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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005950, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is caused by the interruption of blood flow to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of blood vessels within the brain (hemorrhagic stroke) and may lead to changes in perception, cognition, mood, speech, health-related quality of life, and function, such as difficulty walking and using the arm. Activity limitations (decreased function) of the upper extremity are a common finding for individuals living with stroke. Mental practice (MP) is a training method that uses cognitive rehearsal of activities to improve performance of those activities. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether MP improves outcomes of upper extremity rehabilitation for individuals living with the effects of stroke. In particular, we sought to (1) determine the effects of MP on upper extremity activity, upper extremity impairment, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, economic costs, and adverse effects; and (2) explore whether effects differed according to (a) the time post stroke at which MP was delivered, (b) the dose of MP provided, or (c) the type of comparison performed. SEARCH METHODS: We last searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register on September 17, 2019. On September 3, 2019, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and REHABDATA. On October 2, 2019, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We reviewed the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult participants with stroke who had deficits in upper extremity function (called upper extremity activity). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened titles and abstracts of the citations produced by the literature search and excluded obviously irrelevant studies. We obtained the full text of all remaining studies, and both review authors then independently selected trials for inclusion. We combined studies when the review produced a minimum of two trials employing a particular intervention strategy and a common outcome. We considered the primary outcome to be the ability of the arm to be used for appropriate tasks, called upper extremity activity. Secondary outcomes included upper extremity impairment (such as quality of movement, range of motion, tone, presence of synergistic movement), activities of daily living (ADLs), health-related quality of life (HRQL), economic costs, and adverse events. We assessed risk of bias in the included studies and applied GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. We completed subgroup analyses for time since stroke, dosage of MP, type of comparison, and type of arm activity outcome measure. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 studies involving 676 participants from nine countries. For the comparison of MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment, MP in combination with other treatment appears more effective in improving upper extremity activity than the other treatment without MP (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.94; I² = 39%; 15 studies; 397 participants); the GRADE certainty of evidence score was moderate based on risk of bias for the upper extremity activity outcome. For upper extremity impairment, results were as follows: SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.87; I² = 43%; 15 studies; 397 participants, with a GRADE score of moderate, based on risk of bias. For ADLs, results were as follows: SMD 0.08, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.39; I² = 0%; 4 studies; 157 participants; the GRADE score was low due to risk of bias and small sample size. For the comparison of MP versus conventional treatment, the only outcome with available data to combine (3 studies; 50 participants) was upper extremity impairment (SMD 0.34, 95% CI -0.33 to 1.00; I² = 21%); GRADE for the impairment outcome in this comparison was low due to risk of bias and small sample size. Subgroup analyses of time post stroke, dosage of MP, or comparison type for the MP in combination with other rehabilitation treatment versus the other treatment comparison showed no differences. The secondary outcome of health-related quality of life was reported in only one study, and no study noted the outcomes of economic costs and adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence shows that MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment appears to be beneficial in improving upper extremity activity. Moderate-certainty evidence also shows that MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment appears to be beneficial in improving upper extremity impairment after stroke. Low-certainty evidence suggests that ADLs may not be improved with MP in addition to other treatment versus the other treatment. Low-certainty evidence also suggests that MP versus conventional treatment may not improve upper extremity impairment. Further study is required to evaluate effects of MP on time post stroke, the volume of MP required to affect outcomes, and whether improvement is maintained over the long term.


Assuntos
Braço , Imaginação/fisiologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Prática Psicológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paresia/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
2.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 32(1): 72-81, abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1098257

RESUMO

O campo da Saúde do Trabalhador, disposto a estudar e a intervir nos processos de saúde e doença, tem dialogado com diferentes áreas do conhecimento no intuito de melhor compreender a complexidade presente nesta interação, considerando a diversidade de fatores que podem interferir nos níveis de saúde experimentados pelas pessoas. Em meio ao crescente interesse pelo campo, se faz pertinente questionar como a ciência psicológica tem se posicionado a respeito das repercussões do trabalho sobre a mente humana. Para tanto, o presente estudo propõe identificar em que medida a atuação do psicólogo em saúde do trabalhador tem contemplado os pressupostos da abordagem psicossociológica. Através das bases de dados SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) e LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde) realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura, a fim de compilar informações que viabilizassem a síntese do estado do conhecimento da temática em questão. Foi possível identificar a necessidade de um maior investimento em termos de pesquisa e de intervenção no campo saúde do trabalhador fundamentados nos pressupostos psicossociológicos.(AU)


