Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 479
Filtrar
2.
Rev. ADM ; 76(4): 234-241, jul.-ago 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024069

RESUMO

Ética, moral y la deontología, se ocupan de un mismo objetivo: la valoración de lo bueno y de lo malo en la conducta humana. Sus enfoques del problema, no son totalmente iguales. La ética utiliza el análisis filosófico, ilumina el problema desde el ángulo axiológico, y a través de la especulación pura trata de establecer un deber ser de valor universal. La moral estudia las acciones humanas desde un punto de vista empírico, histórico, en la realidad de las diferentes culturas y teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de su idiosincrasia, trata de establecer juicios de valor adecuados a tales circunstancias. La deontología, fluctuando entre la ética y la moral y basándose en las conclusiones de ambas, se propone establecer las normas concretas que deben regir la conducta en situaciones determinadas, como puede ser el ejercicio de una profesión. La bioética establece los conceptos morales, éticos y racionales derivados en la interdisciplina de la ciencia y la biomedicina (AU)


Ethics, Moral and deontology, deal with the same objective: The assessment of good and evil in human behavior. Their approaches to the problem are not totally the same. Ethics uses philosophical analysis, illuminates the problem from the axiological angle, and through pure speculation tries to establish a duty of universal value. Morality studies human actions from an empirical, historical point of view, in the reality of different cultures and taking into account the diversity of their idiosyncrasy, tries to establish value judgments appropriate to such circumstances. Deontology, fluctuating between ethics and morals and based on the conclusions of both, it is proposed to establish the specific rules that should govern behavior in certain situations, such as the exercise of a profession. Bioethics establishes the moral, ethical and rational concepts derived in the interdiscipline of science and biomedicine (AU)


Assuntos
Sociedades Odontológicas , Códigos de Ética , Ética Odontológica , Prática Profissional/ética , Bioética , Teoria Ética , México , Moral
3.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 137, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311535

RESUMO

The digital revolution is disrupting the ways in which health research is conducted, and subsequently, changing healthcare. Direct-to-consumer wellness products and mobile apps, pervasive sensor technologies and access to social network data offer exciting opportunities for researchers to passively observe and/or track patients 'in the wild' and 24/7. The volume of granular personal health data gathered using these technologies is unprecedented, and is increasingly leveraged to inform personalized health promotion and disease treatment interventions. The use of artificial intelligence in the health sector is also increasing. Although rich with potential, the digital health ecosystem presents new ethical challenges for those making decisions about the selection, testing, implementation and evaluation of technologies for use in healthcare. As the 'Wild West' of digital health research unfolds, it is important to recognize who is involved, and identify how each party can and should take responsibility to advance the ethical practices of this work. While not a comprehensive review, we describe the landscape, identify gaps to be addressed, and offer recommendations as to how stakeholders can and should take responsibility to advance socially responsible digital health research.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Invenções/tendências , Aplicativos Móveis/ética , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
4.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 8(2): 64-61, abr.-jun.2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016282

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar el delito de ejercicio ilegal de las profesiones de farmacia y medicina en Costa Rica. Metodología: Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en libros y artículos del área jurídica, se analizó la legislación promulgada en Costa Rica, Argentina y España, además de las sentencias de tribunales penales, emitidas en Costa Rica desde el año 1980. Resultados: se determinó la legislación que ha regulado el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la profesión, así como los principales aspectos considerados en las sentencias para establecer los elementos que configuran el delito. Conclusión: El profesional en farmacia podría incurrir en el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la medicina en caso de que prescriba medicamentos, así como, el profesional en medicina podría cometer el delito de ejercicio ilegal de la farmacia si despacha medicamentos. El ejercicio de las profesiones médicas o farmacéuticas por personas no autorizadas debe ser analizado en sede penal, sin embargo, se asume el criterio que la sanción debería ser pecuniaria y no privativa de libertad. (AU).


