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1.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 285-293, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation. METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in six countries (two sites in India and one site each in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by site) to receive aspirin or placebo tablets of identical appearance, via a sequence generated centrally by the data coordinating centre at Research Triangle Institute International (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Treatment was masked to research staff, health providers, and patients, and continued until 36 weeks and 7 days of gestation or delivery. The primary outcome of incidence of preterm birth, defined as the number of deliveries before 37 weeks' gestational age, was analysed in randomly assigned women with pregnancy outcomes at or after 20 weeks, according to a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) protocol. Analyses of our binary primary outcome involved a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified by site, and generalised linear models to obtain relative risk (RR) estimates and associated confidence intervals. Serious adverse events were assessed in all women who received at least one dose of drug or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02409680, and the Clinical Trial Registry-India, CTRI/2016/05/006970. FINDINGS: From March 23, 2016 to June 30, 2018, 14 361 women were screened for inclusion and 11 976 women aged 14-40 years were randomly assigned to receive low-dose aspirin (5990 women) or placebo (5986 women). 5780 women in the aspirin group and 5764 in the placebo group were evaluable for the primary outcome. Preterm birth before 37 weeks occurred in 668 (11·6%) of the women who took aspirin and 754 (13·1%) of those who took placebo (RR 0·89 [95% CI 0·81 to 0·98], p=0·012). In women taking aspirin, we also observed significant reductions in perinatal mortality (0·86 [0·73-1·00], p=0·048), fetal loss (infant death after 16 weeks' gestation and before 7 days post partum; 0·86 [0·74-1·00], p=0·039), early preterm delivery (<34 weeks; 0·75 [0·61-0·93], p=0·039), and the incidence of women who delivered before 34 weeks with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0·38 [0·17-0·85], p=0·015). Other adverse maternal and neonatal events were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In populations of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies from low-income and middle-income countries, low-dose aspirin initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of gestation and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation resulted in a reduced incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks, and reduced perinatal mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ceska Gynekol ; 84(5): 361-370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826634

RESUMO

DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Hospital Olomouc; The Institute for the Care of Mother and Child and 3rd Faculty of Medicine Charles University, Prague; G-CENTRUM Olomouc, Olomouc; Genetika Plzeň, Pilsen. Methods, results: Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystem disorder complicating pregnancy. It is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Recent studies have shown that high-risk pregnant women may benefit from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid early therapy in prevention of the development of severe forms of the disease. The risk group of pregnant women should be identified in 11-13 gestational week for effective prevention. The only procedure validated in many studies for performing PE screening with sufficient diagnostic accuracy in the first trimester of pregnancy is given by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) and has been adopted and published in a new recommendation by The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). CONCLUSION: This article summarizes the recent findings and recommendation for performing screening of preeclampsia in 1st trimester of pregnancy and how to prevent the development of severe forms of PE by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid therapy.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
3.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573669

RESUMO

MM-ARG, the Swedish maternal maternity mortality group within SFOG (Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) has, since 2008, surveyed and analysed maternal deaths in Sweden with the aim to find and give feedback on lessons learned to the medical professions.  MM-ARG consists of obstetricians, midwives and anesthetists and the strength of the working model is that the profession itself takes responsibility for the scrutiny.  A summary of 67 known maternal deaths from 2007‒2017 is presented. Direct causes of death are dominated by hypertensive disease/preeclampsia, followed by thromboembolic disease, sepsis and obstetric bleeding. Indirect death, where a known or unknown underlying disease is exacerbated by pregnancy, is dominated by cardiovascular disease. This review shows that the diagnostics and clinical management could be improved. Besides obstetrics/gynecology, maternal mortality affects other specialties and thus holds important lessons to many.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593290