The field of Worker Healt, willing to study and intervene in health and disease processes, has dialogued with different areas of knowledge in order to better understand the complexity present in this interaction, considering the diversity factors that can interfere in the health levels experienced by people. Amid the growing interest in the field, it is pertinent to question how psychological science has positioned about the repercussions of work on the human mind. Therefore, this study intends to identify to what extent the psychologist in worker health has contemplated the assumptions of psychosociology approach. Through SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) and LILACS (Latino Literature American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences) databases we used an integrative literature review, in order to compile information that would enable the synthesis of the state of knowledge of the subject in question. It was possible to identify the need for greater investment in research and reasoned intervention in psychosociology assumptions of the universe of the health workers.(AU)


Assuntos
Prática Psicológica , Psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0223810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287279

RESUMO

Self-controlled practice schedules have been shown to enhance motor learning in several contexts, but their effectiveness in structural learning tasks, where the goal is to eventually learn an underlying structure or rule, is not well known. Here we examined the use of self-controlled practice in a novel control interface requiring structural learning. In addition, we examined the effect of 'nudging'-i.e., whether altering task difficulty could influence self-selected strategies, and hence facilitate learning. Participants wore four inertial measurement units (IMUs) on their upper body and the goal was to use motions of the upper body to move a screen cursor to different targets presented on the screen. The structure in this task that had to be learned was based on the fact that the signals from the IMUs were linearly mapped to the x- and y- position of the cursor. Participants (N = 62) were split into 3 groups (random, self-selected, nudge) based on whether they had control over the sequence in which they could practice the targets. To test whether participants learned the underlying structure, participants were tested both on the trained targets, as well as novel targets that were not practiced during training. Results showed that during training, the self-selected group showed shorter movement times relative to the random group, and both self-selected and nudge groups adopted a strategy of tending to repeat targets. However, in the test phase, we found no significant differences in task performance between groups, indicating that structural learning was not reliably affected by the type of practice. In addition, nudging participants by adjusting task difficulty did not show any significant benefits to overall learning. These results suggest that although self-controlled practice influenced practice structure and facilitated learning, it did not provide any additional benefits relative to practicing on a random schedule in this task.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 203: 103008, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955033

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that making two bars parallel to each other in the haptic domain results in (often) large and systematic errors. This is most likely due to the biasing influence of the egocentric reference frame. Even presenting participants with either haptic or visual information about parallelity or direct error feedback did not result in veridical performance. The present study was set up to assess to what extent haptic performance could be improved by providing combined visual and haptic practice. Thirty-two participants (sixteen females and males) used their dominant hand to make a test bar parallel to a reference bar located at the side of the non-dominant hand. Haptic sessions (in which participants were blindfolded and had to perceive parallelity using their hands) were alternated with visual sessions (in which they could physically see both bars and could also use their eyes to perceive parallelity on the test bar without feeling the reference bar) over a series of eleven sessions. Results showed that performance in the haptic condition significantly improved as an effect of visual practice. This effect was similar in both genders. While gender differences were significant in the haptic condition, with male participants outperforming female participants, this was not the case in the visual condition. However, veridical performance was not obtained in the haptic condition for each gender and deviations were significantly larger than in the visual condition, replicating earlier findings of a rather robust influence of the egocentric reference frame in haptic parallelity matching.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Prática Psicológica , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 94-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648607

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that providing learners with self-control over some aspect of practice enhances motor learning (for a review see Wulf, 2007). One explanation for the self-control effect is that learners engage in deeper information processing when they are allowed to make choices during practice. Recent research has supported this line of thinking by showing that the self-control effect was eliminated for learners who engaged in a cognitive load task during the interval following completion of discrete task trials (Carter & Ste-Marie, 2017). The current study tested the effects of imposing a cognitive load task during the completion of continuous task trials. Participants (N = 48) were divided into self-control (SC), self-control with load (SCL), and two corresponding yoked (YK, YKL) groups. Participants learned a continuous tracing task and then performed 24-hour retention and transfer tests. Retention and transfer test movement times were significantly faster for SC compared to YK participants within the No Load condition but did not differ between these participants within the Load condition. Errors were similar among all groups in retention and transfer. These results provide support for the importance of information processing in regards to the self-controlled learning benefit.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conhecimento Psicológico de Resultados , Prática Psicológica , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento , Retenção Psicológica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Transferência de Experiência , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 159-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718526

