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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20287, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481309

RESUMO

Unhealthy lifestyle contributes mainly to an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases tend to increase in Malaysia. These diseases lead to an increased risk of end organ damage and cardiovascular complications. In this study, the prevalence of prehypertension and its associated risk factors among a cohort of university students in Sabah was determined.This is a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted among 365 undergraduate students irrespective of faculties at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Standardized and validated World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data. Additionally, clinical and anthropometric data were measured and recorded by a trained staff, followed by descriptive and logistic regression analyses.A total of 365 UMS undergraduate students aged 18 years and above participated in the study. The prevalence of prehypertension among university students was high (31%) (95% CI [29.1%, 34.3%]). Well-known risk factors for hypertension including family history of hypertension, reduced sleep duration, reduced physical activity, smoking, being overweight or obese were significantly associated with the risk of developing prehypertension (P < .05) among UMS students. However, no association was observed between ethnicity, age, and gender with prehypertension.A worryingly high percentage of UMS students are prehypertensive, indicating the need of early preventive strategies aimed at increasing awareness, early screening, and lifestyle modification to reduce the rising burden of the disease and the associated complications in this age group.


Assuntos
Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 281, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality globally. African countries, including Kenya, have a high and rising prevalence of hypertension. Prehypertension is associated with an increased risk of progression to overt hypertension and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Despite this, little is documented on the prevalence and distribution of prehypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to estimate the overall burden of prehypertension in Kenyan adults enrolled in a large hypertension control programme, Healthy Heart Africa. The distribution and determinants of prehypertension in the sample were explored as secondary objectives. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from population-level blood pressure (BP) screening of adults aged ≥18 years in the community and ambulatory care facilities in 17/47 sub-national administrative units in Kenya. All participants with a complete record for systolic and diastolic BP were included. Descriptive analyses were performed for sociodemographic characteristics. Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess differences in categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with prehypertension. RESULTS: Of 5,985,185 participant records that were included in the analysis, 34% were men (mean age: 45 [SD 2.9] years). The majority (63%) lived in rural Kenya. The prevalence of prehypertension was 54.5% and that of hypertension was 20.8%. Characteristics that were independently associated with prehypertension (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) included male sex (1.23 [±0.0023], p <  0.001 for all age groups > 25 years) and rural residence (1.60 [±0.023], p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in every two Kenyan adults has prehypertension. This calls for urgent development and roll-out of a national BP screening and control programme. It also provides a strong basis for the formulation of multisectoral national policies that will ensure implementation of evidence-based, low-cost public health interventions geared towards primary prevention of hypertension, especially in population groups that are traditionally considered at low risk, such as young adults and rural residents.


Assuntos
Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 75(6): 365-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early intervention of coexisting prediabetes (PreDM) and prehypertension (PreHTN) has great significance for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the influencing factors of the coexisting PreDM and PreHTN has been widely concerned by human beings. The State Grid Corporation occupational population as a special group, who are often exposed to a certain amount of voltage. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to a certain level of voltage can cause cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to explore the risk factors of coexisting PreDM and PreHTN, and to provide theoretical basis for early intervention. METHODS: A stratified random sampling method was used to randomly select Occupational population from the five power supply regions of China in 2012 for questionnaire surveys and clinical examinations. Respondents were divided into Normal blood glucose group, PreDM group, Diabetes group, Normal blood pressure group, PreHTN group, Hypertension group. RESULTS: The prevalence of coexisting PreDM and PreHTN in the study population was 1.9%. The binary Logistic regression results showed that region, gender, age, BMI, triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were the effects of factor coexisting PreDM and PreHTN. CONCLUSION: It is important to pay attention to the early stage of hypertension and diabetes, control the transition from PreHTN and PreDM to hypertension and diabetes, and improve the health of Power Supply Enterprise Population.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores de Risco
4.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 42(1): 8-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563368