RESUMO

Due to a low level of understanding of mechanisms involved in spontaneous preterm delivery there is a lack of reliable biomarkers. Existing biomarkers have a low positive predictive value but a high negative predictive value. Use of tests with high negative predictive value will reduce unnecessary interventions and hospitalization of women with threatening preterm delivery. When given to the right pregnant women, antenatal corticosteroid treatment are still the most important obstetrical intervention and reduces both neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity.Several ongoing national Swedish multicenter studies may increase the understanding of the roles of cervical length, preeclampsia screening and magnesium sulfate dosage in the context of preterm delivery in a Nordic setting. Major development has been achieved in prediction and prevention of preterm preeclampsia at the cost of a 10% screen positive rate.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Cerclagem Cervical , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Pessários , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Suécia , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011192, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy include pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, chronic hypertension, and undefined hypertension. Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low-income than in high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before, and in early pregnancy (before 20 weeks' gestation) has added benefit. Such evidence could count towards justification of population-level interventions to improve dietary calcium intake, including fortification of staple foods with calcium, especially in contexts where dietary calcium intake is known to be inadequate. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of calcium supplementation, given before or early in pregnancy and for at least the first half of pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, and fetal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (31 July 2018), PubMed (13 July 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 31 July 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCT) of calcium supplementation, including women not yet pregnant, or women in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and trials published as abstracts were eligible, but we did not identify any. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. They assessed the quality of the evidence for key outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Calcium versus placeboWe included one study (1355 women), which took place across multiple hospital sites in Argentina, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Most analyses were conducted only on 633 women from this group who were known to have conceived, or on 579 who reached 20 weeks' gestation; the trial was at moderate risk of bias due to high attrition rates pre-conception. Non-pregnant women with previous pre-eclampsia received either calcium 500 mg daily or placebo, from enrolment until 20 weeks' gestation. All participants received calcium 1.5 g daily from 20 weeks until birth.Primary outcomes: calcium supplementation commencing before conception may make little or no difference to the risk of pre-eclampsia (69/296 versus 82/283, risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.06; low-quality evidence). For pre-eclampsia or pregnancy loss or stillbirth (or both) at any gestational age, calcium may slightly reduce the risk of this composite outcome, however the 95% CI met the line of no effect (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.00; low-quality evidence). Supplementation may make little or no difference to the severe maternal morbidity and mortality index (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.26; low-quality evidence), pregnancy loss or stillbirth at any gestational age (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61 to 1,14; low-quality evidence), or caesarean section (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96 to 1,28; low-quality evidence).Calcium supplementation may make little or no difference to the following secondary outcomes: birthweight < 2500 g (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.30; low-quality evidence), preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.10), early preterm birth < 32 weeks (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.12), and pregnancy loss, stillbirth or neonatal death before discharge (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.10; low-quality evidence), no conception, gestational hypertension, gestational proteinuria, severe gestational hypertension, severe pre-eclampsia, severe pre-eclamptic complications index. There was no clear evidence on whether or not calcium might make a difference to perinatal death, or neonatal intensive care unit admission for > 24h, or both (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.60; low-quality evidence).It is unclear what impact calcium supplementation has on Apgar score < 7 at five minutes (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.21; very low-quality evidence), stillbirth, early onset pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placental abruption, intensive care unit admission > 24 hours, maternal death, hospital stay > 7 days from birth, and pregnancy loss before 20 weeks' gestation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The single included study suggested that calcium supplementation before and early in pregnancy may reduce the risk of women experiencing the composite outcome pre-eclampsia or pregnancy loss at any gestational age, but the results are inconclusive for all other outcomes for women and babies. Therefore, current evidence neither supports nor refutes the routine use of calcium supplementation before conception and in early pregnancy.To determine the overall benefit of calcium supplementation commenced before or in early pregnancy, the effects found in the study of calcium supplementation limited to the first half of pregnancy need to be added to the known benefits of calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy.Further research is needed to confirm whether initiating calcium supplementation pre- or in early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby. Research could also address the acceptability of the intervention to women, which was not covered by this review update.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480243

RESUMO

Preeclampsia, a systemic vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Maternal endothelial dysfunction caused by placental factors has long been accepted with respect to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Over the past decade, increased production of placental antiangiogenic factors has been identified as a placental factor leading to maternal endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular dysfunction. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction caused by placental antiangiogenic factors, and the novel clinical strategies based on these discoveries.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492014