RESUMO

Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch- Römer published their research on "The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance" over 25 years ago. Since then, hundreds of new articles have been published with findings regarding the effects of practice on performance in sports. The original paper searched for conditions underpinning optimal acquisition of reproducibly superior (expert) performance in domains, where methods for producing such performance had been refined over centuries. At an elite music academy, superior music students were found to have engaged for longer periods in solitary practice guided by their music teachers - an explication of the conditions of this type of practice led to a definition of deliberate practice. When other researchers in sports started searching for optimal practice, they could not find any practice activities meeting all the criteria for "deliberate practice", yet referred to somewhat similar activities using that same term. This paper shows that the effects of these different types of practice activities on attained performance differ from those of deliberate practice and should be given different distinct names. The paper concludes with recommendations for how future research on purposeful and deliberate practice can inform, not just athletes and their coaches, but all adults about how their achievements can be improved with individualized forms of effective practice.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Prática Psicológica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Tutoria , Destreza Motora , Música/psicologia
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(1): 73-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate whether an audiovisual feedback (AVF) device is beneficial for quality retention of chest compression (CC) after repetitive practices (RP). METHODS: After completion of a 45-min CC-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, participants performed 3 sessions of practices on days 1, 3, and 7 under the guidance of an instructor with (RP + AVF) or without (RP) the AVF device. CC quality was determined after each session and was retested at 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: In total, ninety-seven third year university students participated in this study. CC quality was improved after 3 sessions in both the RP and RP + AVF groups. Retests at 3 months showed that the proportions of appropriate CC rate and correct hand position were significantly decreased in the RP group as compared with the last practice (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes in CC quality were observed in the RP + AVF group. However, the proportions of appropriate CC rate, depth, and complete recoil were significantly decreased after 12 months in both RP and RP + AVF groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in these parameters between the RP and the RP + AVF groups at 12 months after RP. CONCLUSION: With RP, the use of an AVF device further improves initial CC skill acquisition and short-term quality retention. However, long-term quality retention is not statistically different between rescuers who receive verbal human feedback only and those who receive additional AVF device feedback after RP.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Competência Clínica , Retroalimentação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manequins , Retenção Psicológica , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 405-415, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856697

RESUMO

Allowing learners to control the number of practice trials has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Lessa & Chiviacowsky, 2015; Post et al., 2011; 2014). However, it is uncertain the extent to which prior findings were influenced by the combined effects of allowing participants to control both the pacing- and amount-of-practice. The present study examined the independent effects of self-controlled amount- and pacing-of-practice on learning a sequential timing task. Participants were assigned to a self-controlled-amount-of-practice (SCA), self-controlled-pacing-of-practice (SCP), yoked-amount-of-practice (YKA), or a yoked-pacing-of-practice (YKP) group. Participants completed acquisition, immediate retention/transfer and delayed retention/transfer. During acquisition, SCA controlled the number of acquisition blocks completed with a fixed inter-trial interval while SCP controlled the inter-trial interval with a fixed number of blocks. Yoked groups were matched to a self-control counterpart so the amount (YKA) and pacing (YKP) were equivalent. Self-control groups demonstrated lower absolute constant error during immediate-retention and lower absolute constant error and variable error during delayed retention (p < .05). For intrinsic motivation, SCA scored significantly higher than SCP for the subscale Interest/Enjoyment (p < .05). Findings indicated that self-control, regardless of type, facilitated motor learning. Further work is needed to continue to examine the relationship between controlling the amount and pacing of practice on skill acquisition.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Prática Psicológica , Autocontrole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Prazer , Tempo de Reação , Retenção Psicológica , Fatores de Tempo , Transferência de Experiência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(3,n.esp): 206-221, dez. 2019-maio 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1097172

