the xanthoquinodin JBIR-99, isolated from fungi Parengyodontium album MEXU 30,054 and identified by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Cytotoxicity of xanthoquinodin was evaluated in a panel of human cancer cells lines and CCD-112-CoN normal colon cells, using the sulforhodamine B assay. PC-3 prostate cancer cells were used in biochemical assays including cell cycle, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase activity. Expression levels of apoptosis-pathway-related proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The in vivo toxicity of xanthoquinodin was determined using a zebrafish model. Xanthoquinodin showed cytotoxicity in all cancer cell lines but demonstrated relative selective potency against PC-3 cells with an IC50 1.7 µM. In CCD-112-CoN cells, xanthoquinodin was non-cytotoxic at 100 µM. In PC-3 cells, the compound induced loss of MTP, production of ROS, and cell cycle arrest in S phase. The expression and activity of caspase-3 was increased, which correlates with the upregulation of Cyt c, Bax, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) (p65) and IKKß, and downregulation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP-1) and Bcl-2. Lastly, xanthoquinodin did not cause any visible developmental toxicity in zebrafish at 50 µM. These results demonstrate xanthoquinodin induces apoptosis in PC-3 prostate cancer cells by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, the non-toxic effect in vivo indicates that xanthoquinodin could be a useful lead in the development of a novel, anti-cancer agent that is selective for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Molecular , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 144-153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400776

RESUMO

Ivermectin is a pesticide that has been used for over 30 years in livestock. Although there are a number of studies on the therapeutic potential of ivermectin, little is known about the effects of the drug during the early stage of pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the detrimental effects of ivermectin on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Ivermectin not only inhibited the proliferation of both cells via the regulation of cell cycle-associated genes, but also induced apoptosis in pTr and pLE cells. We also verified its effect on mitochondrial dysfunction as shown by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in pTr and pLE cells. As a mechanistic approach, we evaluated ivermectin-mediated cell signaling interactions including PI3K, AKT and MAPK pathways. Overall, our results suggest that constant exposure to and accumulation of ivermectin may cause abnormal fetal morphogenesis and placentation during the early stages of pregnancy. Our results may further provide a comprehensive understanding of the detrimental effects of ivermectin during pregnancy and will contribute to the establishment of a complete safety profile for ivermectin and its association with environmental pollution and public health in humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Útero/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Suínos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 51-58, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400784

RESUMO

Isoquinoline alkaloids possess broad pharmacological activities. In this study, the antifungal activity of twelve isoquinoline alkaloids, including berberine (1), jatrorrhizine (2), coptisine (3), corydaline (4), tetrahydroberberine (5), chelidonine (6), dihydrosanguinarine (7), chelerythrine (8), sanguinarine (9), palmatine (10), tetrahydropalmatine (11) and columbamine (12) were evaluated against eight plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. All the tested compounds showed varying degrees of inhibition against the eight tested plant fungi. Among them, sanguinarine exhibited high antifungal activity (EC50 ranging from 6.96-59.36 µg/mL). It displayed the best inhibitory activity against Magnaporthe oryzae (EC50 = 6.96 µg/mL), compared with azoxystrobin (EC50 = 12.04 µg/mL), and significantly suppressed spore germination of M. oryzae with the inhibition rate reaching 100% (50 µg/mL). The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that after treating M. oryzae mycelia with sanguinarine at 10 µg/mL, the mycelia appeared curved, collapsed and the cell membrane integrity was eventually damaged. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential and nuclear morphometry of mycelia had been changed, and the membrane function and cell proliferation of mycelia were destroyed. These results will enrich our insights into action mechanisms of antifungal activity of sanguinarine against M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Berberina/análogos & derivados , Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Life Sci ; 234: 116783, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442552

