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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 525-539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480945

RESUMO

Quality of Life in Children with Down Syndrome from Parental Point of View Parents of 42 children with Down syndrome (mean age 9 years) report on their child's quality of life (physical, emotional and social domain). The KINDL-R was used as a proxy-report measure. Quality of life correlated negatively with behavioral symptoms (SDQ), but did not vary between children in mainstreamed or special schools. Regression analysis identified the child's behavioral symptoms and parental stress - assessed when the children had reached the age of five - as significant predictors of quality of life assessed four years later.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Procurador , Estresse Psicológico
2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 503-524, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480946

RESUMO

Differences in Conflict-Based Play Behavior, Socio-Emotional and Cognitive Development of Preterm Children Compared to Full-Term Children at Preschool Age Preterm children are at increased risk for socio-emotional and cognitive developmental difficulties at preschool age. This study investigates whether preterm children (n = 50) at the age of five years show different socio-emotional competencies in conflict situations and in the corresponding conflict resolution capacity in comparison to full-term children (n = 50). For this purpose, the MacArthur Story Stem Battery was used as the central examination method. In addition, parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to obtain information about the children's behavior; moreover, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition was applied to examine cognitive development. The parental reports did not reveal any behavioral differences between preterm and term children. However, significant group differences regarding their play behavior were detected. In their narratives, preterm children included content themes of interpersonal conflict and dysregulation more frequently compared to term born controls. Concerning empathic and moral themes and narrative coherence, no group difference could be detected. This could indicate that preterm children show no clinically manifest behavioral disorders at preschool age, but differences concerning intrapsychic experience compared to controls. In addition, preterm children had significantly lower IQ scores than term-born controls. Gestational age was a significant predictor of IQ and hyperactivity and attention problems. The results clarify the need for long term clinical follow up of preterm children and should be used to provide more specific care and support.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cognição , Emoções , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Escalas de Wechsler
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4742, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the induction of DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea. METHODS: The study subjects were divided into two groups: one group of 22 patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea, and a Control Group composed of 24 patients with sickle cell disease who were not treated with hydroxyurea. Peripheral blood samples were submitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation to assess genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay, in which DNA damage biomarkers - micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds - were counted. RESULTS: Patients with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 25.4 years, whereas patients with sickle cell disease not treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 17.6 years. The mean dose of hydroxyurea used by the patients was 12.8mg/kg/day, for a mean period of 44 months. The mean micronucleus frequency per 1,000 cells of 8.591±1.568 was observed in the Hydroxyurea Group and 10.040±1.003 in the Control Group. The mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges per 1,000 cells and nuclear buds per 1,000 cells for the hydroxyurea and Control Groups were 0.4545±0.1707 versus 0.5833±0.2078, and 0.8182±0.2430 versus 0.9583±0.1853, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: In the study population, patients with sickle cell disease treated with the standard dose of hydroxyurea treatment did not show evidence of DNA damage induction.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinese , Dano ao DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Registry Manag ; 46(1): 4-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As survival rates for individuals with HIV/AIDS diagnoses increase, cancer is becoming a more prevalent disease in this population. Data regarding the concurrent diagnoses of HIV/AIDS and cancer has not previously been examined and analyzed in the state of Iowa. METHODS: The Iowa Cancer Registry and Iowa Department of Public Health's HIV/AIDS surveillance databases were linked, and matches were identified. Characteristics of Iowans with HIV/AIDS later diagnosed with cancer between 1991 and 2015 were compared to Iowans without HIV/AIDS using proportional incidence ratios (PIRs). RESULTS: 490 patients met inclusion criteria; 91% had AIDS and 9% had HIV only. Compared to individuals without HIV/AIDS, significantly higher PIRs for cancer were found in younger persons, males, African Americans, metropolitan (metro) residents, and Iowans with Medicaid or the uninsured. Specifically, PIRs associated with the following cancers were higher in the population with HIV/AIDS: Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), and squamous cell neoplasms of the anus. When stratified by AIDS-defining cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers, the main differences were individuals with AIDS-defining cancers had elevated PIRs among those diagnosed between 1991-1998 and had Kaposi sarcoma or Burkitt lymphoma, while those with non-AIDS-defining cancers were diagnosed between 2007-2015 and were diagnosed with anal, male or female genital, lymphoma other than NHL, liver, lung, or other squamous cell neoplasm cancers. When comparing nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) vs metro Iowans with HIV/AIDS, PIRs for nonmetro patients were elevated in those diagnosed with cancer between 50-59 years old, whites, and individuals diagnosed with squamous cell neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate Iowans with HIV/AIDS have higher proportions of certain types of cancers compared to the general population and provide baseline information for future initiatives aimed at preventing or detecting cancer among those living with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 48(9): 710-714, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495092