RESUMO

Desde sua emergência como um discurso científico, a Psicologia produziu diferentes descrições da diversidade sexual e de gênero, incluindo desde as abordagens mais patologizantes e estigmatizantes até aquelas criticamente e politicamente engajadas. Pesquisas denunciam posturas profissionais preconceituosas e patologizantes, de profissionais que trabalham com o intuito de 'evitar' ou 'reverter a homossexualidade e/ou consideram-na uma "falha" ou "desvio". Considerando esse contexto, esta pesquisa buscou analisar os sentidos construídos sobre diversidade sexual e sobre o trabalho de psicólogas da Atenção Básica, participantes de uma oficina para qualificação profissional sobre o trabalho com a população LGBT. A pesquisa incluiu dois encontro com um grupo de 12 psicólogas em formato de oficina, realizados nos meses de fevereiro e março de 2016, nos quais foram trabalhadas noções contemporâneas sobre gênero e sexualidade, os recursos e os desafios para a atuação profissional. Os encontros foram gravados e transcritos na íntegra. A partir da oficina, construímos múltiplos sentidos sobre diversidade sexual e sobre o trabalho com a população LGBT. Os resultados estão apresentados em dois eixos: a) do tradicional ao contemporâneo: a polivocalidade e a polifonia sobre diversidade sexual; b) da dificuldade ao compromisso: a constante inovação das práticas psicológicas. A análise destaca a multiplicidade de sentidos que atravessam o campo da produção do cuidado em Psicologia e os diferentes entendimentos que reverberam em práticas ora conservadoras e normatizadoras, ora despatologizantes...(AU)


Since its emergence as a scientific discourse, psychology has produced different descriptions of sexual and gender diversity varying from pathologizing and stigmatizing approaches to critical and politically engaged ones. Researches denounces prejudiced professional positions of professionals who work to avoid or to reverse the homosexuality or consider this like a 'failure' or 'detour'. In this context, this research analyze meanings aboutsexual diversity and psychological practice constructed by primary care services, psychologist who have participated in a workshop for professional qualification in LGBT issues. The research included two group meetings with 12 psychologists conducted in February and March of 2016, in which contemporary notions of gender and sexuality were discussed as well as resources and challenges in professional practices. The meetings were recorded and transcribed. From the workshop we have multiple meanings about sexual diversity and about the work with the LGBT population. The results are presents in two axes: a) From the traditional to contemporary: polyvocality and polyphony about sexual diversity; b) From difficulty to commitment: the constant innovation of psychological practices. The analysis highlights the multiplicity of meanings in the field of the production of care in psychology and the different understandings reverberate in practices sometimes conservatives and normatized, sometimes depathologizing...(AU)


Desde su emergencia como un discurso científico, la psicología ha producido distintas descripciones de la diversidad sexual y la de género, incluyendo desde los enfoques que patologizan y estigmatizan hasta aquellas críticamente y políticamente comprometidas. Las investigaciones denuncian posturas profesionales preconcebidas y patologizantes, de profesionales que trabajan con el propósito de 'evitar' o 'reveritr' la homosexualidade y/o la consideran una 'falla' o 'desvío'. En consideración a ese contexto, esta investigación buscó analizar los sentidos construidos sobre diversidad sexual y sobre el trabajo de psicólogas de la atención básica, participantes de un taller de cualificación profesional sobre el trabajo con la población LGBT. La búsqueda incluyó dos encuentros con un grupo de 12 psicólogas en forma de taller, en los meses de febrero y marzo de 2016, en los cuales fueron trabajadas nociones contemporáneas sobre género y sexualidad, los recursos y los desafíos para la actuación profesional. A partir de los encuentros realizados, hemos construido múltiplos sentidos sobre la diversidad sexual y sobre el trabajo con la populación LGBT. Los encuentros fueron grabados y transcritos en su totalidad. A partir del taller, construimos múltiples sentidos sobre diversidad sexual y sobre el trabajo con la población LGBT. Los resultados se apresentan en dos ejes: a) de lo tradicional al contemporáneo: la polivocalidad y la polifonía sobre diversidad sexual; b) de la dificuldad al compromiso: la constante innovación de la prácticas psicológicas. El análisis destaca la multiplicidad de sentidos que cruzan el campo de la producción del cuidado en psicología y los diferentes entendimientos reverberan en prácticas ora conservadoras y normatizadoras, ora despatologizantes...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Preconceito , Psicologia , Saúde Pública , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Diversidade de Gênero , Prática Psicológica , Prática Profissional , Homossexualidade , Sexualidade , Educação , Empatia , Identidade de Gênero , Processos Grupais , Recursos em Saúde
10.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 16(1)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863698