Objective: to analyze the crime of illegal exercise of the professions of pharmacy and medicine in Costa Rica. Methodology: a bibliographic research was carried out in books and articles of the legal area; the legislation promulgated in Costa Rica, Argentina and Spain was analyzed, as well as the sentences of criminal courts, issued in Costa Rica since 1980. Results: creation of a legislation that regulated the crime of illegal exercise of the profession, as well as the main aspects considered in the sentences to establish the elements that make up the offense. Conclusion: the professional in pharmacy could incur in crime of illegal exercise of medicine in case he or she prescribes a medication, as well as, the medical professional could commit the crime of illegal exercise of the pharmacy if it dispenses medication. The exercise of the medical or pharmaceutical professions by unauthorized persons must be analyzed at the criminal court, however, it is assumed that the sanction should be pecuniary and not custodial. (AU).


Objetivo: analisar o crime de exercício ilegal das profissões de farmácia e medicina na Costa Rica. Método: uma pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada em livros e artigos na área jurídica, a legislação promulgada em Costa Rica, Argentina e Espanha, bem como as sentenças de tribunais criminais, emitido em Costa Rica desde 1980. Resultados: determinou-se a legislação que regulamenta o crime de exercício ilegal da profissão, bem como os principais aspectos considerados nas sentenças para estabelecer os elementos que compõem o delito. Conclusão: o farmacêutico profissional pode incorrer no crime de prática ilegal da medicina se prescrever medicamentos, bem como o profissional médico pode cometer o crime de exercício ilegal da farmácia se despachar medicamentos. O exercício de profissões médicas ou farmacêuticas por pessoas não autorizadas deve ser analisado em um tribunal criminal, no entanto, a pena deve ser de pecuniária. (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Prática Profissional/ética , Costa Rica , Má Conduta Profissional , Ética Médica , Ética Farmacêutica , Ética Profissional
5.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (45): 11-24, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-177372

RESUMO

La iatrogènia és, actualment, un dels principals problemes de salut pública, que acostumem a atribuir exclusivament a errors i negligències, menyspreant l'exagerat intervencionisme sanitari a causa del consumisme i també negant la ignorància i amb poca tolerància de la incertesa. La consideració dels dubtes i de les equivocacions des d'una perspectiva ètica pot contribuir a la millor comprensió i prevenció dels danys associats a la pràctica mèdica i sanitària mitjançant la promoció de la prudència com a valor essencial de qui ha de prendre decisions sobre la salut i les malalties de les persones i les comunitats


La iatrogenia es actualmente uno de los principales problemas de salud pública, que acostumbramos a atribuir exclusivamente a errores y negligencias, menospreciando el exagerado intervencionismo sanitario promovido por el consumismo y también debido a la negación de la ignorancia y a la intolerancia de la incertidumbre. La consideración de las dudas y de las equivocaciones desde una perspectiva ética puede contribuir a la mejor comprensión y prevención de los daños asociados a la práctica médica y sanitaria mediante la promoción de la prudencia como valor esencial de quienes que han de tomar decisiones sobre la salud y las enfermedades de las personas y las comunidades


Iatrogenesis is now, one of the main public health problems, which we tend to attribute exclusively to errors and negligence, belittling the exaggerated health interventionism promoted by consumerism and also due to the denial of ignorance and the intolerance of uncertainty. The consideration of doubts and mistakes from an ethical perspective can contribute to the better understanding and prevention of the damages associated with medical and public health practice by promoting prudence as an essential value of those who have to make decisions on people's health