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 25 pediatric ARMS from 2008 to 2018 in Children's Hospital of Fudan University were collected. This histomorphology was assessed, and FOXO1 gene rearrangement was detected with FISH. The treatment details and outcome were analyzed. Results: There were 13 males and 12 females, with ages range from 19 days to 14 years (median 6 years, mean 6.2 years). The ARMS were located in the limbs (13 cases), head and neck (4 cases), trunk (3 cases), abdominal cavity (3 cases), scrotum (1 case) and perianal region (1 case). The ARMS were classified histologically as classic group (18 cases), solid group (5 cases) and embryonic-alveolar mixed group (2 cases). The typical pathological characteristics were small dark round cells arranged in solid, glandular and papillary patterns. The tumor cells expressed ALK (D5F3) (21/25, 84.0%), muscle origin DES (23/25, 92.0%), myogenin (22/25, 88.0%), MYOD1 (19/25, 76.0%), and in some cases they also expressed neurogenic marker Syn (6/25, 24.0%). FOXO1 gene rearrangement was detected by FISH in 24/25 cases (96.0%). Conclusion: Pediatric ARMS is rare and has unique clinicopathological characteristics, and needs to be differentiated from other common small round cell malignancies in children. ALK, DES, myogenin, MYOD1 immunohistochemistry and FOXO1 gene rearrangement are valuable aid in the diagnosis of ARMS.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Miogenina , Prognóstico
6.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 633-638, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495128

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the therapeutic effect of a modified LMB89 Group C regimen in the treatment of pediatric high-risk Burkitt lymphoma. Methods: The clinical data of 172 children with newly diagnosed high-risk Burkitt lymphoma from January 2007 to April 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases were treated with the modified LMB89 Group C regimen. Results: The median age of the patients was 6 (1-14) years. The sex ratio was 5.1∶1, 144 boys (83.7%) and 28 girls (16.3%) . According to St. Jude staging classification, 2 patients (1.2%) were in stage Ⅱ, 54 (31.4%) in stage Ⅲ and 116 (67.4%) in stage Ⅳ. Of them, 46 patients (26.7%) had mature B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) , and 52 patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement. According to risk group, the patients can be divided into group C1 (CNS1, without testicles/ovaries involvement, n=65) , group C2 (CNS2, testicles/ovaries involvement, n=55) and group C3 (CNS3, n=52) . A total of 145 patients received rituximab combined with chemotherapy during the treatment, 10 patients suffered from progressive disease and died, and 5 patients relapsed. Treatment-related mortality was 2.9%. With a median follow-up of 36.0 (0.5-119.0) months, 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was (88.9±2.4) % and event free survival (EFS) rate was (87.9±2.6) % for all patients. 3-year EFS rates were (96.9±2.1) %, (90.9±3.9) % and (73.4±6.5) % for Group C1, C2 and C3 respectively, and that of Group C3 was significantly lower than that of Group C1 (χ(2)=12.939, P=0.001) and Group C2 (χ(2)=6.302, P=0.036) . The 3-year EFS rates were (79.3±6.8) % and (44.4±16.6) % for patients in group C3 treated with chemotherapy combined with rituximab and chemotherapy alone (χ(2)=5.972, P=0.015) . Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that Stage Ⅳ (including B-ALL) , residual diseases in mid-term evaluation were independent unfavorable prognostic factors[HR=4.241 (95%CI 1.163-27.332) , P=0.026; HR=32.184 (95%CI 11.441-99.996) , P<0.001]. Conclusions: The modified LMB89 Group C regimen has ideal effect for the children with high-risk Burkitt lymphoma.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Burkitt , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 493-496, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479606