RESUMO

Although leadership theory is introduced in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, opportunities to practice and develop leadership skills are limited for undergraduate nursing students. This study explores the experience of advanced nursing students who provided mentoring and tutoring to beginning nursing students. The experiences they describe are interpreted in light of literature on leadership education in undergraduate nursing schools, as well as that of peer mentoring and peer teaching. These advanced students described opportunities to practice and reflect on leadership skills and attributes. Peer mentoring and peer teaching programs may be an effective and efficient way of helping nursing students gain leadership skills and experience.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Grupo Associado , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Conscientização , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Comunicação , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Resolução de Problemas , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3241-3252, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646349

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that practicing retrieval produces better memory retention compared to restudy. Though previous literature has provided valuable insights about the retrieval practice effect, it is still unclear how emotion arousal influences the retrieval practice effect, and whether the effect would be manifested in recollection or familiarity processes. To answer these questions, in the current study, negative and neutral words were used as stimuli and participants were asked to perform a recognition test or restudy the words after initial study. At the end of the experiment, a final recognition test with involving the remember-know paradigm was shown. Behavioral data were collected with EEG recorded throughout the experiment. The behavioral retrieval practice effect was only found for the neutral but not the negative words. Consistently, significant ERP differences between the restudy and retrieval practice conditions were only found for neutral, but not negative items, which was a component from 700 to 900 ms at left-posterior electrode cluster. Moreover, we found that the effects of emotion arousal on the retrieval practice effect were mainly reflected in the recollection process. These findings provide behavioral and neural evidence that emotion arousal can influence the retrieval practice effect.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614871

RESUMO

There are a limited number of studies focusing on the mechanisms explaining why variable practice gives an advantage in a novel situation and constant practice in performance in trained conditions. We hypothesized that this may be due to the different gaze behavior that is developed under different conditions. Twenty participants, randomly assigned to two different groups, practiced basketball free throws for three consecutive days, performing 100 throws per day. The constant group (n = 10) practiced at a free throw distance (4.57 m) only. The variable practice group (n = 10) randomly performed 20 shots per five throw distances (3.35, 3.96, 4.57, 5.18, and 5.79 m) on each day, also accumulating 100 shots per day. We analyzed the total gaze fixation duration, a number of fixations, and the average fixation duration on a basketball rim in a pretest and posttest at the 4.57 m distance. We computed a linear mixed model with test (pretest-posttest), group (constant-variable), and test × group interaction in order to analyze the total fixation duration and number of fixations. The average fixation duration was analyzed with a repeated measure two-way ANOVA, with practice conditions as a between-participants factor and test type as a within-participants factor. We found that the total fixation duration increased significantly in the posttest, regardless of the practice conditions (p < 0.001, effect size = 0.504). The number of fixations also increased significantly in the posttest (p = 0.037, effect size = 0.246). The average fixation duration increased in both groups; however, insignificantly. We also did not find any significant differences between groups. Our results suggest that variable and constant practice conditions may lead to the development of similar gaze behavior.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1252-1262, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570762

RESUMO

Habits are commonly conceptualized as learned associations whereby a stimulus triggers an associated response1-3. We propose that habits may be better understood as a process whereby a stimulus triggers only the preparation of a response, without necessarily triggering its initiation. Critically, this would allow a habit to exist without ever being overtly expressed, if the prepared habitual response is replaced by a goal-directed alternative before it can be initiated. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that limiting the time available for response preparation4,5 can unmask latent habits. Participants practiced a visuomotor association for 4 days, after which the association was remapped. Participants easily learned the new association but habitually expressed the original association when forced to respond rapidly (~300-600 ms). More extensive practice reduced the latency at which habitual responses were prepared, in turn increasing the likelihood of their being expressed. The time-course of habit expression was captured by a computational model in which habitual responses are automatically prepared at short latency but subsequently replaced by goal-directed responses. Our results illustrate robust habit formation in humans and show that practice affects habitual behaviour in two distinct ways: by promoting habit formation and by modulating the likelihood of habit expression.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Objetivos , Hábitos , Prática Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3109-3121, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542802