RESUMO

Uncomplicated healthy pregnancy is the outcome of successful fertilization, implantation of embryos, trophoblast development and adequate placentation. Any deviation in these cascades of events may lead to complicated pregnancies such as preeclampsia (PE). The current incidence of PE is 2-8% in all pregnancies worldwide, leading to high maternal as well as perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. A number of randomized controlled clinical trials observed the association between low dose aspirin (LDA) treatment in early gestational age and significant reduction of early onset of PE in high-risk pregnant women. However, a substantial knowledge gap exists in identifying the particular mechanism of action of aspirin on placental function. It is already established that the placental-derived exosomes (PdE) are present in the maternal circulation from 6 weeks of gestation, and exosomes contain bioactive molecules such as proteins, lipids and RNA that are a "fingerprint" of their originating cells. Interestingly, levels of exosomes are higher in PE compared to normal pregnancies, and changes in the level of PdE during the first trimester may be used to classify women at risk for developing PE. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of action of LDA on placental and maternal physiological systems including the role of PdE in these phenomena. This review article will contribute to the in-depth understanding of LDA-induced PE prevention.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008873, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be needed to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2012 and then in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether vitamin D supplementation alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2018), contacted relevant organisations (15 May 2018), reference lists of retrieved trials and registries at clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (12 July 2018). Abstracts were included if they had enough information to extract the data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy in comparison to placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of trials against the inclusion criteria, ii) extracted data from included trials, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 30 trials (7033 women), excluded 60 trials, identified six as ongoing/unpublished trials and two trials are awaiting assessments.Supplementation with vitamin D alone versus placebo/no interventionA total of 22 trials involving 3725 pregnant women were included in this comparison; 19 trials were assessed as having low-to-moderate risk of bias for most domains and three trials were assessed as having high risk of bias for most domains. Supplementation with vitamin D alone during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.79; 4 trials, 499 women, moderate-certainty evidence) and gestational diabetes (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 4 trials, 446 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and probably reduces the risk of having a baby with low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; 5 trials, 697 women, moderate-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Vitamin D supplementation may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks compared to no intervention or placebo (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.30; 7 trials, 1640 women, low-certainty evidence). In terms of maternal adverse events, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.91; 1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence). There were no cases of hypercalcaemia (1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence), and we are very uncertain as to whether vitamin D increases or decreases the risk of nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; 1 trial, 135 women, very low-certainty evidence). However, given the scarcity of data in general for maternal adverse events, no firm conclusions can be drawn.Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium versus placebo/no interventionNine trials involving 1916 pregnant women were included in this comparison; three trials were assessed as having low risk of bias for allocation and blinding, four trials were assessed as having high risk of bias and two had some components having a low risk, high risk, or unclear risk. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.78; 4 trials, 1174 women, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention is uncertain on gestational diabetes (RR 0.33,% CI 0.01 to 7.84; 1 trial, 54 women, very low-certainty evidence); and low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.10 to 4.55; 2 trials, 110 women, very low-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks in comparison to women who received placebo or no intervention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.28; 5 trials, 942 women, low-certainty evidence). No trial in this comparison reported on maternal adverse events.Supplementation with vitamin D + calcium + other vitamins and minerals versus calcium + other vitamins and minerals (but no vitamin D)One trial in 1300 participants was included in this comparison; it was assessed as having low risk of bias. Pre-eclampsia was not assessed. Supplementation with vitamin D + other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.59; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence); or low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.51; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether it makes any difference to the risk of gestational diabetes (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.73) or maternal adverse events (hypercalcaemia no events; hypercalciuria RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.02 to 3.97; 1 trial, 1298 women,) because the certainty of the evidence for both outcomes was found to be very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included 30 trials (7033 women) across three separate comparisons. Our GRADE assessments ranged from moderate to very low, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and indirectness.Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D alone probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birthweight and may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. It may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation. Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and calcium probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia but may increase the risk of preterm births < 37 weeks (these findings warrant further research). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation or low birthweight (less than 2500 g). Additional rigorous high quality and larger randomised trials are required to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, particularly in relation to the risk of maternal adverse events.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
11.
Manchester; The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE); June 2019. 54 p.
Monografia em Inglês | BIGG | ID: biblio-1014955