RESUMO

The aim of the work was to comparison of rayon and flocked swabs for collection and transport of deep throat swabs for detection of bacteria causing whooping cough by multiplex real-time PCR assay. The study included 87 patients aged from 1 month to 37 years, hospitalized in Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital No. 1 of the Moscow Department of Healthcare. 68 (78,2 %) people had a diagnosis of whooping cough, the main group of which consisted of children aged 1 to 12 months (median 4 months); 17 (19,5 %) - other diseases of the respiratory tract; 2 (2,3 %) - contact with sick whooping cough. The initial examination of patients was carried out on the 1 - 8th week of the onset of the disease. The material from the patients was taken at one-day interval with commercial rayon swabs and flocked swabs. Identification and differentiation of specific genome fragments of the causative agents of whooping cough in biological material was carried out by real-time PCR using the «AmpliSens® Bordetella multi-FL¼ reagent kit. The efficiency of PCR-based diagnostics of whooping cough using flocked swabs at the preanalytical stage was 83,8 %, and rayon swabs - 82,3 %. The use of a flocked swabs at the preanalytical stage increased the research efficiency by 1,5 %. Thus, when collecting biological material for PCR-based diagnostics of whooping cough it is possible to use flocked swabs.


Assuntos
Celulose , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Moscou , Faringe , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(2): 69-72, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015988

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar el uso de los micronutrientes y grado de anemia en niños menores de 3 años atendidos en un Centro de Salud de Ica 2017. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue cuantitativo, de tipo descriptivo, y transversal, la muestra estuvo conformada por 40 niños menores de tres años con sus respectivas madres, la técnica que se utilizó fue la observación y el análisis documental. Resultados: En relación a los datos generales de la madre, el 47.5% (19) tienen 19 a 34 años, el 50% (20) tienen instrucción superior, el 40% (16) son solteras y el 57.5% (23) trabaja fuera de casa; sobre los datos del niño, el 55% (22) tienen de 6 a 12 meses, el 72.5% (29) recibió solo lactancia materna hasta los seis meses y el 100% (40) inició la alimentación complementaria a los 6 meses. El uso de micronutrientes es adecuado en el 82.5% (33) de las madres y es inadecuado en el 17.5% (07). Según valores de hemoglobina, el 62.5% (25) de los niños no presentan anemia, el 37.5% (15) presentan anemia leve, no encontrando niños con anemia moderada ni anemia severa. Conclusiones: El uso de micronutrientes que administran las madres a sus niños es adecuado y los niños no presentan anemia en su mayoría, existiendo porcentajes menores de niños con anemia leve por lo que se sugiere que se continúe con el abastecimiento continuo de los micronutrientes realizando campañas educativas a fin de comprometer a las madres en la administración correcta de los micronutrientes en sus menores hijos aprovechando los momentos de contacto con las madres para la educación respectiva en las sala de espera, durante sus controles de inmunizaciones, controles CRED, y realizar un monitoreo periódico del control de hemoglobina. (AU)


Objective: To determine the use of micronutrients and the degree of anemia in children under 3 years of age served in an Ica Health Center 2017. Materials and methods: The study was quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional, the sample consisted of 40 children under three years with their respective mothers, the technique used was observation and documentary analysis. Results: In relation to the general data of the mother, 47.5% (19) are 19 to 34 years old, 50% (20) have higher education, 40% (16) are single and 57.5% (23) work ; On the data of the child, 55% (22) have from 6 to 12 months, 72.5% (29) received only breastfeeding until six months and 100% (40) started complementary feeding at 6 months. The use of micronutrients is adequate in 82.5% (33) of mothers and is inadequate in 17.5% (07). According to hemoglobin values, 62.5% (25) of the children do not have anemia, 37.5% (15) have mild anemia, and there are no children with moderate anemia or severe anemia. Conclusions: The use of micronutrients administered by mothers to their children is mostly adequate and children do not have anemia in their majority. There are smaller percentages of children with mild anemia, so it is suggested that continuous supply of the micronutrients conducting educational campaigns in order to engage mothers in the correct administration of micronutrients in their younger children, taking advantage of the moments of contact with mothers for the respective education in the waiting room, during their immunization controls, CRED controls, and perform periodic monitoring of hemoglobin control. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Anemia , Análise Quantitativa , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 407-419, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: A total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P = 0.19) and by 180 days in 35 (4.5%) and 47 (6.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.15), without evidence of interaction with other randomizations (P>0.20) or evidence of between-group differences in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.9 days longer in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes over 6 months between the children who received immediate transfusion and those who did not. The triggered-transfusion strategy in the control group resulted in lower blood use; however, the length of hospital stay was longer, and this strategy required clinical and hemoglobin monitoring. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 420-431, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P = 0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ Open ; 7(1): [10], Aug. 28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG | ID: biblio-1010328