RESUMO

Although learning and adapting to visuo-motor tasks is critical to child development and health conditions requiring rehabilitation, the neural processes involved in learning a new visuo-motor task and adapting it to novel conditions such as execution with an untrained limb are not fully understood. Therefore, we trained 27 healthy, right-hand-dominant individuals aged 18-35 years to perform a multidirectional point-to-point visually rotated aiming task with a joystick during functional magnetic resonance imaging, with 13 participants learning the task with the dominant (D) and 14 with the non-dominant (ND) hand. All individuals performed the task with the trained and untrained hand before and after training. As expected, performance of both the trained and the untrained hand improved significantly over the course of task acquisition. Brain functional changes associated with adaptation to the demands of the task, and execution differed significantly between D and ND groups. In particular, the ND group showed greater recruitment of visual and motor regions (left middle occipital and left precentral gyri) than the D group during task acquisition. In addition, the D group exhibited greater recruitment of motor planning regions (left precuneus) that contribute to performance with the trained hand, even after bilateral transfer-switching from the trained to non-trained hand. The D group showed more persistence of activation in sensorimotor regions-greater activation when returning to the rotated task after a switching to a simpler, non-rotated aiming task for a short interval. Finally, the D group showed more activation after-effects-increases in simpler task activation after training on the visually rotated task. The findings suggest that brain functional changes associated with adaptation to a visuo-motor skill may differ substantially depending on whether the dominant or non-dominant hand is trained, with non-dominant-hand training associated with greater activation during acquisition, and dominant-hand training associated with greater activation during bilateral transfer, persistence, and after-effects.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 37(24): 2818-2825, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533541

RESUMO

Practice tasks that more closely represent the demands of competition are thought to augment skill learning and transfer. This study observed the serve and return performances of junior grand slam tennis and used this benchmark to evaluate the representativeness of serve and return practice among elite junior tennis players. The serve and return behaviour of 26 junior tennis players competing in junior Australian Open grand slam matches were observed and compared with the serve and return practice behaviours of 12 elite junior tennis players over an 8-week period. The variables measured included the number of serves/returns landing in, serve/return type, serve direction and the variability of practised skills. Serve and return practice contributed to <13% of total practice time, with each skill predominately practised in isolation. Compared to the matchplay benchmark, players typically had less success (i.e., fewer serves/returns landing in the court), were less variable in shot selection and hit fewer serves to the extremities of the service box. As task representativeness increased fewer differences between practice and matchplay were observed. Tennis serve and return practice could be improved by better simulating specific competition affordances, providing greater opportunities to practice serve/return tactics and/or increasing the variability of practised skills.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Prática Psicológica , Tênis , Adolescente , Comportamento Competitivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(12): 2865-2869, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519139

RESUMO

The present study aimed to ascertain whether the automaticity of a learned-cognitive process persisted after lengthy and complete cessation of practice. The musical Stroop paradigm offers the opportunity to test this specific question by evaluating the automaticity of note naming, the flexibility in manipulating practice of which is much greater than that of other cognitive automatisms like reading. Participants who previously attained a high level of musical expertise and ceased all musical practice for at least 3 years exhibited a musical Stroop effect, which attests to the automaticity of note naming. The musical Stroop effect was still observed in a subset of participants who completely ceased musical practice for more than 10 years. Our results suggest that the absence of practice, even over a very long period of time, does not eliminate the automaticity of cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Automatismo , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Música , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Teste de Stroop , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Clin Obes ; 9(6): e12339, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512398