RESUMO

Background: Fast resting heart rate (RHR) is easily neglected in clinical practice of hypertension treatment.Aims: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of fast RHR and associated factors in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in China. A total of 6763 hypertensive patients and 2807 age and sex-matched normotensive subjects with complete data on resting electrocardiogram and medical history were included. Fast RHR was defined as RHR > 85 bpm.Results: The prevalence of fast RHR was higher in hypertensive patients as compared with the normotensives (14.4% vs 7.1%, P < 0.01). In both hypertensive and normotensive subjects, fast RHR appeared as a "U-type" distribution as aging and a "inverted J type" trend as body mass index (BMI) increasing. Multivariate regression analysis showed that fast RHR was associated with age >65 or <25 years old (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61), BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (OR = 2.94, 95%CI 1.47-5.87) and hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.10-1.53) in hypertensive patients. Fast RHR in the normotensives was associated with female (OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.27-2.48), pre-hypertensive state (OR = 2.38, 95%CI 1.61-3.52), and rural area origin (OR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.01-2.42). Stroke and diabetes conferred closer relevance to fast RHR in both hypertensive (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69 and OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.60-3.21) and normotensive individuals (OR = 2.67, 95%CI 1.36-5.21 and OR = 2.77, 95%CI 1.47-5.23).Conclusion: Fast RHR might be common in patients with hypertension. Prior stroke and diabetes history is common associated with fast RHR. Other factors associated with fast RHR seem to be different between hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects.Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; CI: Confidence Interval; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; ECG: electrocardiogram; OR: odd ratio; RHR: resting heart rate; SBP: systolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Descanso/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(6): 460-466, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766956

RESUMO

Background: A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) are used to quantify body shape for adults. However, only a few studies have been conducted confirming whether ABSI or BAI is a better index for predicating hypertension and pre-hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents.Aim: To estimate scaling exponents for using ABSI with Chinese children and adolescents, comparing body shape indices used for predicting hypertension and pre-hypertension and determine which obesity indices can serve as predictors.Subjects and methods: Data from children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in the 2011 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey were analysed. Partial correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristics analysis were applied.Results: The area under curve (AUC) values for all the predictors are better for differentiating hypertension than pre-hypertension. Body Mass Index (BMI) gave the largest AUC in both children and adolescents. ABSI and ABSI-(C) (ABSI for Chinese children and adolescents) were unable to differentiate hypertension or pre-hypertension in the population. BAI could only differentiate pre-hypertension in girls aged 7-12 years (AUC = 0.353, p < 0.05).Conclusion: ABSI, ABSI-(C) and BAI are not more associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension than BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in Chinese children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Tamanho Corporal , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Curva ROC
6.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 30(5): 258-261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest a strong relationship between obesity and hypertension. This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension in 10- to 14-year-old boys and girls in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and to determine the association between blood pressure parameters and selected measures of adiposity. METHODS: A cross-sectional, school-based study of 540 10- to14-year-old children from seven schools in the Eastern Cape Province was carried out. Anthropometry and blood pressure parameters were determined. RESULTS: All measures of adiposity and blood pressure were significantly higher in the girls (p < 0.05). The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was over 20 and 12%, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were associated (r > 0.27; p < 0.05) with increasing levels of adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of weight-control strategies for the prevention of hypertension in these adolescents and later on in life.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1323-1329, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few population-based studies conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean region assessed salt intake by the measurement of 24-h sodium urine excretion (24-hUNa). The current study aimed to assess the trend of mean salt intake in Iranian adults between 1998 and 2013. METHODS AND RESULTS: These cross-sectional studies were performed on 564, 157, 509 and 837 randomly selected healthy adults aged >18 years from Isfahan city, Iran, in 1998, 2001, 2007 and 2013, respectively. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer according to a standard protocol. Single 24-h urine was collected to assess 24-hUNa as a surrogate of salt intake, and 24-h urinary K (24-hUK). The estimated trend of salt intake was 9.5, 9.7, 9.6 and 10.2 g/day in total population (P < 0.001). The increase in salt intake between 1998 and 2013 was significant only in men, (P < 0.001). The risk of pre-hypertension was 21% and 18% significantly greater in the highest quartiles of UNa/UK after adjustment for potential confounders in 2001 and 2013, respectively, [OR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.03-1.64) and 1.18 (1.02-1.38), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study indicated that mean salt intake was about two times of recommendation in Isfahan city, Iran, and suggest that it would be essential to implement a salt reduction strategy program in Iranian population. Longitudinal national studies with larger samples examining the trend of salt intake are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/urina , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/urina , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hypertension ; 74(5): e45-e51, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522617

