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1.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(4): 701-710, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is second only to alcohol as a substance of abuse and dependence in the United States. While there is extensive research examining alcohol use and bariatric surgery, there is currently little research and there are no published guidelines specific to cannabis use and bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: To identify major themes and general guidelines applied by bariatric surgery psychology clinicians. SETTING: This practice survey was disseminated to bariatric surgery psychologists at various U.S. academic medical centers, hospitals, and private practices. METHODS: An electronic, 35-question survey was sent to 47 bariatric surgery psychologists to collect information on current clinical practice guidelines regarding cannabis use before and after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The survey questionnaire was completed by 34 (72.34%) bariatric surgery psychologists. The major identified themes included: (1) the lack of a standardized assessment of cannabis use; (2) a requirement for 3 months of abstinence from cannabis before bariatric surgery; (3) recommended lifetime abstinence from cannabis after bariatric surgery; and (4) discussion of cannabis use risks following bariatric surgery, including appetite stimulation, addiction potential, and possible negative impacts on judgment. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use will likely further increase in the United States. This survey highlighted common bariatric surgery psychology practices in the absence of extensive research and published guidelines. These findings suggest a preliminary framework with which to address cannabis use in patients seeking bariatric surgery. It is recommended that professional organizations and societies build on these initial survey findings to develop guidelines for more consistent, evidence-based practice regarding cannabis use and bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Cannabis , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Humanos , Prática Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
2.
Semin Speech Lang ; 42(1): 54-63, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596604

RESUMO

For children with voice disorders, access to care has long been a challenge. Reasons for this include the challenge of qualifying children with isolated voice disorders for services within the public-school system as well as a family's geographic proximity to experienced clinicians who are in the healthcare system. Over the past decade, there have been both formal and informal investigations into the use of telepractice to deliver services to communicatively disordered children and adults, including those with voice disorders. Although barriers and obstacles existed, use of telepractice to deliver such services demonstrated both feasibility and, in some studies, effective outcomes. However, prior to spring of 2020, use of telepractice to deliver speech pathology services was not mainstream. This changed when the nation was forced to shut down many of its in-person healthcare and educational delivery due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This article summarizes select relevant literature pertaining to the use of telepractice in speech language pathology over the past decade and provides a case-based discussion of how it was and is currently being used to deliver pediatric voice care.


Assuntos
Prática Psicológica , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Interface Usuário-Computador , Distúrbios da Voz/reabilitação , /complicações , Criança , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Inclusão Escolar/métodos , Estados Unidos
3.
Semin Speech Lang ; 42(1): 64-72, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596605

RESUMO

Telemedicine-conveying medical information virtually for planning, diagnosis, or treatment-has been a part of the American medical system for over 100 years. A constantly evolving modality, telepractice was a supplemental care delivery system for most speech-language pathologists (SLPs) until March 2020 when the COVID-19 pandemic forced clinical operations to halt in-person activities and convert as much as possible to virtual platforms. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the need for telepractice prior to and beyond the current pandemic, the efficacy of telepractice for the voice-specialized SLP, limitations of telepractice, and best practices for providing care over telepractice with a specific focus on voice disorder diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Prática Psicológica , Centros de Reabilitação , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Distúrbios da Voz/reabilitação , Criança , Humanos
4.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(2): 885-899, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334239

RESUMO

Studies of the benefits of a distributed practice schedule on motor skill acquisition have typically found that distribution of practice results in better learning. However, less research has focused on how the benefits of distributed practice are impacted by timing during acquisition. To examine how timing of skill acquisition interacts with distribution of practice we had two groups of participants complete either an extensive massed or distributed training schedule to learn a speed stacking sequence across ten sessions. For participants in both groups, we provided observational learning to facilitate skill acquisition. Analysis of speed stacking time on a retention test revealed an overall benefit for the distributed relative to the massed practice group. Interestingly, our analysis of the benefits of distributed practice during training only showed performance benefits in the early session (session one) and later sessions (sessions eight, nine, and ten) of skill acquisition but not mid-way through it (sessions two through seven). Our results support previous findings highlighting the learning benefits of a distributed practice schedule but suggest that these benefits occur differentially throughout acquisition. Our work also replicates research demonstrating that observational learning is more beneficial when it is yoked to actual practice.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Prática Psicológica , Humanos , Aprendizagem
5.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 126-138, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1125736