RESUMO

Research teams have argued that some bariatric patients require psychological input pre- and post-surgery and that weight loss surgery should only be undertaken by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) that can provide psychological support. To date, no guidelines exist for the provision of psychological support pre- and post-bariatric surgery. The authors were approached by British Obesity Metabolic Surgery Society (BOMSS) in September 2017 to produce guidelines for the provision of psychological support for patients pre- and post-bariatric surgery. These guidelines were developed using seven stages: (a) review of evidence base; (b) expert input; (c) feedback from BOMSS delegates; (d) feedback from the special interest group; (e) service user feedback; (f) presentation to BOMSS council; and (g) presentation to the Association for the Study of Obesity. The guidelines describe two stepped care service models for the delivery of psychological support pre-surgery and 6 to 9 months post-surgery involving online resources, group workshops and one-to-one with a clinical psychologist. They are founded upon the following principles: (a) a living document to be modified over time; (b) flexible and pragmatic; (c) advisory not prescriptive; (d) broad based content; (e) skills based delivery. These guidelines are feasible for use across all services and should minimize patient risk and maximize patient health outcomes.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Aconselhamento , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Prática Psicológica , Reino Unido
18.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(9): 1640-1655, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464486

RESUMO

Mindset theory predicts that a growth mindset can substantially improve children's resilience to failure and enhance important outcomes such as school grades. We tested these predictions in a series of studies of 9-13-year-old Chinese children (n = 624). Study 1 closely replicated Mueller and Dweck (1998). Growth mindset manipulation was associated with performance on a moderate difficulty postfailure test (p = .049), but not with any of the 8 motivation and attribution measures used by Mueller and Dweck (1998): mean p = .48. Studies 2 and 3 included an active control to distinguish effects of mindset from other aspects of the manipulation, and included a challenging test. No effect of the classic growth mindset manipulation was found for either moderate or more difficult material in either Study 2 or Study 3 (ps = .189 to .974). Compatible with these null results, children's mindsets were unrelated to resilience to failure for either outcome measure (ps = .673 to .888). The sole exception was a significant effect in the reverse direction to prediction found in Study 2 for resilience on more difficult material (p = .007). Finally, in 2 studies relating mindset to grades across a semester in school, the predicted association of growth mindset with improved grades was not supported. Neither was there any association of children's mindsets with their grades at the start of the semester. Beliefs about the malleability of basic ability may not be related to resilience to failure or progress in school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cognição , Motivação , Prática Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 42(4): 337-343, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464811

RESUMO

Mental practice has shown some positive effects on arm and hand ability and mobility after stroke. This study's objective was to investigate the adjuvant effects of mental practice using an inverse video of the unaffected limb in subacute stroke patients with severe motor impairment on motor improvement, functional outcomes, and activities of daily living. Participants (n = 20) with severe hemiplegia after a unilateral first-ever stroke within 6 months were divided into two groups. The intervention group performed additional mental practice using an inverse video of the unaffected limb for 20 minutes before every session of their rehabilitation program. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer assessment for the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and manual function test (MFT). Assessments were performed at baseline and after 4 weeks of rehabilitation intervention. Significant differences were found from baseline to postintervention assessments within both groups on FMA-UE and FIM scores, whereas there were no statistically significant differences in mean FMA-UE, MFT, and FIM scores between groups. We cannot draw conclusions about the superiority of adjuvant mental practice training using inverse video compared with conventional occupation therapy alone in subacute poststroke patients.


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Prática Psicológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemiplegia/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
20.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(11): 2789-2798, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444537

RESUMO

Risk perception has recently been shown to reveal a mental spatial representation, with people responding faster to low-risk items on the left side, and high-risk items on the right side. Subjective risk perception has a stronger spatial representation than objective risk perception; however, both reveal small effect sizes. With risk magnitude being a new domain within spatial mapping literature, we sought to explore its nuances. Following discussion surrounding the relationship between spatial mapping and level of expertise, this study investigated the effect of training an objective risk magnitude sequence on mental spatial representations. Participants (n = 34) used their left and right hands to indicate whether eight risk stimuli were lower or higher risk than a referent activity, both before and after training. Training involved repetitively learning the objectively correct order of the same eight risk stimuli for approximately 15 min. Pre-training results demonstrated the expected spatial representations. Contrary to our predictions, the spatial representation did not get stronger post-training, but instead disappeared. Previous research has demonstrated a loss of spatial-numerical mappings with increased task load. An increase in post-training reaction times could reflect an increase in task load due to a lack of adequate knowledge of risk stimulus order; thus revealing no mental spatial representation. However, failure to find training effects highlights the flexibility of weaker spatial representations, and supports research demonstrating spatial representation flexibility.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Risco , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prática Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
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