Assuntos
Humanos , Incerteza , Doença Iatrogênica , Saúde Pública/ética , Administração da Prática Médica/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Prática de Saúde Pública/ética
6.
Nurs Ethics ; 26(4): 1149-1159, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are serious conditions which also impact the families of adult patients. There are few qualitative studies of multifamily therapy with adults with severe eating disorders and none concerning the practice of therapists in multifamily therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to explore therapists' practice in multifamily therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A grounded theory approach was chosen. Data were collected through participant observation in two multifamily therapy groups and qualitative interviews with the therapists in those groups. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study conforms to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants in the multifamily therapy groups received information about the research project and signed consent forms. The data are treated confidentially and anonymised. FINDINGS: The core category was identified as 'having many strings to one's bow', consisting of three subcategories: 'planning and readjusting', 'developing as therapist and team' and 'regulating the temperature of the group'. This article discusses the empirical findings in the frame of Aristotelian virtue ethics.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/ética , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Prática Profissional/ética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Rev Med Interne ; 40(3): 145-150, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In France, Leonetti and Claeys-Leonetti laws relating to patients' rights and end-of-life practice have introduced the advance healthcare directives (ADs). Although family doctor's role is important in initiating discussions regarding AD, hospital healthcare professionals should also be concerned by the health care planning laws. METHODS: A descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study was conducted in Paris Saint-Joseph hospital to evaluate the knowledge of nursing personnel regarding ADs. Among healthcare professionals present on 02/06/2016 and agreeing to participate, 50 non-medical caregivers and 50 doctors were randomly selected and took part in this survey. Three trainee lawyers conducted interviews, recorded and anonymized them. The Nvivo software analyzed the qualitative part of the results. RESULTS: Only 10% of healthcare professionals knew these legal and ethical issues in health care. Most caregivers were not in favor of informing all patients admitted to a hospital (hospitalized patients or patients received consultations). For 44%, only hospitalized end-of-life patients should be informed about ADs. For 76% of the people questioned, family doctor has a unique position to guide the patient on the preparation and registration of living wills. In hospital stay, the nurse was proposed by 52% of the staff as the preferred caregiver for AD communication, as part of an interdisciplinary healthcare team approach. Finally, the clear majority of caregivers (85%), called for discussions and documentation about ADs, and end-of-life training. CONCLUSION: Advance directives remain poorly known in the hospital, 12 years after the first Leonetti law. The attitude of professionals about ADs is not homogenous but interest for the subject is obvious in the vast majority of caregivers. The results of this survey highlighted that discussions and documentation about ADs as well as training on end-of-life patient care are essential.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização , Pacientes , Prática Profissional , Adulto , Diretivas Antecipadas/ética , Diretivas Antecipadas/psicologia , Diretivas Antecipadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Pacientes/psicologia , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Prática Profissional/ética , Prática Profissional/normas , Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Med. paliat ; 25(4): 291-297, oct.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180511

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Ofrecer la sistemática del análisis bioético a partir de un caso clínico. MÉTODO: Tras la exposición del caso clínico se abordan 3 posibles conflictos éticos utilizando como modelo de deliberación la metodología principialista de Diego Gracia. CONCLUSIONES: La atención al final de la vida está jalonada de daciones complejas en las que entran en conflicto valores y perspectivas que deben ser analizadas para que la decisión final sea la mejor


AIM: To show the bioethics analysis procedure based on a case report. METHOD: After the case report we will analyze 3 possible ethical conflicts by using as a deliberation model the principalism methodology by Diego Gracia. CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life care is full of complex decision making processes where values and perspectives must be analysed to arrive at the best decision


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/ética , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Bioética , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Autonomia Profissional
10.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (44): 149-162, nov. 2018.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-176795

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a percepção e a compreensão de profissionais de saúde sobre violência e proteção de crianças atendidas em um hospital geral universitário. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com dezoito profissionais de saúde. A abordagem relatada para as situações de violência varia desde o envolvimento até o descaso. Poucos entrevistados tiveram contato com o tema durante a sua formação profissional. A mãe foi identificada como a principal pessoa responsável pelas crianças, mas também como a principal agente de violência. Na perspectiva dos entrevistados, a criança só estará protegida se tiver uma família estruturada. A percepção e a compreensão dos profissionais em relação à violência e proteção de crianças são heterogêneas, modificando-se conforme a sua área de atuação.