RESUMO

To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of oral mucositis in children (0-18 years) receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Mucositis Prevention Guideline Development Group was interdisciplinary and included internationally recognised experts in paediatric mucositis. For the evidence review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in either children or adults evaluating the following interventions selected according to prespecified criteria: cryotherapy, low level light therapy (LLLT) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We also examined RCTs of any intervention conducted in children. For all systematic reviews, we synthesised the occurrence of severe oral mucositis. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to describe quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. We suggest cryotherapy or LLLT may be offered to cooperative children receiving chemotherapy or HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of mucositis. We also suggest KGF may be offered to children receiving HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of severe mucositis. However, KGF use merits caution as there is a lack of efficacy and toxicity data in children, and a lack of long-term follow-up data in paediatric cancers. No other interventions were recommended for oral mucositis prevention in children. All three specific interventions evaluated in this clinical practice guideline were associated with a weak recommendation for use. There may be important organisational and cost barriers to the adoption of LLLT and KGF. Considerations for implementation and key research gaps are highlighted.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Fototerapia/métodos , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Doenças Faríngeas/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mucosite , Neoplasias/terapia
13.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 700-707, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405411

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for hospital readmission for child maltreatment after trauma, including admissions across different hospitals nationwide. The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients younger than 18 years admitted for trauma. The primary outcome was readmission for child maltreatment. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment presenting to a hospital different than the index admission hospital. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. There were 608,744 admissions identified and 44,569 (7.32%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Readmission for maltreatment was found in 1,948 (0.32%) patients and 368 (18.89%) presented to a different hospital. The highest risk for readmission for maltreatment was found in patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission (odds ratios (OR) 9.48 [8.35-10.76]). The strongest risk factor for presentation to a different hospital was found with the lowest median household income quartile (OR 3.50 [2.63-4.67]). The subgroup analysis identified 647 (0.11%) children with readmission for maltreatment that was missed during the index admission. The strongest risk factor for this outcome was Injury Severity Score > 15 (OR 3.29 [2.68-4.03]). This study demonstrates that a significant portion of admissions for trauma in children and teenagers could be misrepresented as not involving maltreatment. These index admissions could be the only chance for intervention for child maltreatment. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 730-732, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405417

RESUMO

There is an absence of literature regarding nasoorbitoethmoid (NOE) facial fractures. Although NOE fractures are uncommon, there are a significant number in the pediatric population. These fractures also often occur in conjunction with other facial fractures because the NOE region adjoins the nose, orbit, maxilla, and cranium. They can also be a harbinger for more serious concerns such as traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage. For this reason, NOE fractures can be highly complicated and a challenge to manage. We aim to define the etiologies and patterns of NOE fractures to guide hospital and surgical management strategies. From 2001 to 2014, 15 pediatric patients were identified as having sustained an NOE fracture. Four (26.7%) of the patients were female and 11 (68.8%) were male. Average age was 11.40. The most common etiologies recorded were motor vehicle accident (n = 8), pedestrian struck (n = 3), and assault (n = 2). Orbital fracture (n = 13), nasal fracture (n = 13), and frontal sinus fracture (n = 10) were the most commonly associated facial fractures sustained alongside NOE fracture. Several patients sustained traumatic brain injury (n = 11) and loss of consciousness (n = 13). The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 10.5. In addition, eight required intubation and five required a surgical airway. Thirteen of the patients were admitted to the ICU and eight required surgical management for their fractures. Titanium plates were most commonly used (n = 4) for surgical management. Alternatively, resorbable implants were used for two patients. The remaining two were treated with closed reduction.


Assuntos
Osso Etmoide , Ossos Faciais/lesões , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Osso Nasal/lesões , Fraturas Orbitárias , Fraturas Cranianas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Osso Etmoide/lesões , Osso Etmoide/cirurgia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Fraturas Orbitárias/etiologia , Fraturas Orbitárias/cirurgia , Fraturas Cranianas/etiologia , Fraturas Cranianas/cirurgia , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 752-756, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405422