RESUMO

Hypertension and obesity are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear whether uncontrolled, long-standing hypertension has a particularly profound effect on AF. Because they have a similar underlying pathophysiology, hypertension and obesity could act synergistically in the context of AF. We evaluated how various stages of hypertension and body weight status affect new-onset AF. We analyzed a total of 9 797 418 participants who underwent a national health checkup. Hypertension was classified into 5 stages: nonhypertension, prehypertension, hypertension without medication, hypertension with medication <5 years, and hypertension with medication ≥5 years. The participants were also stratified based on body mass index and waist circumference. During the 80 130 161 person×years follow-up, a total of 196 136 new-onset AF cases occurred. The incidence of new-onset AF gradually increased among the 5 stages of hypertension: the adjusted hazard ratio for each group was 1 (reference), 1.145, 1.390, 1.853, and 2.344 for each stage of hypertension. A graded escalation in the risk of new-onset AF was also observed in response to increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The incidence of new-onset AF correlated with body mass index and waist circumference, with obese people having a higher risk than others. Hypertension and obesity acted synergistically: obese people with hypertension on medication ≥5 years had the highest risk of AF. In conclusion, the degree and duration of hypertension, as well as the presence of hypertension, were important factors for new-onset AF. Body weight status was significantly associated with new-onset AF and acted synergistically with hypertension.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1140-1146, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417059

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension among adolescents is an emerging public health problem. The current study aims to estimate the burden of hypertension and identify its risk factors among male adolescents of intermediate and secondary schools. Subjects and Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study that targeted 400 male adolescents in the age group of 15-17 years. Blood pressure was defined as per the "Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". An electronic device approved for use by the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, (Omron M3W; HEM-7202-E) was used for measuring blood pressure. CDC's body mass index tool was adopted for defining overweight and obesity. Descriptive analysis for hypertension and the risk factors were carried out. Chi-square test and odds ratios were calculated to assess any association between categorical variables. Results: Overall 36 (9.0%) adolescents had prehypertension and 69 (17.2%) had hypertension. Systolic prehypertension, systolic hypertension, diastolic prehypertension, and diastolic hypertension were present in 6.5%, 17.2%, 5.8%, and 9.0% of the adolescents, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed that overweight and obesity, no physical activity, or once-a-week physical activity, positive family history of hypertension, and smoking were predictors of systolic prehypertension and showed a significant relationship with systolic hypertension. Conclusion: There is a considerable prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, among school-going male adolescents. We recommend school-based health education programs and routine screening directed toward the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases like hypertension with special attention to obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002889, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between breastfeeding and later childhood obesity and blood pressure (BP) is inconsistent, especially in HIV-prevalent areas where, until recently, HIV-infected women were discouraged from breastfeeding, but obesity is increasingly prevalent. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Siyakhula cohort (2012-2014), a population-based prospective cohort study, collected data over 3 visits on HIV-negative children ages 7 to 11 years in rural South Africa. We used weight (body mass index [BMI]), fat, and BP as outcome variables and incorporated early life (including mother's age at delivery and HIV status) and current life factors (including maternal education and current BMI). Our primary exposure was breastfeeding duration. We dichotomized 3 outcome measures using pre-established thresholds for clinical interpretability: (1) overfat: ≥85th percentile of body fat; (2) overweight: >1 SD BMI z score; and (3) prehypertension: ≥90th percentile for systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP). We modelled each outcome using multivariable logistic regression, including stopping breastfeeding, then early life, and finally current life factors. Of 1,536 children (mean age = 9.3 years; 872 girls; 664 boys), 7% were overfat, 13.2% overweight, and 9.1% prehypertensive. Over half (60%) of the mothers reported continued breastfeeding for 12+ months. In multivariable analyses, continued breastfeeding between 6 and 11 months was associated with approximately halved odds of both being overfat (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.91, P = 0.027) and overweight (aOR = 0.46, CI 0.26-0.82, P = 0.0083), but the association with prehypertension did not reach statistical significance (aOR = 0.72, CI 0.38-1.37, P = 0.32). Children with a mother who was currently obese were 5 times more likely (aOR = 5.02, CI 2.47-10.20, P < 0.001) to be overfat and over 4 times more likely to be overweight (aOR = 4.33, CI 2.65-7.09, P < 0.001) than children with normal weight mothers. Differences between HIV-exposed and unexposed children on any of the outcomes were minimal and not significant. The main study limitation was that duration of breastfeeding was based on maternal recall. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study examining and quantifying the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity in an African setting with high HIV prevalence. We observed that breastfeeding was independently associated with reduced childhood obesity for both HIV-exposed and unexposed children, suggesting that promoting optimal nutrition throughout the life course, starting with continued breastfeeding, may be critical to tackling the growing obesity epidemic. In the era of widespread effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected women for life, these data further support the recommendation of breastfeeding for all women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 991, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a common risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. However, there has been no study reporting the relationship between hs-CRP and blood pressure in Yi adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between hs-CRP and blood pressure in Yi adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, included subjects were 2916 Yi migrants or farmers aged 20-80 years, recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method from Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province in 2014. The directed acyclic graphs(DAG) was used to select a minimal sufficient adjustment sets of variables which would identification the unconfounded effect of hs-CRP and hypertension. Multiple linear and multinomial logit analysis were used to estimate the effect of hs-CRP on SBP/DBP/MAP/PP and the prevalence of prehypertension/hypertension after adjustment for the relevant confounders. RESULTS: The median level of hs-CRP was 1.20 (0.50-3.06)mg/L in Yi migrants, and 0.84(0.36-2.52) mg/L in Yi farmers, and the prevalence of high hs-CRP was 23.25%. For hs-CRP > 3 mg/L group, the adjusted PP tended to have lower values (ß = - 1.49, 95%CI: - 2.49--0.49, P = 0.0034) compared with < 1 mg/L group. After adjusting for confounders, there were no significant association between hs-CRP and prehypertension/hypertension (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that high hs-CRP is prevalent in Yi people, and this study does not support hs-CRP as a risk factor of prehypertension or hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1764079, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179316