El objetivo de este trabajo es verificar la percepción y comprensión de los profesionales sanitarios sobre la violencia y la protección de niños y niñas ingresados en un hospital universitario. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a dieciocho profesionales sanitarios. Los niveles de involucramiento de los profesionales en las situaciones de violencia van desde el compromiso a la negligencia. Algunos profesionales tuvieron contacto con estos temas durante su formación profesional. La madre ha sido identificada como la principal responsable del cuidado de niños y niñas y como la persona activamente responsable por ellos. Desde la perspectiva de los entrevistados, los niños sólo estarán protegidos si tienen una familia estructurada. Las percepciones y concepciones de los profesionales de la salud son heterogéneas y se modifican de acuerdo al campo de especialización


The aim is to verify the health professionals' perceptions, and understandings about violence and protection of children admitted in a Teaching Hospital. It was performed semi structured interviews with eighteen health professionals. The account on situations cited by the professional went since engagement until negligence. A few health professional had contact with the content along their professional education. The mother has been identified as a main person who is responsible for the care of the children, and with the person who is actively responsible for it. In the perspective of interviewed, the child will be protected just if he/she has a structured family. The health professionals' perceptions, and understandings are heterogeneous, and modified accordingly with the field of specialization


L'objectiu d'aquest treball és verificar la percepció i comprensió dels professionals sanitaris sobre la violència i la protecció de nens i nenes ingressats en un hospital universitari. Es van realitzar entrevistes semiestructurades a divuit professionals sanitaris. El nivell d'implicació dels professionals en les situacions de violència van des del compromís a la negligència. Alguns professionals van tenir contacte amb aquests temes durant la seva formació professional. La mare ha estat identificada com la principal responsable de la cura de nens i nenes i com la persona activament responsable dels mateixos. Des de la perspectiva dels entrevistats, els nens només estaran protegits si tenen una família estructurada. Les percepcions i concepcions dels professionals de la salut són heterogènies i es modifiquen d'acord amb la seva especialitat


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Ética Profissional , Prática Profissional/ética , Violência Doméstica/ética , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Autonomia Profissional , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(3): 23-26, Sept. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009241

RESUMO

La educación médica deberá tener en cuenta los profundos cambios sociales y educativos profesionales de nuestra época. Hoy la educación se relaciona con nuevos conocimientos como la ética, la sociología y la política. Sigue siendo materia de debate "lo formativo" vs. "lo instructivo", con predominio del conocimiento instrumental. Pensamos en una impronta que pueda quedar marcada para siempre en el espíritu del agente de salud. En todos estos aspectos, el rol fundamental corresponde a las escuelas de Medicina, donde se deben recordar los principios fundamentales de ese saber, junto con una formación cultural que permita adaptarse al desarrollo de los nuevos conocimientos. (AU)


Medical education should pay attention to the new scientific changes of our times. Today the education is related to new knowledge like ethic, sociology and politic. It is a still material of debate "formation" vs. "instruction" remains as a problem together with the instrumental knowledge. In all this aspects, Medical schools are the educational units to learn the persisting principles together with a cultural formation to drive the new knowledge. (AU)


Assuntos
Filosofia Médica , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Currículo/tendências , Educação Médica/tendências , Prática Profissional/tendências , Prática Profissional/ética , Currículo/normas , Docentes de Medicina
12.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 24(5): 1005-1010, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In everyday practice, we do not pay much attention to the words we use. So we do not usually become aware of an ontological difference between the levels of so-called objects focused upon and person-centredness. To elucidate this fundamental difference, we contrast here person-centred medicine (PCM) and a corresponding use of a polycentric grid approach (PCG approach) with the conventional impersonal, objectifying approach. The latter is typically depicted in orthogonal grids, such as charts and lists. This conventional way may be called the Cartesian orthogonal grid approach, or simply Cartesian approach. RESULTS: A conceptual framework corresponding to PCM is proposed. The PCG approach issues centricity in a formal way and provides a polycentric arrangement of interacting centres. The topic of polycentricity is discussed by the later Nobel Prize-winner Elinor Ostrom and her husband Victor, concerning management of common goods. The corresponding concept and use of a polycentric grid allow depicting uniqueness and relatedness of interacting centres better than the conventional Cartesian orthogonal grids. The PCG approach outlined here corresponds to the use of different graphic and cartographic procedures, such as the glyph plot. This unconventional form of representation is seen as beneficial in PCM. Practical exercises are developed to enhance awareness of centricity in everyday health care settings. The steps suggested are based on imagination of common tools, such as used in playing darts. Following the practical application, the theoretical background is outlined. It has been published in an extended form and hence can be discussed in a more focused way. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the PCG approach enhances experience and enactment of personhood. It supports PCM in everyday practice. On a theoretical level, the PCG approach has ontological primacy compared with the conventional Cartesian approach. To refer to physical empiric, the decontextualized Cartesian concept needs to be embedded in the empiric polycentric one.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/ética , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/ética , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos , Conhecimento , Filosofia Médica , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Prática Profissional/ética
14.
HEC Forum ; 30(4): 341-360, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948431