RESUMO

O artigo relata uma prática psicológica com um grupo de pais de crianças diagnosticadas com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH), no Centro de Referência Especializado de Assistência Social (CRAS) em um município situado ao noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Foram realizados seis encontros semanais, com duas horas e meia de duração e participação de treze pais que integraram o grupo. A estrutura dos encontros consistiu no oferecimento do espaço de escuta para as principais queixas dos pais em relação aos aspectos do TDAH apresentados pelos filhos e psicoeducar sobre os sintomas, curso do transtorno e intervenções para execução no manejo de problemas com os filhos. Como resultado da intervenção, os pais relataram ter melhorado a capacidade de compreender as situações relacionadas ao transtorno dos seus filhos e encontrar soluções assertivas. A intervenção grupal com pais de crianças com TDAH contribuiu como dispositivo para melhorar a qualidade de vida das famílias que vivenciam dificuldades relacionadas aos aspectos do transtorno dos seus filhos.


The article reports a psychological practice with a group of parents of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), at the Centro de Referência Especializado de Assistência Social (CRAS) in a city located in the northwest of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Six weekly meetings were held, lasting two and a half hours, and with the participation of thirteen parents who were part of the group. The structure of the meetings consisted of offering the space for listening to the main complaints of parents regarding aspects of ADHD presented by their children and psychoeducation about the symptoms, course of the disorder, and interventions for execution in the management of problems with their children. As a result of the intervention, parents reported having improved their ability to understand the situations related to their children's disorder and to find assertive solutions. The group intervention with parents of children with ADHD contributed as a device to improve the quality of life of families that experience difficulties related to the aspects of their children's disorder.


El artículo relata una práctica psicológica con un grupo de padres de niños diagnosticados con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH), en el Centro de Referencia Especializado de Asistencia Social (CRAS) de una ciudad situada en el noroeste del estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Se realizaron seis reuniones semanales, de dos horas y media de duración, en las que participaron trece padres que formaban parte del grupo. La estructura de las reuniones consistió en ofrecer un espacio para escuchar las principales quejas sobre los aspectos del TDAH que presentan sus hijos y psicoeducar sobre los síntomas, el curso del trastorno y las intervenciones de ejecución en el manejo de los problemas con sus hijos. Como resultado de la intervención, los padres informaron que habían mejorado su capacidad para comprender las situaciones relacionadas con el trastorno de sus hijos y para encontrar soluciones asertivas. La intervención grupal con padres de niños con TDAH contribuyó como un dispositivo para mejorar la calidad de vida de las familias que experimentan dificultades relacionadas con los aspectos del trastorno de sus hijos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Pais , Prática Psicológica , Psicologia Clínica , Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Família
6.
J Athl Train ; 2020(preprint): 0, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351953

RESUMO

CONTEXT: No research has investigated thermoregulatory responses and exertional heat illness (EHI) risk factors in marching band (MB) artists performing physical activity in high environmental temperatures. OBJECTIVE: Examine core temperature (Tc) and EHI risk factors in MB artists. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Three rehearsals and 2 football games for 2 NCAA Division I MBs. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen volunteers completed the study (female = 13, males = 6; age = 20.5 ± 0.9 years; weight = 75.0 ± 19.1 kg; height = 165.1 ± 7.1 cm). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured Tc pre-, post-, and every 15 minutes during activity and recorded wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes. Other variables included activity time and intensity, ground surface, hydration characteristics (fluid volume, sweat rate, urine specific gravity, percent body mass loss [%BM]), and medical history (eg, previous EHI, medications). Statistical analysis included descriptives (mean ± standard deviation), comparative analyses determined differences within and between days, and linear regression identified variables that significantly explained Tc. RESULTS: Mean rehearsal time = 102.8 ± 19.8 minutes and game time = 260.5 ± 47.7 minutes. Max game Tc (39.1 ± 1.1°C) was significantly higher than rehearsal (38.4 ± 0.7°C, P = .003). The highest max game Tc = 41.2°C. Participants consumed significantly more fluid than their sweat rates (P < .003), which minimized %BM loss, particularly during rehearsals (-0.4 ± 0.6%). Mean game %BM loss = -0.9 ± 2.0%; however, 63.6% of the time, participants reported hypohydrated to game day. Max Tc was significantly predicted by max WBGT, max RH, ground surface, using mental health medications, and hours of sleep (adjusted R2 = 0.542, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Marching band artists experience high Tc during activity and should have access to athletic trainers who can implement EHI prevention and management strategies.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Futebol Americano , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Prática Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Sudorese , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095774