RESUMO

This guideline covers diagnosing and managing hypertension (high blood pressure), including preeclampsia, during pregnancy, labour and birth. It also includes advice for women with hypertension who wish to conceive and women who have had a pregnancy complicated by hypertension. It aims to improve care during pregnancy, labour and birth for women and their babies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração
12.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 115, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is common in pregnant women presenting with aortic coarctation or Takayasu's arteritis. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to increased adverse maternal and neonatal events. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old gravida 2, para 1 Caucasian woman presented at 9 weeks of gestation with headaches but normal blood pressure. She had a past medical history of an in vitro fertilization pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia at 27 weeks of gestation (birth weight 1900 g) and infrarenal aortic stenosis. In the current pregnancy, she received aspirin and calcium as preeclampsia prophylaxis, remained normotensive throughout pregnancy, and was delivered by elective cesarean section at 37 weeks without complications. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates a significant chronic aortopathy in pregnancy with normal fetal growth and uterine blood flow through collateral supply from the internal mammary and epigastric arteries.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hormônios e Agentes Reguladores de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/prevenção & controle , Cesárea , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Proteinúria
13.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 16: 139-144, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056149

RESUMO

The goals of the United Nation's Millennium Summit for reducing maternal mortality have proven difficult to achieve. In Bolivia, where maternal mortality is twice the South American average, improving the diagnosis, treatment and ultimately prevention of preeclampsia is key for achieving targeted reductions. We held a workshop in La Paz, Bolivia to review recent revisions in the diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia, barriers for their implementation, and means for overcoming them. While physicians are generally aware of current recommendations, substantial barriers exist for their implementation due to geographic factors increasing disease prevalence and limiting health-care access, cultural and economic factors affecting the care provided, and infrastructure deficits impeding diagnosis and treatment. Means for overcoming such barriers include changes in the culture of health care, use of standardized diagnostic protocols, the adoption of low-cost technologies for improving the diagnosis and referral of preeclamptic cases to specialized treatment centers, training programs to foster multidisciplinary team approaches, and efforts to enhance local research capacity. While challenging, the synergistic nature of current barriers for preeclampsia diagnosis and treatment also affords opportunities for making far-reaching improvements in maternal, infant and lifelong health.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
14.
Vnitr Lek ; 65(4): 256-263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091944

RESUMO

It is well known, that number of diabetics pregnancies is raising. It is due to growing amount of women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which can easily reach the right age for pregnancy. It allows new ways of diabetes treatment, new technologies and in general better health state of this women. Displacement the pregnancy to later age, leads to gestational diabetes increasing. Especially women with pregestational diabetes are in higher risk of perinatal and diabetic complications. More than half of all pregnancies are not planned and so that often not well controlled or used inappropriate medication. Preterm deliveries, acute sectiones cesarea, eclampsia, preeclampsia or higher risk of late diabetics complications are in consequencies. The article brings the current point of view to treatment diabetic pregnancies with respect to prevent all types of complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 145 Suppl 1: 1-33, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111484

RESUMO

Pre­eclampsia (PE) is a multisystem disorder that typically affects 2%­5% of pregnant women and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially when the condition is of early onset. Globally, 76 000 women and 500 000 babies die each year from this disorder. Furthermore, women in low­resource countries are at a higher risk of developing PE compared with those in high­resource countries. Although a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of PE remains unclear, the current theory suggests a two­stage process. The first stage is caused by shallow invasion of the trophoblast, resulting in inadequate remodeling of the spiral arteries. This is presumed to lead to the second stage, which involves the maternal response to endothelial dysfunction and imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, resulting in the clinical features of the disorder. Accurate prediction and uniform prevention continue to elude us. The quest to effectively predict PE in the first trimester of pregnancy is fueled by the desire to identify women who are at high risk of developing PE, so that necessary measures can be initiated early enough to improve placentation and thus prevent or at least reduce the frequency of its occurrence. Furthermore, identification of an "at risk" group will allow tailored prenatal surveillance to anticipate and recognize the onset of the clinical syndrome and manage it promptly. PE has been previously defined as the onset of hypertension accompanied by significant proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Recently, the definition of PE has been broadened. Now the internationally agreed definition of PE is the one proposed by the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). According to the ISSHP, PE is defined as systolic blood pressure at ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at ≥90 mm Hg on at least two occasions measured 4 hours apart in previously normotensive women and is accompanied by one or more of the following new­onset conditions at or after 20 weeks of gestation: 1.Proteinuria (i.e. ≥30 mg/mol protein:creatinine ratio; ≥300 mg/24 hour; or ≥2 + dipstick); 2.Evidence of other maternal organ dysfunction, including: acute kidney injury (creatinine ≥90 µmol/L; 1 mg/dL); liver involvement (elevated transaminases, e.g. alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase >40 IU/L) with or without right upper quadrant or epigastric abdominal pain; neurological complications (e.g. eclampsia, altered mental status, blindness, stroke, clonus, severe headaches, and persistent visual scotomata); or hematological complications (thrombocytopenia­platelet count <150 000/µL, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolysis); or 3.Uteroplacental dysfunction (such as fetal growth restriction, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform analysis, or stillbirth). It is well established that a number of maternal risk factors are associated with the development of PE: advanced maternal age; nulliparity; previous history of PE; short and long interpregnancy interval; use of assisted reproductive technologies; family history of PE; obesity; Afro­Caribbean and South Asian racial origin; co­morbid medical conditions including hyperglycemia in pregnancy; pre­existing chronic hypertension; renal disease; and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. These risk factors have been described by various professional organizations for the identification of women at risk of PE; however, this approach to screening is inadequate for effective prediction of PE. PE can be subclassified into: 1.Early­onset PE (with delivery at <34+0 weeks of gestation); 2.Preterm PE (with delivery at <37+0 weeks of gestation); 3.Late­onset PE (with delivery at ≥34+0 weeks of gestation); 4.Term PE (with delivery at ≥37+0 weeks of gestation). These subclassifications are not mutually exclusive. Early­onset PE is associated with a much higher risk of short­ and long­term maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Obstetricians managing women with preterm PE are faced with the challenge of balancing the need to achieve fetal maturation in utero with the risks to the mother and fetus of continuing the pregnancy longer. These risks include progression to eclampsia, development of placental abruption and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome. On the other hand, preterm delivery is associated with higher infant mortality rates and increased morbidity resulting from small for gestational age (SGA), thrombocytopenia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cerebral palsy, and an increased risk of various chronic diseases in adult life, particularly type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Women who have experienced PE may also face additional health problems in later life, as the condition is associated with an increased risk of death from future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, renal impairment, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. The life expectancy of women who developed preterm PE is reduced on average by 10 years. There is also significant impact on the infants in the long term, such as increased risks of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and hypertension in infants born to pre­eclamptic women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) brought together international experts to discuss and evaluate current knowledge on PE and develop a document to frame the issues and suggest key actions to address the health burden posed by PE. FIGO's objectives, as outlined in this document, are: (1) To raise awareness of the links between PE and poor maternal and perinatal outcomes, as well as to the future health risks to mother and offspring, and demand a clearly defined global health agenda to tackle this issue; and (2) To create a consensus document that provides guidance for the first­trimester screening and prevention of preterm PE, and to disseminate and encourage its use. Based on high­quality evidence, the document outlines current global standards for the first­trimester screening and prevention of preterm PE, which is in line with FIGO good clinical practice advice on first trimester screening and prevention of pre­eclampsia in singleton pregnancy.1 It provides both the best and the most pragmatic recommendations according to the level of acceptability, feasibility, and ease of implementation that have the potential to produce the most significant impact in different resource settings. Suggestions are provided for a variety of different regional and resource settings based on their financial, human, and infrastructure resources, as well as for research priorities to bridge the current knowledge and evidence gap. To deal with the issue of PE, FIGO recommends the following: Public health focus: There should be greater international attention given to PE and to the links between maternal health and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on the Sustainable Developmental Goals agenda. Public health measures to increase awareness, access, affordability, and acceptance of preconception counselling, and prenatal and postnatal services for women of reproductive age should be prioritized. Greater efforts are required to raise awareness of the benefits of early prenatal visits targeted at reproductive­aged women, particularly in low­resource countries. Universal screening: All pregnant women should be screened for preterm PE during early pregnancy by the first­trimester combined test with maternal risk factors and biomarkers as a one­step procedure. The risk calculator is available free of charge at https://fetalmedicine.org/research/assess/preeclampsia. FIGO encourages all countries and its member associations to adopt and promote strategies to ensure this. The best combined test is one that includes maternal risk factors, measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum placental growth factor (PLGF), and uterine artery pulsatility index (UTPI). Where it is not possible to measure PLGF and/or UTPI, the baseline screening test should be a combination of maternal risk factors with MAP, and not maternal risk factors alone. If maternal serum pregnancy­associated plasma protein A (PAPP­A) is measured for routine first­trimester screening for fetal aneuploidies, the result can be included for PE risk assessment. Variations to the full combined test would lead to a reduction in the performance screening. A woman is considered high risk when the risk is 1 in 100 or more based on the first­trimester combined test with maternal risk factors, MAP, PLGF, and UTPI. Contingent screening: Where resources are limited, routine screening for preterm PE by maternal factors and MAP in all pregnancies and reserving measurements of PLGF and UTPI for a subgroup of the population (selected on the basis of the risk derived from screening by maternal factors and MAP) can be considered. Prophylactic measures: Following first­trimester screening for preterm PE, women identified at high risk should receive aspirin prophylaxis commencing at 11­14+6 weeks of gestation at a dose of ~150 mg to be taken every night until 36 weeks of gestation, when delivery occurs, or when PE is diagnosed. Low­dose aspirin should not be prescribed to all pregnant women. In women with low calcium intake (<800 mg/d), either calcium replacement (≤1 g elemental calcium/d) or calcium supplementation (1.5­2 g elemental calcium/d) may reduce the burden of both early­ and late­onset PE.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/classificação , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Uterina/fisiologia
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD009613, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are a number of ways of monitoring blood glucose in women with diabetes during pregnancy, with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) recommended as a key component of the management plan. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of different techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. This review is an update of a review that was first published in 2014 and subsequently updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 November 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), automated telemedicine monitoring or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also eligible for inclusion. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: This review update includes a total of 12 trials (863) women (792 women with type 1 diabetes and 152 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe, the USA and Canada. Three of the 12 included studies are at low risk of bias, eight studies are at moderate risk of bias, and one study is at high risk of bias. Four trials reported that they were provided with the continuous glucose monitors free of charge or at a reduced cost by the manufacturer.Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) versus intermittent glucose monitoring, (four studies, 609 women)CGM may reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension) (risk ratio (RR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.85; 2 studies, 384 women; low-quality evidence), although it should be noted that only two of the four relevant studies reported data for this composite outcome. Conversely, this did not translate into a clear reduction for pre-eclampsia (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.08; 4 studies, 609 women, moderate-quality evidence). There was also no clear reduction in caesarean section (average RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.18; 3 studies, 427 women; I2 = 41%; moderate-quality evidence) or large-for-gestational age (average RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.26; 3 studies, 421 women; I2 = 70%; low-quality evidence) with CGM. There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.05 to 12.61, 71 infants, 1 study; low-quality evidence), or mortality or morbidity composite (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.06; 1 study, 200 women) as the evidence was based on single studies of low quality. CGM appears to reduce neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.93; 3 studies, 428 infants). Neurosensory disability was not reported.Other methods of glucose monitoringFor the following five comparisons, self-monitoring versus a different type of self-monitoring (two studies, 43 women); self-monitoring at home versus hospitalisation (one study, 100 women), pre-prandial versus post-prandial glucose monitoring (one study, 61 women), automated telemedicine monitoring versus conventional system (three studies, 84 women), and constant CGM versus intermittent CGM (one study, 25 women), it is uncertain whether any of the interventions has any impact on any of our GRADE outcomes (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, caesarean section, large-for-gestational age) because the quality of the evidence was found to be very low. This was due to evidence largely being derived from single trials, with design limitations and limitations with imprecision (wide CIs, small sample sizes, and few events). There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality and morbidity composite. Other important outcomes, such as neurosensory disability, were not reported in any of these comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Two new studies (406 women) have been incorporated to one of the comparisons for this update. Although the evidence suggests that CGM in comparison to intermittent glucose monitoring may reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, this did not translate into a clear reduction for pre-eclampsia, and so this result should be viewed with caution. No differences were observed for other primary outcomes for this comparison. The evidence base for the effectiveness of other monitoring techniques analysed in the other five comparisons is weak and based on mainly single studies with very low-quality evidence. Additional evidence from large well-designed randomised trials is required to inform choices of other glucose monitoring techniques and to confirm the effectiveness of CGM.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Adulto , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
17.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(6): e8273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116257