RESUMO

One element of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities' recently-piloted quality attestation portfolio for clinical ethics consultants is a "philosophy of clinical ethics consultation statement" describing the candidate's approach to clinical ethics consultation. To date, these statements have been under-explored in the literature, in contrast to philosophy statements in other fields such as academic teaching. In this article, I argue there is merit in expanding the content of these statements beyond clinical ethics consultation alone to describe the author's approach to other important "domains" of healthcare ethics practice (e.g., organizational policy development/review and ethics teaching). I also claim such statements have at least three additional uses outside quality attestation: (1) as a reflective practice learning tool to increase role clarity among practicing healthcare ethicists and bioethics fellows; (2) assisting practicing healthcare ethicists in clarifying role expectations with those they work with; and (3) helping inform developing professional practice standards.


Assuntos
Consultoria Ética/normas , Ética , Melhoria de Qualidade/ética , Humanos , Prática Profissional/ética , Prática Profissional/normas
15.
Acta bioeth ; 24(1): 127-136, jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-949315

RESUMO

Resumen: 15. En este trabajo se revisita el concepto de confidencialidad, a la luz de nuevos desafíos que surgen de los avances tecnológicos y de comunicaciones, y sus aplicaciones en la práctica profesional clínica y la investigación científica. Se fundamenta el análisis en la presentación de antecedentes filosóficos, así como también la distinción y precisión respecto de conceptos relacionados: intimidad, privacidad, anonimato, secreto profesional. Se hace un contrapunto entre privacidad, como derecho de los pacientes y participantes de la investigación científica, y confidencialidad y secreto profesional, como deber profesional. Se examinan nuevos retos a la confidencialidad en la práctica profesional y en la investigación científica en salud mental, como por ejemplo la protección de la información en la ficha clínica electrónica. Se concluye enfatizando la incorporación del tema en la reflexión ético-legal en la investigación y formación profesional.


Abstract: 19. In this paper the concept of confidentiality is revisited in the light of the challenges arising from technological and communications advances and their applications in clinical practice and scientific research. The analysis is based on the presentation of philosophical background as well as the distinction and precision regarding related concepts: intimacy, privacy, anonymity, and professional secret. A counterpoint between privacy rights of patients and participants of scientific research and professional secrecy and confidentiality as professional duty is done. Also new challenges to privacy are developed in professional practice and scientific research in mental health, like the protection of confidentiality of the electronic clinical file. The authors conclude emphasizing the need to include the subject in the ethical and legal reflection in research and professional education.