RESUMO

The present research aims at quantifying the impact of practicing a new coordination pattern with an online visual feedback on the postural coordination performed on a mechanical horse. Forty-four voluntary participants were recruited in this study. They were randomly assigned to four practice groups based on i) with or without feedback (i.e., group 1, control, did not receive the feedback; group 2, 3 and 4 received an online feedback during practice) and ii) the specific trunk/horse coordination to target during practice (group 1, target coordination = 180° (without feedback); group 2, target coordination = 0°; group 3, target coordination = 90°; group 4, target coordination = 180°). All participants performed pre-, practice, post- and retention sessions. The pre-, post- and retention sessions consisted of four trials, with one trial corresponding to one specific target coordination to maintain between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations (spontaneous, 0°, 90°, and 180°). The practice phase was composed of three different sessions during which participants received an online feedback about the coordination between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations. Results showed a significant change with practice in the trunk/horse coordination patterns which persisted even after one month (retention-test). However, all the groups did not show the same nature of change, evidenced by a high postural variability during post-test for 0° and 90° target coordination groups, in opposition to the 180° and spontaneous groups who showed a decrease in coordination variability for the 180° group. The coordination in anti-phase was characterized as spontaneously adopted by participants on the mechanical horse, explaining the ease of performing this coordination (compared to the 0° and 90° target coordination). The effect of online visual feedback appeared not only on the coordination pattern itself, but most importantly on its variability during practice, including concerning initially stable coordination patterns.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Prática Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor , Postura Sentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Atenção , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cavalos , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Tronco , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2321-2328, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573345

RESUMO

Studies on running biomechanics and energetics are usually conducted on a treadmill. To ensure that locomotion on a treadmill is comparable to locomotion overground, participants need to be expert in the use of the device. This study aimed to identify the number and duration of sessions needed to obtain stable measurements for spatiotemporal and metabolic parameters in unexperienced treadmill runners. Fourteen male recreational runners performed three 15-min treadmill running trials in different days at a submaximal speed. Spatiotemporal and metabolic parameters were registered at minutes: 5, 10, 15 and their within-trial and between-trial changes were analysed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Within-trial differences were found in step frequency (decreased over time), Step Length and Contact Time (increased), reaching stability at different time points. Ventilator parameters increased, reaching stability after 5-10 min, while heart rate increased progressively over time. The only between-trial differences were an increase in step length and a decrease in step frequency at min 1, between trials 1 and 3. In conclusion, at least three running trials of 15 min are required to familiarize with the device. The last 5 min of the third trial can be regarded as stable measurements.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Corrida/psicologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Neural Syst ; 30(6): 2050033, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486921

RESUMO

Covert attention has been repeatedly shown to impact on EEG responses after single and repeated practice sessions. Machine learning techniques are increasingly adopted to classify single-trial EEG responses thereby primarily relying on amplitude-based features instead of latency-based features. In this study, we investigated changes in EEG response signatures of nine healthy older subjects when performing 10 sessions of covert attention training. We show that, when we trained classifiers to distinguish recorded EEG patterns between the two experimental conditions (a target stimulus is "present" or "not present"), latency-based classifiers outperform the amplitude-based ones and that classification accuracy improved along with behavioral accuracy, providing supportive evidence of brain plasticity.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
J. psicanal ; 53(98): 331-346, jan.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1154756

RESUMO

Este artigo busca analisar as contribuições do movimento estruturalista para o avanço da psicanálise lacaniana. Para isso, apresentamos um breve histórico sobre as origens desse pensamento e suas principais filiações. Tanto a antropologia de Lévi-Strauss quanto a linguística de Jakobson possibilitaram que Lacan realizasse o seu projeto freudiano atravessado por uma nova forma de produzir ciência. No entanto, destacamos que a relação de Lacan com a linguística saussuriana teve um impacto singular para os rumos da psicanálise. Lacan encontrou na linguística estrutural uma possibilidade de trazer a psicanálise de volta para o seu campo específico - o da linguagem. Desse modo, o estruturalismo ocupa um lugar importante na história da psicanálise, fato este que tentamos demonstrar nesse trabalho.


This article analyzes the contributions of the structuralist movement to the advance of Lacanian psychoanalysis. The study presents a brief history of the structuralism and its main affiliations. Both Lévi-Strauss's anthropology and Jakobson's linguistics enabled Lacan to carry out his Freudian project characterized by a new way of producing science. However, the study highlights that Lacan's relationship with Saussurian linguistics had a unique impact on the direction of psychoanalysis. Lacan found in structural linguistics a possibility of bringing psychoanalysis back to its specific field - language. Thus, structuralism occupies an important place in the history of psychoanalysis, a fact that we try to demonstrate in this work.


Este artículo analiza las contribuciones del movimiento estructuralista al avance del psicoanálisis lacaniana. Para esto, presentamos una breve historia sobre los orígenes de este pensamiento y sus principales afiliaciones. Tanto la antropología de Lévi-Strauss como la lingüística de Jakobson le permitieron a Lacan realizar su proyecto freudiano atravesado por una nueva forma de producir ciencia. Sin embargo, destacamos que la relación de Lacan con la lingüística saussuriana tuvo un impacto único en la dirección del psicoanálisis. Lacan encontró en la lingüística estructural la posibilidad de devolver el psicoanálisis a su campo específico: el del lenguaje. Así, el estructuralismo ocupa un lugar importante en la historia del psicoanálisis, un hecho que intentamos demostrar en este trabajo.