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BCa) is the most commonly diagnosed lethal cancer in women worldwide. Notch signaling pathway is directly linked to BCa recurrence and aggressiveness. Natural remedies are becoming a prime choice to overcome against cancer due to lesser side effect and cost-effectiveness. Bulbine frutescens (Asphodelaceae), a traditional medicinal plant in South Africa possess bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids. Polar (methanol) and non-polar (hexane) B. frutescens plant extracts were prepared. GC-MS analysis revealed the differential presence of secondary metabolites in both methanolic and hexane extracts. We hereby first time evaluated the anticancer potential of B. frutescens methanolic and hexane extract in triple-negative and luminal BCa cells. B. frutescens extracts significantly decreased cell viability (IC50 4.8-28.4 µg/ml) and induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells as confirmed by spectrophotometry and flow cytometry technique. RT-PCR analysis of cell cycle (cyclin D1, CDK4, and p21) and apoptosis modulating genes (caspase 3, Bcl2 and survivin) revealed upexpression of p21, and caspase 3, and down expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, Bcl2 and survivin genes in extract-treated BCa cells. Fluorescence spectrophotometry and confocal microscopy showed B. frutescens induced nuclear morphology and mitochondrial integrity disruption, and increased reactive oxygen species production in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells. Flow cytometric apoptosis analysis of B. frutescens extracts treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed ≈13% increase in early apoptotic population in comparison to non-treated cells. Dual-Luciferase Reporter assay confirmed notch promoter inhibitory activity of B. frutescens extracts. Moreover, RTPCR analysis showed down regulation of notch responsive genes (Hes1 and Hey1) at transcription levels in extract-treated BCa cells. Western Blot analysis showed increased procaspase 3 protein expression in extract-treated BCa cells. In all the assays methanolic extract showed better anti-cancer properties. Literature-based identification of methanol soluble phytochemicals in B. frutescens and in silico docking study revealed Bulbineloneside D as a potent ϒ-secretase enzyme inhibitor. In comparison to standard notch inhibitor, lead phytochemical showed two additional hydrophobic interactions with Ala80 and Leu81 amino acids. In conclusion, B. frutescens phytochemicals have cell cycle arrest, ROS production, apoptosis induction, and mitochondria membrane potential disruption efficacy in breast cancer cells. B. frutescens phytochemicals have the ability to downregulate the notch signaling pathway in triple-negative and luminal breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthorrhoeaceae/química , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10448-10457, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453693

RESUMO

Carabrone is isolated from Carpesium macrocephalum Franch. et Sav, which has good fungicidal activity, especially for Gaeumannomyces graminis (Get). According to previous studies, we speculated that carabrone targets the mitochondrial enzyme complex III of Get. To elucidate the mode of action, we used carabrone to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in Get. Incubation with carabrone reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as phosphatidylserine release. Carabrone caused ROS accumulation in mycelia by inhibiting the activity of antioxidase enzymes, among which inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) activity was most obvious. The catalytic center of GR consists of l-cysteine residues that react with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone active site of carabrone. Additionally, a positive TUNEL reaction led to diffusion of the DNA electrophoresis band and upregulation of Ggmet1 and Ggmet2. We propose that carabrone inhibits antioxidant enzymes and promotes ROS overproduction, which causes membrane hyperpermeability, release of apoptotic factors, activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway, and fungal cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/citologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107753, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469986

RESUMO

Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and Nagana disease in cattle, imposing substantial medical and economic burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The current treatments have limitations, including the requirement for elaborated protocols, development of drug resistance, and they are prone to adverse side effects. In vitro screening of a library of 14 dinuclear-thiolato bridged arene ruthenium complexes, originally developed for treatment of cancer cells, resulted in the identification of 7 compounds with IC50 values ranging from 3 to 26 nM. Complex [(η6-p-MeC6H4Pri)2Ru2(µ2-SC6H4-o-Pri)3]Cl (2) (IC50 = 4 nM) and complex [(η6-p-MeC6H4Pri)2Ru2(µ2-SCH2C6H4-p-But)2(µ2-SC6H4-p-OH)]BF4(9) (IC50 = 26 nM) were chosen for further assessments. Application of complex 2 and 9 at 20 nM and 200 nM, respectively, for 4.5 h induced alterations in the trypanosome mitochondrion as evidenced by immunofluorescence employing an antibody against mitochondrial Hsp70 and Mitotracker labeling. Transmission electron microscopy of parasites taken at 2 and 4h of treatment demonstrated massive alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure, while other organelles and structural elements of the parasites remained unaffected. Complex 2 treated trypanosomes exhibited a distorted mitochondrial membrane, and the mitochondrial matrix was transformed into an amorphous mass with different degrees of electron densities. Complex 9 did not notably impair the integrity of the membrane, but the interior of the mitochondrion appeared either completely translucent, or was filled with filamentous structures of unknown nature. Dose- and time-dependent effects of these two compounds on the mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester assay. Thus, the mitochondrion and associated metabolic processes are an important target of dinuclear thiolato-bridged arene ruthenium complexes in T. brucei.


Assuntos
Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Rutênio/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Fatores de Tempo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/ultraestrutura , Tripanossomíase Africana/sangue
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4991-5015, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371943

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of AuNPs coated with polyallylamine (AuNPs-PAA) and conjugated or not to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting antibody Cetuximab (AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb) in normal human kidney (HK-2), liver (THLE-2) and microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells, and compares it with two cancer cell lines that are EGFR-overexpressing (A431) or EGFR-negative (MDA-MB-453). Results: Conjugation of Cetuximab to AuNPs-PAA increased the AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb interactions with cells, but reduced their cytotoxicity. TIME cells exhibited the strongest reduction in viability after exposure to AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb), followed by THLE-2, MDA-MB-453, HK-2 and A431 cells. This cell type-dependent sensitivity was strongly correlated to the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR), and to the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both are suggested to initiate apoptosis, which was indeed detected in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The role of oxidative stress in AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb)-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by co-incubation of the cells with N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), which significantly decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Conclusion: This study helps to identify the cells and tissues that could be sensitive to AuNPs and deepens the understanding of the risks associated with the use of AuNPs in vivo.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo
8.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(8): 773-785, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339741

RESUMO

Pierisin-5 protein (pie-5) belongs to a family of proteins possessing DNA-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, which can induce apoptotic cell death. The baculovirus-mediated expression vector system (BEVS) has been commonly used for in vitro expression of heterologous protein subunits for basic scientific research, in addition to the development and production of diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, a new method for the in vitro expression of the cytotoxic protein was established using the baculovirus expression system. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of the novel recombinant pierisin-5 protein (rpie-5) was investigated in different human cancer cell lines, such as HeLa, HepG2, and AGS. Cloning, in vitro overexpression, and purification of the rpie-5 protein were performed by using BEVS in Sf21 (Spodoptera frugiperda) insect cell line. The rpie-5 protein exhibits cytotoxicity in all the cell lines, but HeLa (IC50 0.6 µg/mL) was more sensitive when compared with HepG2 (IC50 1.9 µg/mL) and AGS (IC50 3.7 µg/mL) cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of rpie-5 lead to apoptotic cell death in cancer cells and resulted in nuclear fragmentation, enlargement of the nucleus, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and finally release of lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme from the cell membrane. This study reports the molecular mechanism of apoptotic cell death through the upregulation of Bax (Bcl-2 family activating protein-X), Bad, APAF-1 (apoptotic protease activating factor-1), Cyt-c, and caspase-3/9 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) in rpie-5-treated cancer cells. The study concludes that rpie-5 has p53-independent apoptosis in HepG2 cells and p53-dependent apoptosis in HeLa and AGS cell lines. In the future, this study helps to understand the molecular mechanism of rpie-5 to induction of apoptosis and cell death.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Baculoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Células Sf9 , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108734, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276661

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induction of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucosyl-pentoside (IGP) in metastatic human colon cancer cells (HT-29). To achieve this, we assessed phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, cell membrane disruption, chromatin condensation, cell cycle alterations, mitochondrial damage, ROS production, and caspase-dependence on cell death. Our results showed that IGP induced cell death on HT-29 cells through PS exposure (48%) and membrane permeabilization (30%) as well as nuclear condensation (54%) compared with control cells. Moreover, IGP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (63%) was observed in IGP-treated cells. Finally, as apoptosis is a caspase-dependent cell death mechanism, we used a pancaspase-inhibitor (Q-VD-OPh) to demonstrate that the cell death induced by IGP was caspase-dependent. Overall these results indicated that IGP induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Opuntia/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Caspases/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Flavonóis , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Células HT29 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108733, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276663

RESUMO

Plumbagin (PLB) is an active secondary metabolite extracted from the roots of Plumbago rosea. In this study, we report that plumbagin effectively induces paraptosis by triggering extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by cell death in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and non-small lung cancer cells (A549) but not in normal lung fibroblast cells (WI-38). The vacuoles originated from the dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were found to be empty. The cell death induced by plumbagin was neither apoptotic nor autophagic. Plumbagin induced ER stress mainly by inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome as also evident from the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. The vacuolation and cell death were found to be independent of reactive oxygen species generation but was effectively inhibited by thiol antioxidant suggesting that plumbagin could modify the sulfur homeostasis in the cellular milieu. Plumbagin also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential eventually decreasing the ATP production. This is the first study to show that Plumbagin induces paraptosis through proteasome inhibition and disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis and thus further opens up the lead molecule to potential therapeutic strategies for apoptosis-resistant cancers.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3641-3649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Amentoflavone has been shown to be effective against a variety of cancer cells, but its role in bladder cancer remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate whether amentoflavone may induce toxicity effect of bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we evaluated amentoflavone effects in a human bladder cancer cell line TSGH8301 in vitro. RESULTS: Amentoflavone caused significant cytotoxicity in TSGH8301 cells at a concentration as low as 200 µM. FAS/FASL-dependent extrinsic apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptosis were observed in amentoflavone-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of several proapoptotic proteins, such as FAS, FAS-ligand and BAX (B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X) were increased following amentoflavone treatment. Meanwhile, anti-apoptotic MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (C-FLIP) protein levels were reduced. Additionally, angiogenesis and proliferation-related proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase-type plasminogen actvator (uPA) and cyclin D1 were diminished by amentoflavone. CONCLUSION: Amentoflavone induced toxicity of bladder cancer by inhibiting tumor progression and inducing apoptosis signaling transduction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Receptor fas/metabolismo
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255889

RESUMO

Although the global use of the 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) has been prohibited, its persistence in the environment has caused long-lasting exposure on marine mammals. Our previous studies revealed exceedingly high residue levels of DDTs in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary region, China. However, the molecular mechanisms of p,p'-DDT toxicity on the dolphin are largely unknown. This study conducted the first cytotoxicity effect exploration of p,p'-DDT on the dolphin skin fibroblasts (ScSFs) to enhance the understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation impacts. ScSF cells were exposed to p,p'-DDT (28∼168 µM) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The exposure remarkably decreased viability of ScSF cells, possibly due to the synergetic effects of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. The DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction were likely triggered by an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, reduction in the cellular ATP levels, decreased expression of the genes CDK1, CDK4, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Moreover, caspase inhibitor displayed protective activity against p,p'-DDT-induced apoptosis, indicating that caspases played a central role in p,p'-DDT-triggered apoptosis in the ScSF cells. We hypothesize apoptosis likely plays a minor role in cytocidal effects induced by p,p'-DDT exposure, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Overall, this research provides new evidence of the cytotoxic mechanisms underlying p,p'-DDT exposure on humpback dolphin skin cells, and suggests that p,p'-DDT contamination is one of key health concern issues for the protection of this marine mammal.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DDT/toxicidade , Golfinhos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Fibroblastos/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Life Sci ; 232: 116628, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278946

RESUMO

AIMS: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection. Major limitations in Doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy are tumor resistance and severe drug complications. Here, we combined Thymoquinone (TQ) with low concentrations of Dox and determined anticancer effects against ATL in cell culture and animal model. MAIN METHODS: HTLV-1 positive (HuT-102) and HTLV-1 negative (Jurkat) CD4+ malignant T-cell lines were treated with TQ, Dox and combinations. Viability and cell cycle effects were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Combination effects on mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Expression levels of key cell death proteins were investigated by western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of ATL in NOD/SCID was used for testing drug effects and tumor tissues were stained for Ki67 and TUNEL. KEY FINDINGS: TQ and Dox caused greater inhibition of cell viability and increased sub-G1 cells in both cell lines compared to Dox or TQ alone. The combination induced apoptosis by increasing ROS and causing disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pan caspase inhibitor significantly inhibited the apoptotic response suggesting that cell death is ROS- and caspase-dependent. TQ and Dox combination reduced tumor volume in NOD/SCID mice more significantly than single treatments through enhanced apoptosis without affecting the survival of mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our combination model offers the possibility to use up to twofold lower doses of Dox against ATL while exhibiting the same cancer inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Life Sci ; 232: 116633, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278947