RESUMO

Background: Prehypertension has been shown to increase future risk of hypertension. Some demographic and lifestyle characteristics have been implicated to increase the risk of development of prehypertension. Yet, there is paucity of data on the current prevalence of prehypertension and its associated risk factors in Ghana. This study evaluated the prevalence of prehypertension and examined the demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with prehypertension among apparently healthy Ghanaian adults in Kumasi. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from March to April, 2018, in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 204 participants (80 males, 124 females, 25 years and above) who reported not diagnosed of hypertension and not on any antihypertensive medication were included in the study. Validated questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of study participants. Height and weight of each respondent were measured and their corresponding Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an automated blood pressure apparatus from the right arm. Prehypertension was defined as systolic BP of 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP of 80-89 mmHg. Results: Out of 204 participants, the prevalence of prehypertension was 49.0%. From multivariate logistic regression models, having lower level of education [aOR=2.74, 95% CI (1.15-6.55), p=0.02], not practicing at least 30 min daily walks [aOR=2.59, 95% CI (1.31-5.10), p=0.01], not exercising routinely [aOR=1.93, 95% CI (0.97-3.85), p=0.04], and alcohol consumption [aOR=3.58(1.52-8.46), p=0.004] were independently associated with higher odds of prehypertension. Conclusion: The prevalence of prehypertension is high among apparently healthy Ghanaian adults (49.0%). Lower educational level, sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol consumption are the predominant risk factors for prehypertension in Kumasi.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Hipertensão , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Prevalência
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(5): 470.e1-470.e10, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of abnormal blood pressure levels (including hypertension and prehypertension) with reduced fecundability among young childbearing-age couples is not yet elucidated completely. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal preconception blood pressure level and time to pregnancy among couples who are attempting to conceive their first pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 2,234,350 eligible couples (with no previous gravidity and whose female partners were 20-49 years old) participated in the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Each couples' preconception blood pressure levels were measured, and time to pregnancy was recorded. Cox models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals after adjustment for age, ethnicity, educational level, occupation, household registration, region, tobacco exposure, alcohol intake, body mass index, duration of marriage of the couples, and fasting plasma glucose levels of the female partner. RESULTS: Compared with normotensive women, those women with hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) had a 21% lower pregnancy rate (fecundability odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.81). A similar finding was found among men (fecundability odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.90). Prehypertension (systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg, and/or a diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg) in both male and female partners was associated slightly with reduced fecundability odds ratios. Compared with couples in which both partners were normotensive, the pregnancy rate was reduced by 27% (fecundability odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.77) among couples in which both partners had hypertension. CONCLUSION: Abnormal preconception blood pressure levels were associated with prolonged time to pregnancy among couples who were attempting to conceive their first pregnancy; the mechanism is worth further investigation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Taxa de Gravidez , Tempo para Engravidar , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15378, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045784