Cet article cherche à analyser les contributions du mouvement structuraliste pour le développement de la psychanalyse lacanienne. Pour ce faire, nous présentons un bref historique des origines de cette pensée et ses filiations plus importantes. Aussi bien l'anthropologie de Lévi-Strauss que la linguistique de Jakobson ont permis à Lacan de réaliser son projet freudien coupé par une nouvelle façon de produire de la science. Nous signalons, cependant, que le rapport de Lacan avec la linguistique saussurienne a frappé, particulièrement, la marche de la psychanalyse. Lacan a trouvé, dans la linguistique structurelle, une possibilité de faire revenir la psychanalyse à son domaine spécifique, celui du langage. Ainsi, le structuralisme occupe une place importante dans l'histoire de la psychanalyse, un fait que nous essayons de démontrer dans cet ouvrage.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Estudos de Linguagem , Prática Psicológica
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005950, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is caused by the interruption of blood flow to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of blood vessels within the brain (hemorrhagic stroke) and may lead to changes in perception, cognition, mood, speech, health-related quality of life, and function, such as difficulty walking and using the arm. Activity limitations (decreased function) of the upper extremity are a common finding for individuals living with stroke. Mental practice (MP) is a training method that uses cognitive rehearsal of activities to improve performance of those activities. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether MP improves outcomes of upper extremity rehabilitation for individuals living with the effects of stroke. In particular, we sought to (1) determine the effects of MP on upper extremity activity, upper extremity impairment, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, economic costs, and adverse effects; and (2) explore whether effects differed according to (a) the time post stroke at which MP was delivered, (b) the dose of MP provided, or (c) the type of comparison performed. SEARCH METHODS: We last searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register on September 17, 2019. On September 3, 2019, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and REHABDATA. On October 2, 2019, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We reviewed the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult participants with stroke who had deficits in upper extremity function (called upper extremity activity). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened titles and abstracts of the citations produced by the literature search and excluded obviously irrelevant studies. We obtained the full text of all remaining studies, and both review authors then independently selected trials for inclusion. We combined studies when the review produced a minimum of two trials employing a particular intervention strategy and a common outcome. We considered the primary outcome to be the ability of the arm to be used for appropriate tasks, called upper extremity activity. Secondary outcomes included upper extremity impairment (such as quality of movement, range of motion, tone, presence of synergistic movement), activities of daily living (ADLs), health-related quality of life (HRQL), economic costs, and adverse events. We assessed risk of bias in the included studies and applied GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. We completed subgroup analyses for time since stroke, dosage of MP, type of comparison, and type of arm activity outcome measure. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 studies involving 676 participants from nine countries. For the comparison of MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment, MP in combination with other treatment appears more effective in improving upper extremity activity than the other treatment without MP (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.94; I² = 39%; 15 studies; 397 participants); the GRADE certainty of evidence score was moderate based on risk of bias for the upper extremity activity outcome. For upper extremity impairment, results were as follows: SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.87; I² = 43%; 15 studies; 397 participants, with a GRADE score of moderate, based on risk of bias. For ADLs, results were as follows: SMD 0.08, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.39; I² = 0%; 4 studies; 157 participants; the GRADE score was low due to risk of bias and small sample size. For the comparison of MP versus conventional treatment, the only outcome with available data to combine (3 studies; 50 participants) was upper extremity impairment (SMD 0.34, 95% CI -0.33 to 1.00; I² = 21%); GRADE for the impairment outcome in this comparison was low due to risk of bias and small sample size. Subgroup analyses of time post stroke, dosage of MP, or comparison type for the MP in combination with other rehabilitation treatment versus the other treatment comparison showed no differences. The secondary outcome of health-related quality of life was reported in only one study, and no study noted the outcomes of economic costs and adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence shows that MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment appears to be beneficial in improving upper extremity activity. Moderate-certainty evidence also shows that MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment appears to be beneficial in improving upper extremity impairment after stroke. Low-certainty evidence suggests that ADLs may not be improved with MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment. Low-certainty evidence also suggests that MP versus conventional treatment may not improve upper extremity impairment. Further study is required to evaluate effects of MP on time post stroke, the volume of MP required to affect outcomes, and whether improvement is maintained over the long term.


Assuntos
Braço , Imaginação/fisiologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Prática Psicológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paresia/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0223810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287279

RESUMO

Self-controlled practice schedules have been shown to enhance motor learning in several contexts, but their effectiveness in structural learning tasks, where the goal is to eventually learn an underlying structure or rule, is not well known. Here we examined the use of self-controlled practice in a novel control interface requiring structural learning. In addition, we examined the effect of 'nudging'-i.e., whether altering task difficulty could influence self-selected strategies, and hence facilitate learning. Participants wore four inertial measurement units (IMUs) on their upper body and the goal was to use motions of the upper body to move a screen cursor to different targets presented on the screen. The structure in this task that had to be learned was based on the fact that the signals from the IMUs were linearly mapped to the x- and y- position of the cursor. Participants (N = 62) were split into 3 groups (random, self-selected, nudge) based on whether they had control over the sequence in which they could practice the targets. To test whether participants learned the underlying structure, participants were tested both on the trained targets, as well as novel targets that were not practiced during training. Results showed that during training, the self-selected group showed shorter movement times relative to the random group, and both self-selected and nudge groups adopted a strategy of tending to repeat targets. However, in the test phase, we found no significant differences in task performance between groups, indicating that structural learning was not reliably affected by the type of practice. In addition, nudging participants by adjusting task difficulty did not show any significant benefits to overall learning. These results suggest that although self-controlled practice influenced practice structure and facilitated learning, it did not provide any additional benefits relative to practicing on a random schedule in this task.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal
13.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 32(1): 72-81, abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1098257