Resumo: 23. Neste trabalho foi revisitado o conceito de confidencialidade, à luz dos novos desafios decorrentes de avanços tecnológicos na comunicação e suas aplicações na prática profissional clínica e na investigação científica. A análise foi fundamentada na apresentação dos antecedentes filosóficos, bem como também, na distinção e na precisão a respeito de conceitos relacionados: intimidade, privacidade, anonimato e sigilo profissional. Faz-se um contraponto entre a privacidade como um direito dos pacientes e de participantes de pesquisa científica e a confidencialidade e sigilo profissional, como um dever profissional. Desenvolve-se novos desafios à confidencialidade na prática profissional e na pesquisa científica em saúde mental, por exemplo, a proteção das informações em fichas clínicas electrônicas. Conclui-se enfatizando a importância da incorporação do tema na reflexão ética-legal na pesquisa e na formação profissional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prática Profissional/ética , Saúde Mental , Confidencialidade/ética , Pesquisa Científica e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(14): 3447-3455, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643062

RESUMO

Purpose: The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could be reproduced only 11% to 45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes of data irreproducibility and underscored potential solutions, more robust experimental designs, better statistics, and better mentorship. However, no prior survey has addressed the role of the review and publication process on honest reporting.Experimental Design: We developed an anonymous online survey intended for trainees involved in bench research. The survey included questions related to mentoring/career development, research practice, integrity, and transparency, and how the pressure to publish and the publication process itself influence their reporting practices.Results: Responses to questions related to mentoring and training practices were largely positive, although an average of approximately 25% did not seem to receive optimal mentoring. A total of 39.2% revealed having been pressured by a principle investigator or collaborator to produce "positive" data. About 62.8% admitted that the pressure to publish influences the way they report data. The majority of respondents did not believe that extensive revisions significantly improved the manuscript while adding to the cost and time invested.Conclusions: This survey indicates that trainees believe that the pressure to publish affects honest reporting, mostly emanating from our system of rewards and advancement. The publication process itself affects faculty and trainees and appears to influence a shift in their ethics from honest reporting ("negative data") to selective reporting, data falsification, or even fabrication. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 3447-55. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Publicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Internet , Prática Profissional/ética , Prática Profissional/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Br Med Bull ; 126(1): 47-56, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608648

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years questions have arisen about the moral justification for the accommodation of health care professionals who refuse, on conscience grounds as opposed to professional grounds, to provide particular professional services to eligible patients who request that kind of service. Source of data: Literature review. Areas of disagreement: Central to concerns about the accommodation claims of conscientious objectors is that health care professionals volunteer to join their professions that typically they are the monopoly providers of such services and that a health care professional's refusal to provide professional services on grounds that are not professional judgements amounts to unprofessional conduct. Defenders of conscientious objection maintain that in a liberal society respect for a professional's conscience is of sufficient importance that conscientious objectors ought to be accommodated. To deny conscientious objectors accommodation would reduce diversity in the health care professions, it would deny objectors unfairly equality of opportunity, and it would constitute a serious threat to the moral integrity of conscientious objectors. Growing points: The legal literature on the subject is growing due to the impossibility of satisfactory compromises.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Obrigações Morais , Prática Profissional/ética , Profissionalismo , Responsabilidade Social , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Consciência , Humanos , Política
20.
J Med Ethics ; 44(3): 212-216, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125989

RESUMO

A traditional ethic of medicine asserts that physicians have special obligations to individual patients with whom they have a clinical relationship. Contemporary trends in US healthcare financing like bundled payments seem to threaten traditional conceptions of special obligations of individual physicians to individual patients because their population-based focus sets a tone that seems to emphasise responsibilities for groups of patients by groups of physicians in an organisation. Prior to undertaking a cogent debate about the fate and normative weight of special obligations and a traditional ethic for contemporary healthcare, we need a deeper examination of what the traditional ethic of special obligations really means. Here we offer a conception of 'doubly distributed' special obligations. Physicians and similarly minded healing professionals abiding by a traditional ethic have always spread their devotion and attention across multiple patients and have shared responsibilities with physician and non-physician colleagues in much the same way devoted parents have frequently distributed their special obligations across multiple children and across multiple parents. By taking up the extended analogy of parent we argue that doubly distributing special obligations need not contradict the possibility of special obligations in restructured collective forms of healthcare delivery and financing.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Obrigações Morais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Médicos/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Conflito de Interesses , Humanos , Defesa do Paciente , Médicos/psicologia , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA