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2.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193594

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el modelo de los activos comunitarios se caracteriza por fomentar condiciones de salud que potencian las capacidades y habilidades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este proyecto ha sido identificar el mapa de activos en salud del barrio Arturo Eyries de Valladolid, para promover la prescripción social por parte del personal sanitario y hacer más visibles los recursos de los que dispone la comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: se han utilizado diferentes técnicas de mapeo: búsqueda de datos en internet, redes sociales, periódicos, paseos por el barrio, entrevistas, mapas mudos y fotovoz. Se incluyeron pacientes y profesionales sanitarios del Centro de Salud Arturo Eyries. RESULTADOS: se ha recogido información de un total de 40 participantes: 10 profesionales sanitarios y 30 pacientes del centro de salud. El resultado de esta investigación fueron 37 activos clasificados en seis categorías: sanidad, ocio y cultura, apoyo social, educación, ejercicio físico y transporte. Con todo esto se ha creado un fichero de activos, un mapa del barrio, una página web, un tríptico y una sesión clínica para los profesionales del centro. CONCLUSIONES: este proyecto de mapeo constituye el punto de partida para mejorar el conocimiento que los profesionales sanitarios y los pacientes tienen sobre los recursos de salud de su entorno. Este trabajo representa el inicio de una red para la promoción de la salud, dirigida a implicar a instituciones y responsables políticos en la creación de una cartografía común, a nivel ciudad o incluso comunidad autónoma, de activos para la salud


INTRODUCTION: The community assets model is characterized by fostering health conditions that enhance individual and collective capacities and abilities. The aim of this project has been to identify the map of health assets in the Arturo Eyries neighbourhood of Valladolid to promote social prescription by health personnel, and to make the resources available to the community more visible. METHODOLOGY: Different mapping techniques have been used: internet data search, social networks, newspapers, walks around the neighbourhood, interviews, silent maps and photovoice. Patients and health professionals from the Arturo Eyries health centre were included in this study. RESULTS: Information was collected from a total of 40 participants: 10 health professionals and 30 health centre patients. The result of this research was 37 assets classified into six categories: health, leisure and culture, social support, education, physical exercise and transport. With all this, an asset file, a map of the neighbourhood, a web page, a leaflet and a clinical session for the centre's professionals were created. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping project is the starting point for improving the knowledge that health professionals and patients have about the health resources of their environment. This work represents the beginning of a network for health promotion, and we would like to involve institutions and the politicians in the creation of common mapping, at local or regional level, of health assets


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Medicina Comunitária , Pessoal de Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Características de Residência , Nível de Saúde , Espanha
4.
Air Med J ; 39(5): 340-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012469

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It subsequently spread throughout China and around the world, quickly becoming a public health emergency. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 a pandemic. This article explores the preparation and early experiences of a large Canadian critical care transport program during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic focused on 6 broad strategic objectives centered around staff welfare, regular and transparent communication, networking, evidenced-based approach to personal protective equipment, agile mission planning, and an expedited approach to clinical practice and policy updates and future state modeling.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação , Liderança , Pandemias , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral , Transporte de Pacientes/organização & administração , Medicina Aeroespacial , Resgate Aéreo , Ambulâncias , Betacoronavirus , Colúmbia Britânica , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Resiliência Psicológica
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 104, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874935

RESUMO

Despite predictions that the number of deaths in Africa due to COVID-19 will reach 10 million, overall, the continent has reported relatively few cases compared to the rest of the world. Many African countries have been successful in containing initial outbreaks by rapidly using evidence-based interventions through implementation strategies adapted from other countries' COVID-19 response as well as from prior epidemics. However, it is unclear whether these interventions will lead to long-term and complete success in stopping COVID-19 spread. Implementation research is a tool that can be used by countries to learn how to identify and understand contextual factors impacting COVID-19 prevention and control and select evidence-based interventions and strategies known to reduce spread of the virus. We identify seven key contextual factors that are facilitators or barriers to implementation of these interventions, and several strategies that can be leveraged if the factor is present or ones to strengthen if weak to improve implementation. These factors are: a culture of accountability, national coordination, financial stability of the population, culture of innovation, culture and capacity for research, health systems strength, and cross-border economies. Implementation science methods can serve to develop knowledge at a country and regional level on how to identify, utilize, and address these and other contextual factors, and inform relevant evidence-based interventions and implementation strategies. This approach can support African countries' ability to address key challenges as they arise, both in fighting COVID-19 and future health systems challenges.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Difusão de Inovações , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 105, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943078

RESUMO

Mali, like the rest of the world, has seen a rapid spread of COVID-19 since the first report of imported cases. Despite being a low-income country, Mali has leveraged scientific research resources via coordinated approaches to enable public health emergency planning and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Mali's approach includes the harmonization of research activities; leveraging of research laboratory capacity of the University Clinical Research Center, Mali International Center for Excellence and three other in-country laboratories for community COVID-19 testing; strengthening relationships amongst local and international stakeholders; and collaboration with the Ministry of Health to integrate scientific evidence into public policy and emergency management of COVID-19 through a platform of consultation and open communication. The country has implemented national coordination of its COVID-19 response by establishing a COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee and a COVID-19 Technical Coordination Committee, both within the Ministry of Health and working collaboratively with other stakeholders. Members of Mali's COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee also serve as leaders of its principal academic and government clinical and public health research entities. This centralised approach has enabled the prioritisation of COVID-19 control activities, informed allocation of resources, evidence-based public health practices and timely decision-making in the pandemic setting. Though challenges remain, lessons learned from Mali's harnessing of clinical research capacity to guide and support its COVID-19 response can be applied to future global health research challenges and illustrate the power of building public health-responsive research capacity in resource-limited settings through international collaboration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Governo , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mali/epidemiologia , Organizações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Política Pública , Alocação de Recursos
8.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(5): 774-778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are critical laboratories for generating evidence from real-world settings, including studying natural experiments. Primary care's response to the novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is arguably the most impactful natural experiment in our lifetime. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF COVID-19: We briefly describe the OCHIN PBRN of community health centers (CHCs), its partnership with implementation scientists, and how we are leveraging this infrastructure and expertise to create a rapid research response evaluating how CHCs across the country responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 RESEARCH ROADMAP: Our research agenda focuses on asking: How has care delivery in CHCs changed due to COVID-19? What impact has COVID-19 had on the delivery of preventive services in CHCs? Which PBRN services (e.g., data surveillance, training, evidence synthesis) are most impactful to real-world practices? What decision-making strategies were used in the PBRN and its practices to make real-time changes in response to the pandemic? What critical factors in successfully and sustainably transforming primary care are illuminated by pandemic-driven changes? DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: PBRNs enable real-world evaluation of practice change and natural experiments, and thus are ideal laboratories for implementation science research. We present a real-time example of how a PBRN Implementation Laboratory activated a response to study a historic natural experiment, to help other PBRNs charting a course through this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Disseminação de Informação , Inovação Organizacional , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Participação dos Interessados , Estados Unidos
12.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3903

RESUMO

A tabela de caracterização deve ser feita em Excel, seguindo o exemplo proposto. Os estudos de revisão poderão ser avaliados aplicando o AMSTAR2 AMSTAR - Ferramenta para avaliar estudos de revisões sistemáticas


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Bibliotecas Digitais , Ferramenta de Busca
13.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47761

RESUMO

In January 2020, we published the findings of a two year in-depth inquiry into the ethical issues relating to research in global health emergencies. The inquiry was run by an international working group which gathered evidence and experience from many contributors across the globe. Better evidence about what helps or doesn’t help during an emergency is needed in order to improve the response to global health emergencies. Research conducted during an emergency itself plays a crucial role in obtaining this evidence, and helps support the immediate response, as well as learning for the future. The aim of the report is to identify ways in which research can be undertaken ethically during emergencies, in order to promote the contribution that ethically-conducted research can make to improving current and future emergency preparedness and response. We have made 24 recommendations to ‘duty bearers’ such as research funders, research organisations, governments, and researchers. These are summarised in our call for action. We suggest changes that would align their policies and practices more closely to three core values of fairness, equal respect, and helping reduce suffering. The report presents these values in the form of an ‘ethical compass’ to guide the conduct of the very wide range of people involved in research in global health emergencies.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/ética , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Formulação de Políticas , Bioética
14.
Emerg Med J ; 37(8): 522-523, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753375

RESUMO

A short-cut review of the available medical literature was carried out to establish whether remdesivir was an effective treatment for patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. After abstract review, five papers were found to answer this clinical question using the detailed search strategy. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that despite some recent promising studies, further well-designed and larger trials are needed to answer this specific question.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 34(5): 217-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consistent implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) leads to high-quality care, improved patient outcomes, and reduced costs. Increased job satisfaction, decreased turnover, and increased autonomy are reported when nurses use evidence for practice decisions. It is essential that clinical nurse specialists have strong EBP skills and enculturate these skills into bedside staff. PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION: Interactive 90-minute workshops were developed to review the steps of EBP. The participants were nurses at the bedside and were encouraged to cultivate a spirit of inquiry. OUTCOME EVALUATION: Twenty-three workshops were held with 349 participants. Pre and post surveys were used to assess changes in knowledge and self-perceived confidence. A moderate to large effect size was noted in all areas measured. The largest change in knowledge was in correct identification of use of Boolean operators, which showed a 71% improvement. Overall mean knowledge improved by 29%, which was statistically significant (P < .0001). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinical nurse specialists can enact culture change by understanding the needs of their stakeholders and applying concepts to find creative ways to bring change to staff. This workshop successfully taught EBP concepts and implemented culture change in a way that was low cost and easy to replicate.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/educação , Enfermeiras Clínicas/educação , Educação , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras Clínicas/psicologia , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21926, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is an acquired neuromuscular lesion and a common occurrence in patients who are critically ill. There are already systematic reviews on ICU-AW. Therefore, we provide a protocol for an overview of systematic reviews to improve the effectiveness of the construction of an evidence-based practice for prevention of ICU-AW. METHODS: We will search the PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for the relevant systematic review or meta-analyses about ICU-AW. Study selection, data extraction, and the quality assessment of the included studies will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. And the methodological quality, report quality and evidence quality will be evaluated by Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews-2 tool, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses Statement checklist and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, respectively. RESULTS: This overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis will collect the evidence published about the ICU-AW. CONCLUSION: We hope that our research will contribute to clinicians and public decision making about the ICU-AW. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070067.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/prevenção & controle , Estado Terminal/enfermagem , Tomada de Decisões , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 66-70, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732486

RESUMO

This is the eighth article in a series about evidence-based practice (EBP) that builds on AJN's award-winning previous series-Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step-published between 2009 and 2011 (to access the series, go to http://links.lww.com/AJN/A133). This follow-up series features exemplars illustrating the various strategies that can be used to implement EBP changes-one of the most challenging steps in the EBP process.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Irrigação Terapêutica , Humanos , Processo de Enfermagem
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(5): 7405390010p1-7405390010p4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804635

RESUMO

Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. This article presents a case example of a young child with autism spectrum disorder who receives occupational therapy evaluation and intervention in natural environments (home and child care center). Systematic review findings supporting enhancement of key life occupations through interventions to develop cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and self-care skills for young children were published in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Early Childhood: Birth-5 Years (Frolek Clark & Kingsley, 2020) and the March/April 2020 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (Gronski & Doherty, 2020; Kingsley et al., 2020; Tanner et al., 2020). Each article in the Evidence Connection series applies evidence from the published reviews on a topic to a related case. These articles are designed to promote application of the evidence to practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Terapia Ocupacional , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
19.
Health Place ; 64: 102398, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736311

RESUMO

Schools have closed worldwide as part of measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission but are beginning to reopen in some countries. Various measures are being pursued to minimise transmission but existing guidance has not developed a comprehensive framework or theory of change. We present a framework informed by the occupational health hierarchy of control and a theory of change informed by realist approaches. We present measures focused on elimination, substitution, engineering, administration, education and personal protective equipment. We theorise that such measures offer a means of disrupting SARS-CoV-2 transmission via routes involving fomites, faeco-oral routes, droplets and aerosols.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração
20.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52558

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. El vocabulario Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS) establece un lenguaje único y común que permite la organización y facilita la búsqueda y recuperación de la literatura técnica y científica en salud disponible en las fuentes de información de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. El DeCS, creado por el Centro Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Información en Ciencias de la Salud (BIREME), un centro especializado de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS), es la traducción y la extensión del vocabulario Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), mantenido por la National Library of Medicine de los Estados Unidos. BIREME, en coordinación con expertos de América Latina y el Caribe, ha incluido en el DeCS los temas de equidad, género, etnicidad y derechos humanos —temas transversales en el marco programático de la cooperación técnica de la OPS/OMS— para garantizar una mejor recuperación y uso de la información y evidencia científica relacionadas a estos temas. El objetivo de este artículo es describir el método de revisión terminológica del DeCS e informar los resultados obtenidos y los impactos de la ampliación terminológica en el área de equidad, que comprendió la inclusión de 35 nuevos descriptores.


[ABSTRACT]. The Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) vocabulary establishes a unique and common language that allows the organization and facilitates the search and retrieval of technical and scientific literature on health available in the information sources of the Virtual Health Library. The DeCS, created by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), a specialized center of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), is the translation and extension of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary, maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine. BIREME, in coordination with experts from Latin America and the Caribbean, has included in the DeCS the topics of equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights—cross-cutting themes in the programmatic framework of PAHO/WHO technical cooperation—to ensure better retrieval and use of scientific information and evidence related to these topics. The objective of this article is to describe the methodology used during the terminology review of the DeCS and to report the results obtained and the impacts of the terminology expansion in the field of equity, which included the inclusion of 35 new descriptors.


Assuntos
Equidade , Sistemas de Informação , Medical Subject Headings , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Acesso à Informação , Equidade , Sistemas de Informação , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Acesso à Informação
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