RESUMO

O campo da Saúde do Trabalhador, disposto a estudar e a intervir nos processos de saúde e doença, tem dialogado com diferentes áreas do conhecimento no intuito de melhor compreender a complexidade presente nesta interação, considerando a diversidade de fatores que podem interferir nos níveis de saúde experimentados pelas pessoas. Em meio ao crescente interesse pelo campo, se faz pertinente questionar como a ciência psicológica tem se posicionado a respeito das repercussões do trabalho sobre a mente humana. Para tanto, o presente estudo propõe identificar em que medida a atuação do psicólogo em saúde do trabalhador tem contemplado os pressupostos da abordagem psicossociológica. Através das bases de dados SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) e LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde) realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura, a fim de compilar informações que viabilizassem a síntese do estado do conhecimento da temática em questão. Foi possível identificar a necessidade de um maior investimento em termos de pesquisa e de intervenção no campo saúde do trabalhador fundamentados nos pressupostos psicossociológicos.(AU)


The field of Worker Healt, willing to study and intervene in health and disease processes, has dialogued with different areas of knowledge in order to better understand the complexity present in this interaction, considering the diversity factors that can interfere in the health levels experienced by people. Amid the growing interest in the field, it is pertinent to question how psychological science has positioned about the repercussions of work on the human mind. Therefore, this study intends to identify to what extent the psychologist in worker health has contemplated the assumptions of psychosociology approach. Through SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) and LILACS (Latino Literature American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences) databases we used an integrative literature review, in order to compile information that would enable the synthesis of the state of knowledge of the subject in question. It was possible to identify the need for greater investment in research and reasoned intervention in psychosociology assumptions of the universe of the health workers.(AU)


Assuntos
Prática Psicológica , Psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador
14.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(5): 607-616, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff behaviour change intervention to increase the use of ward-based practice books and active practice by stroke inpatients. DESIGN: This is a pre-post observational study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a inpatient rehabilitation unit in Australia. SUBJECTS: Stroke inpatients participated in the study. INTERVENTION: A staff behaviour change intervention was designed to support staff to implement practice books. The intervention included staff training on motivation and coaching, and weekly audit and feedback for six months. The environment was restructured to bring staff together weekly at the bedside to review audit data and share skills. MAIN MEASURES: Medical record audit and behavioural mapping were used to compare the number of stroke participants with/using a practice book pre- and post-intervention. Pre- and post-intervention, the percentage of observations where a stroke participant was actively practising, repetitions of practice recorded and type of supervision were compared. RESULTS: A total of 24 participants were observed (n = 12 pre, n = 12 post). Post-intervention, the number of participants with practice books increased from one to six (OR = 11, 95% CI = (0.9, 550.7)), but this change was not statistically significant (P = 0.069). Five participants recorded repetitions in their practice books post-intervention, three were observed using practice books. There was no change in median repetitions recorded (rpbs = 0.00, 95% CI = (-0.4, 0.4), P = 1.000) or observed active practice (rpbs = -0.02, 95% CI = (-0.4, 0.4), P = 0.933). Active practice was often fully supervised by a therapist. CONCLUSION: A staff behaviour change intervention has the potential to increase the number of stroke survivors receiving ward-based practice books but did not increase active practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Livros , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Prática Psicológica
15.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 529-535, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219699

RESUMO

Despite the substantial evidence highlighting the role of selective rehearsal in item-method directed forgetting, recent work has suggested that forgetting may occur as a function of an active inhibitory mechanism that is more effortful than elaborative rehearsal processes. In the present work, we test this hypothesis by implementing a double-item presentation within the item-method directed forgetting paradigm. Participants studied two unrelated items at a time. Some words were followed by the same cue, and participants were instructed to remember or forget both items (pure condition). On other trials, participants were to remember one but forget the other word (mixed condition). Selective rehearsal and inhibition accounts make distinct predictions regarding memory performance in the double-item presentation. In Experiment 1, we compared recognition performance in the pure and mixed conditions, while in Experiment 2, we included a neutral baseline condition to further distinguish between the selective rehearsal and inhibition accounts. Contrary to the inhibition account but consistent with selective rehearsal, we found for both remember and forget items that recognition was greater in the mixed than in the pure condition. Recognition for forget items also did not differ from neutral items. We conclude that selective rehearsal, not inhibition, is responsible for item-method directed forgetting.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Inibição Psicológica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 4, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016647