RESUMO

AIMS: The compound 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a prenylflavonoid that can be isolated from hops and beer and has anti-cancer properties against breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of 8-PN against human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. MAIN METHODS: Colon cancer HCT-116 cells were treated with 8-PN and subjected to MTT and acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining to investigate the cytotoxicity of 8-PN. Arrest of the cells at different phases of cell cycle was monitored in the presence of 8-PN. Moreover, the apoptotic effects of 8-PN was assessed via annexin V and caspase activity assays and compared to the untreated cells. KEY FINDINGS: The findings showed that 8-PN revealed strong inhibitory effect against HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 23.83 ±â€¯2.9 µg/ml after 48 h. However, at similar concentrations and experimental time-points, the compound did not show cytotoxic effect to non-cancerous colon cells (CCD-41). Annexin-V assay indicates that 38.5% and 14.4% of HCT-116 cells had entered early and late stages of apoptosis, respectively after exposure of the cells to 8-PN for 48 h. Caspase activity assay illustrates that apoptosis is activated through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, flow cytometry cell cycle results indicate that treatment with 8-PN significantly arrested the HCT-116 cells at G0/G1 phase. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that 8-PN has anti-proliferative activity against HCT-116 colon cancer cells via induction of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis. Further investigations should be carried out to unravel the mechanistic pathways underlying these activities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células HCT116/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Life Sci ; 232: 116639, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295472

RESUMO

AIMS: Sirtuins have been implicated in the aging process, however, the functions of SIRT2 in post-maturation aging of oocytes are not fully understood. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the roles of SIRT2 in aged oocytes and mechanisms involved. MAIN METHODS: The fresh MII oocytes were aging in vitro, and treated with SIRT2 inhibitor (SirReal2), autophagy activator (Rapamycin), and autophagy inhibitor (3-Ma) for 24 h, respectively. Oocyte activation, cytoplasmic fragmentation, and spindle defects, mitochondrial distribution, ROS levels, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and early apoptosis were investigated. Western blotting was performed to determine LC3-II accumulation, SQSTM1 degradation, and caspase-3 activity. KEY FINDINGS: SIRT2 expression gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner during oocyte aging. Treatment with SirReal2 significantly increased the rates of oocyte activation, cytoplasmic fragmentation, and spindle defects. In particular, the high ROS levels, abnormal mitochondrial distribution, low ATP production, and lost ΔΨm were observed in SirReal2-exposed oocytes. Further analysis revealed that LC3-II accumulation and SQSTM1 degradation were induced by SIRT2 inhibition. By performing early apoptosis analysis showed that oocyte aging was accompanied with cellular apoptosis, and SIRT2 inhibition increased apoptosis rates of aged oocytes. Importantly, upregulating autophagy with Rapamycin could mimic the effects of SIRT2 inhibition on apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 activation, whereas downregulating autophagy with 3-MA could abolish those effects by blocking caspase-3 activation. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that SIRT2 inactivation is a key mechanism underlying of cellular aging, and SIRT2 inhibition contributes to autophagy-dependent cellular apoptosis in post-maturation oocytes.


Assuntos
Oócitos/fisiologia , Sirtuína 2/fisiologia , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Bovinos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/classificação , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirtuína 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 2/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia
16.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104251, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271783

RESUMO

The MeOH extract from leaves of Saururus cernuus L. (Saururaceae) displayed in vitro activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (100% of parasite death at 200 µg/mL), suggesting the presence of bioactive compounds. Thus, the bioactivity-guided fractionation was carried out, leading to the isolation of three related neolignan derivatives, identified as threo-austrobailignan-5 (1), threo-austrobailignan-6 (2), and threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3). Anti-T. cruzi activity of compounds 1-3 was performed against cell-derived trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Additionally, the mammalian cytotoxicity was investigated using NCTC cells. Compound 2 was the most effective against extracellular trypomastigotes with IC50 of 3.7 µM, while compound 3 showed activity in both clinically relevant forms of the parasite, trypomastigotes and amastigotes, with IC50 values of 7.0 and 16.2 µM, respectively. However, the structurally related compound 1 was inactive. Based on these results, compounds 2 and 3 were selected to evaluate the mechanism of cellular death. Compound 2 induced alteration in the plasma membrane permeability and consequently in the ROS levels after 120 min of incubation. By using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, compound 3 showed alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of trypomastigotes. Considering the promising chemical and biological properties of neolignans 2 and 3, these compounds could be used as starting points to develop new lead compounds for Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Lignanas/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Saururaceae/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brasil , Células Cultivadas , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
17.
Life Sci ; 232: 116677, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340166