RESUMO

To characterize both emergency room (ER) and hospital discharge dispositions of patients presenting with farm-related injuries. The 2012 National Trauma Data Bank was queried in August 2017 for injuries occurring on a farm. Patients were stratified by gender, age group, race, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and injury type. We performed logistic regression analysis to correlate parameters with likelihood of discharge home or death. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Five thousand six hundred thirty-one patients were identified, the majority of whom were male (72%) and white (85%). The most common mechanisms of injury included animal-related (29%), followed by falls, vehicles, and other causes. The highest ISSs were seen in vehicular injuries (11% ISS of 25+) and the greatest fatality rate was seen in machinery injuries (4%). Four thousand seven hundred fifty-three (84%) patients were admitted to the hospital, and 4056 (72%) were discharged home from the ER or after hospitalization. One hundred thirty patients (2%) died of their farm-related injury. Most patients presenting to the ER with farm-related injuries survive, are admitted to the hospital, and are ultimately discharged home. Few patients die of their injuries. Animal injury is most common and machinery injury most lethal of farm trauma patients presenting to the ER.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendas , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384349

RESUMO

Introduction: A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of April to October 2015, to determine the effects of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) on nutritional status of school age children in Owerri and Orlu geographical zones, in Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: Faecal samples were examined using Kato Katz method and formol-ether concentration techniques, while blood samples were examined using cyamethahaemoglobin method. Anthropometric indices were used as indicators of nutritional status, children whose Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age and Weight-for-Height were <-2 standard deviation (SD) were classified as stunted, wasted, and underweight respectively. Results: Total prevalence rate of 16.6% was recorded in the study areas with Ascaris lumbricoides (4.0%), Trichuris trichiura (0.6%), Hookworm (1.0%) Taenia sp (0.3%), Entaomeba histolytica (5.3%), Entamoeba coli (2.7%) and Giardia lambia (2.7) Majority (73.4%) of the children had light intensity. Anthropometric study results showed that 79(31.3%) of the children were malnourished. The prevalence of stunting, under-weight and wasting were higher in uninfected (86.1%, 90.0% and 10%) respectively than in infected children (13.9%, 10.0% and 0.0%) respectively, although not significant at p = 0.857, 0.587 and 0.368 respectively. Prevalence of anaemia was 17.4%, anaemia was insignificantly (p = 0.09) higher in infected (21.1%) than in uninfected (16.5%) children. Children that had co-infection recorded higher prevalence (2.2%) of severe anaemia. There was an association (p = 0.002) between anaemia and intensity of helminth infection. Malnutrition was insignificantly (p = 0.319) higher in children with heavy (100.0%) and moderate (75.0%) intensity of helminth infection than children that had light intensity (41.7%) of helminth infection. Conclusion: When compared with previous study, there were decline in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among school age children. Low intensity parasitemia with intestinal parasites had no significant effect on the malnutrition and haemoglobin profile of the children in the study areas. Therefore, improved sanitation and more deworming efforts should be intensified to ensure further decline in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Anemia/parasitologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/parasitologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/parasitologia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384358

RESUMO

Carpopedal spasm have various causes ranging from dsyselecrolytemia, syndromic, metabolic or endocrine causes. Any of these could cause a decrease in ionized calcium and tetany. Excessive vomiting leading to alkalosis, hypokaleamia and decreased ionised calcium should be kept in mind for early etiological diagnosis of carpopedal spasm. We report a case of 4-year-old boy presenting with a history of recurrent painful spasm and flexion of bilateral hands following excessive vomiting and electrolyte derangement.


Assuntos
Espasmo/etiologia , Vômito/complicações , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/etiologia
18.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411312

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Enterovirus Humano C/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Idoso , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus Humano C/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 729-733, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437144

RESUMO

Since October 2016, Afghanistan and Pakistan have been the only countries with reported cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (1). In Afghanistan, although the number of cases had declined during 2013-2016, the polio eradication program experienced challenges during 2017-2019. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2018-May 2019 and updates previous reports (2,3). During May-December 2018, insurgent groups (antigovernment elements) banned house-to-house vaccination in most southern and southeastern provinces, leaving approximately 1 million children inaccessible to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administration. During January-April 2019, vaccination targeting children at designated community sites (site-to-site vaccination) was permitted; however, at the end of April 2019, vaccination campaigns were banned nationally. During 2018, a total of 21 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 during 2017. During January-May 2019, 10 WPV1 cases were reported (as of May 31), compared with eight during January-May 2018. Sewage sample-testing takes place at 20 sites in the highest-risk areas for poliovirus circulation; 17 have detected WPV1 since January 2017, primarily in the southern and eastern provinces. Continued discussion with antigovernment elements to resume house-to-house campaigns is important to achieving polio eradication in Afghanistan. To increase community support for vaccination, collaboration among humanitarian service agencies to address other urgent health and basic needs is critical.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/legislação & jurisprudência , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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