RESUMO

Extensive research has shown that practice yields highly specific perceptual learning of simple visual properties such as orientation and contrast. Does this same learning characterize more complex perceptual skills? Here we investigated perceptual learning of complex medical images. Novices underwent training over four sessions to discriminate which of two chest radiographs contained a tumor and to indicate the location of the tumor. In training, one group received six repetitions of 30 normal/abnormal images, the other three repetitions of 60 normal/abnormal images. Groups were then tested on trained and novel images. To assess the nature of perceptual learning, test items were presented in three formats - the full image, the cutout of the tumor, or the background only. Performance improved across training sessions, and notably, the improvement transferred to the classification of novel images. Training with more repetitions on fewer images yielded comparable transfer to training with fewer repetitions on more images. Little transfer to novel images occurred when tested with just the cutout of the cancer region or just the background, but a larger cutout that included both the cancer region and some surrounding regions yielded good transfer. Perceptual learning contributes to the acquisition of expertise in cancer image perception.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 46(2): 131-154, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985251

RESUMO

The ability to switch tasks flexibly plays a critical role in goal-directed behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that task switching is subject to higher-level "metacontrol" regulation that is reflected, for example, in contextual influences on switching efficiency, such as the global probability of task switches. This hypothesis was tested in 5 experiments using an instruction manipulation to dissociate expectancy-based control from experience-based practice effects: Participants' beliefs about switch probability were manipulated across trial sequences via explicit instruction, while objective frequency was matched for a subset of sequences. The behavioral results of Experiments 1-3 indicated that instruction played a role above experience in modulating task switching efficiency, and that this effect was motivation-dependent. Experiment 4 used electroencephalogram (EEG) methods to characterize the mechanism by which instructions affected processing via established event-related potential and oscillatory markers of task preparation. Experiment 5 demonstrated that the influence of instructions extended to participants' voluntary task choices. Collectively, the present findings demonstrate that instruction-induced expectancy prompts the adoption of distinct metacontrol modes across sequences, but does not modulate trial-by-trial, task-specific motor preparation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107351, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whether people with Alzheimer's Disease present with accelerated long term forgetting compared to healthy controls is still debated. Typically, accelerated long term forgetting implies testing the same participants repeatedly over several delays. This testing method raises the issue of confounding repetition effects with forgetting rates. We used a novel procedure to disentangle the two effects. METHODS: Four short stories were presented during an initial in-person assessment of 40 patients with Alzheimer's Disease and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Our aim was for participants to reach a score of 70% correct (9 out of 13 questions) at encoding. If this criterion was not achieved after the first trial, the four stories were presented again (in a different order); participants took the 1 min filler task again and were then retested. We repeated this process until participants reached the 70% criterion or to a maximum of four trials. Cued recall memory tests were completed during follow-up telephone call(s) at different delay intervals. Study material was presented only at encoding, then probed with different question sets on all other delays. Each question set tested different sub-parts of the material. The experiment employed a mixed design. Participants were randomly allocated to either a condition without retrieval practice or a condition with retrieval practice. Participants in the condition without retrieval practice were only tested at two delays: post encoding filled delay and at one month. Participants in the condition with retrieval practice were tested at four delays: post encoding filled delay, one day, one week and one month. Our methodological design allowed us to separate the effects of retesting from the effects of delay. RESULTS: Alzheimer's Disease patients showed a significant encoding deficit reflected in the higher number of trials required to reach criterion. Using Linear Mixed Models, we found no group by delay interactions between the post encoding filled delay retrieval and one month delays, with Alzheimer's Disease groups having a similar decline in performance to healthy controls, irrespective of testing condition. Significant condition by delay interactions were found for both groups (Alzheimer's Disease and healthy controls), with better performance at one month in the condition with retrieval practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that Alzheimer's Disease is not characterised by accelerated long term forgetting, patients in our sample forgot at the same rate as healthy controls. Given the additional trials required by Alzheimer's patients to reach the 70% correct criterion, their memory impairment appears to be one of encoding. Moreover, Alzheimer's Disease patients benefited from repeated testing to the same extent as healthy controls. Due to our methodological design, we were also able to show that performance improved under repeated testing conditions, even with partial testing (sampling different features from each narrative on every test session/delay) in both healthy controls and Alzheimer's Disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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