RESUMO

AIMS: Senescence is a state ensuing aging to eliminate age-associated damage with an irreversible cell-cycle arrest mechanism, which is historically believed to be one of the tumor responses to therapy. Doxorubicin as an anti-cancer drug has been used in cancer treatment for a long time. Liposomal doxorubicin (Ldox) is a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin, which increases the doxorubicin permanency. The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity of these two formulations by comparing them in terms of their ability to induce cellular senescence. MAIN METHODS: The study groups included a control group, three DOX (0.75, 0.5, 0.1 mg/kg/BW) and three Ldox groups (0.1, 0.05, 0.025 mg/kg/BW). Heart tissues were studied regarding oxidative stress assessment, mitochondrial function, inflammatory markers and biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Real-Time PCR was used for P53 and SA ß-gal expression. KEY FINDINGS: Based on the results, the highest doses of Dox and Ldox (0.75 and 0.1 mg/kg/BW respectively) significantly increased the level of inflammatory markers and according to other factors especially p53 and SA ß-gal expression, both were able to induce senescence but the changes in Ldox were less tangible than the Dox.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 19-25, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153468

RESUMO

Piericidin A (PIA), an active inhibitor of Complex I, is widely used in studies of the anti-bacterial and anti-disease competence, but its physiological and mechanistic effects have rarely been clearly defined in insect individual or insect cells. The present study reveals the considerable insecticidal activity of PIA on Mythimna separata larvae by using a comparison with Aphis craccivora adult, and the cytotoxic selectivity induced by PIA on lepidopteran Tn5B1-4 cells. We demonstrate that the viability of Tn5B1-4 cells is inhibited by PIA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 0.061 µM, whilst PIA shows slight inhibitory effect on the viability of HepG2 and Hek293 cells with IC50 value of 233.97 and 228.96 µM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of PIA on the proliferation of Tn5B1-4 cells is significant and persistent, causing a series of morphological changes including cell shrinkage, condensed and fragmented nuclei. Intracellular biochemical assays show that PIA induces apoptosis of Tn5B1-4 cells coincides with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. PIA in Tn5B1-4 cells can be chelated by EDTA, thereby losing cytotoxicity, whereas exogenous Ca2+ restores the cytotoxicity of PIA by chelating with EDTA in a competitive manner. Our findings highlight the importance of the long-lasting cytotoxicity and the cytoxic selectivity on Tn5B1-4 cells caused by PIA, which ensure the identification of insecticidal effect of PIA against insect pests.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7060-7072, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240928

RESUMO

As one of the main metabolites of anthocyanin, protocatechuic acid (PCA) possesses strong antioxidant activity. In the present study, we explored the capacity of PCA on the alleviation of endothelial oxidative stress and investigated the underlying mechanisms using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In comparison with palmitic acid (PA)-treated cells, PCA (100 µM) significantly decreased the generations of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (0.82 ± 0.01 vs 1.16 ± 0.05 and 0.80 ± 0.01 vs 1.48 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.01), two biomarkers of oxidative damage, and restored the levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0.97 ± 0.04 vs 0.54 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (0.96 ± 0.03 vs 0.86 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PCA also obviously reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (0.86 ± 0.15 vs 2.67 ± 0.09, p < 0.01) in aorta from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. RNA-Seq and Western blot analysis indicated that PCA markedly reduced the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a membrane fatty acid transporter, and reduced the generations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). These effects of PCA were associated with decreased level of acetylated-lysine and restored the activity of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) through reducing the generation of Ac-CoA or activating Sirt1 and Sirt3 via a CD36/AMP-kinase (AMPK) dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(8): 763-772, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170002

RESUMO

Nepenthes plants are a folk medicine in many Southeast Asia countries for curing diseases but its anticancer effect is rarely investigated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioral cancer ability of ethyl acetate extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima (EANV). The preferential killing ability of EANV was determined by MTS-based cell viability assays. The bioactive effects were further screened by flow cytometry for apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. At 24 h treatment, EANV dose dependently decreased six types of oral cancer cells, but the normal oral cells (HGF-1) kept a 90% viability. EANV also showed chronic antiproliferative effects and inhibited 3D sphere formation ability of oral cancer cells. Ca9-22 and CAL 27 oral cancer cells with high response to EANV increased subG1 populations and enhanced Annexin V- and pancaspase-detected apoptosis in these cells. EANV also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide and the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the oxidative DNA damage level such as 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine was increased in EANV-treated oral cancer cells. Taken together, EANV has a preferential killing effect against oral cancer cells associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage, suggesting EANV as a potential antioral cancer agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Caryophyllales/química , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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