RESUMO

Excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia-like phenotypes, and fetal growth restriction. Anti-inflammation might be an effective therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate whether Uncaria rhynchophylla alkaloid extract (URE), a highly safe anti-inflammation constituent of the herb, can inhibit inflammation and improve clinical characteristics of preeclampsia in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia rat model. The rat model was established by daily administration of LPS (1 µg/kg body weight per day) from gestational day (GD) 14 to 19. Different doses of URE (35, 70, and 140 mg/kg body weight per day) were administered from GD 14 to GD 19. The effects of URE on proteinuria, maternal hypertension, pregnancy outcomes, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum and placenta were measured. High-dose URE (HURE) treatment decreased LPS-induced mean 24-h proteinuria and systolic blood pressure, and increased fetal weight, placental weight, and the number of live pups (P<0.05). Moreover, increased serum and placental levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ in the LPS-treated group were obviously inhibited after HURE administration (P<0.01). URE improved preeclampsia symptoms and mitigated inflammatory responses in the LPS-induced preeclampsia rat model, which suggests that the anti-inflammation effect of URE might be an alternative therapy for preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Uncaria/química , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Ratos
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(1): 127-132, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130446

RESUMO

Although an increased risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnancies conceived after infertility treatment has been reported, it remains unknown whether preconceptional minimalisation of known risk factors would help in preventing pre-eclamsia. Obesity and preconceptional blood pressure are discussed as major risks for the development of pre-eclampsia and low doses of aspirins, folic acid, statins and metformin are discussed as potential preventive treatments to decrease the risk of pre-eclampsia. In the present review we discuss whether present-day reproductive medicine could progress towards complication-free pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/terapia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Ther ; 26(3): e364-e374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited (hereditary) thrombophilia is a genetic disorder that affects coagulation, being responsible for more than 60% of idiopathic (spontaneous or unprovoked) thromboembolic events. Association of inherited thrombophilia with pregnancy increases the risk of thromboembolic disease, and it may be related to many complications, such as preeclampsia, recurrent miscarriage intrauterine growth restriction, early detachment of placenta, and prematurity. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Interpretation of a positive test for thrombophilia in pregnant women is difficult because they have many natural changes in the coagulation system. Genetic diagnosis of thrombophilia, after a thrombotic event or during a pregnancy complication, has a major importance, not only to define its etiology but also to determine the duration of anticoagulant treatment and risk stratification for prophylaxis treatment. DATA SOURCES: Literature search was performed using electronic database (PubMed) between April 1981 and November 2018. We used different keywords and MeSH terms to generate the most relevant results related to the inherited thrombophilia and its impact on pregnancy. RESULTS: Screening for inherited thrombophilia in young women is recommended in case of personal history of venous thromboembolism, first-degree relatives with a history of high-risk thrombophilia, or personal history of second-trimester miscarriage. Decision to recommend thromboprophylaxis with anticoagulant treatment in pregnant women with inherited thrombophilia is determined by history of venous thromboembolism, type and associated risk of inherited thrombophilia, and presence of additional risk factors. Low-molecular-weight heparins are the preferred agents for prophylaxis in pregnancy, while the doses vary depending on thrombophilia type, personal history, and associated risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Association between 2 procoagulant conditions, inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy, has an important impact for the mother and fetus. This review will summarize the impact of each inherited prothrombotic factor on cardiovascular and pregnancy outcomes and will discuss the role of anticoagulation treatment for women diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Período Periparto/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
20.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 38(2): 129-139, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether calcium supplement with or without other drugs could reduce the risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension based on existed evidence, and to clarify whether there is discrepant effect among different population and using different dose. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE database were searched. Two authors independently screened all records and extracted data. The meta-analysis was performed to calculate risk ratios and 95% CIs using random-effects models. RESULTS: 27 studies, with 28 492 pregnant women were included. The results showed calcium supplement was associated with lower incidence of preeclampsia (RR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.64) and gestational hypertension (RR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82). Sub-analyses revealed high-dose (1.2-2 g/day), moderate-dose (0.6-1.2 g/day), and low-dose (<0.6 g/day) of calcium supplement could reduce the risk of preeclampsia. For gestational hypertension, only high dose and moderate dose groups were associated with reducing the risk of gestational hypertension. However, we could draw a conclusion which does group was the most protective, as we were unable to directly compare the effects of different doses. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated calcium supplementation might decrease the risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. And results of subgroups analyses enhanced our confidence to the protective effect of calcium supplementation. However, further studies with direct comparison of different dose of calcium supplementation are needed to explore the ideal dose of calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.


Assuntos
Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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