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is known to cause many health problems globally each year. However, evidence regarding the interaction between excessive physical activity (PA) and blood pressure in young and middle-aged populations is limited.A multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling design was adopted to recruit representative samples. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and undergo physical examinations. Associations between prehypertension, hypertension and PA durations were examined by multivariable logistic regression.Overall, 8206 subjects (4110 men, 50.1%) aged 15 to 45 years were enrolled. The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 45.7% and 5.0%, respectively. Among the 1913 participants who performed moderate-intensity PA for more than 700 min/wk, 118 had hypertension (6.2%) and 845 had prehypertension (44.2%). Among the 1003 participants who performed vigorous-intensity PA for more than 450 min/wk, 82 had hypertension (8.2%) and 479 had prehypertension (47.8%).Long-term and sustained PA may increase the risk for hypertension in young and middle-aged subjects. An appropriate recommendation of PA duration should be encouraged in this cohort.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acta Med Indones ; 51(1): 54-58, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: hypertension remains a global burden. Complications of unrecognized hypertension might increase mortality as shown by a WHO 2013 report that hypertension caused 9.4 million deaths worldwide. There is no prior data in Indonesia on blood pressure status in young adults with similar education levels. Medical students are at high risk of developing early hypertension due to modern lifestyle habits. This study aimed to determine the blood pressure profile of medical students as representative of the young adult population. METHODS: we measured the prevalence of hypertension in medical students. All medical students who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire. Afterwards, we conducted a physical examination and obtained blood and urine samples to screen for blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the lipid profile. RESULTS: the prevalence of students with prehypertension or hypertension was 29.6%. The mean eGFR was 105.45 ml/min/m2. The mean total cholesterol was within normal limits. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of hypertension in medical students was high. This study shows that early detection of hypertension is key to treating it early and therefore to reducing morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(7): 1069-1074, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081518

RESUMO

Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in pediatric population has been increasing worldwide. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index is associated with the presence of prehypertension or hypertension in children and adolescents. Apparently healthy children aged 6 to 15 years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants were allocated into groups with normal blood pressure (NBP), prehypertension, and hypertension. Smoking, alcohol intake, pregnancy, previous diagnosis of diabetes, kidney, hepatic, or endocrine diseases were exclusion criteria. NBP was defined by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure < 90th percentile, prehypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th < 95th percentile, and hypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, according to age, sex, and height percentiles. A total of 3589 children were enrolled, 1748 (49%) girls and 1841 (51%) boys, and allocated into groups with NBP (n = 2874), prehypertension (n = 271), and hypertension (n = 444). The multiple logistic regression analysis stratified by age and adjusted by the Z-score/SDS of body mass index and waist circumference showed that elevated TyG index was significantly associated with prehypertension (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.08-2.05) and hypertension (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.26-2.11).Conclusion: The results of the present study shows that the elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of prehypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents. What is Known: • Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents has been increasing worldwide. • Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. What is New: • The elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of prehypertension in children aged 6-9 years and adolescents aged 10-15 years. • The elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of hypertension in children aged 6-9 years and adolescents aged 10-15 years.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Pré-Hipertensão/sangue
17.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(4): 27, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949774

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate hypertension and prehypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in Iranian adults population. RECENT FINDINGS: In this study, six international and national databases were searched from inception until August 30, 2018. Forty-eight studies performed on 417,392 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Based on the results of random effect method (95% CI), the overall prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control were 31.6% (95% CI 24.9, 38.3; I2 = 99.7%), 20.4% (95% CI 16.5, 24.4; I2 = 99.9%), 49.3% (95% CI 44.8, 53.8; I2 = 98.5%), 44.8% (95% CI 28.3, 61.2; I2 = 99.9%), 37.4% (95% CI 29.0, 45.8; I2 = 99.3%), respectively. Considering the increasing prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension, as well as more than half of the participants were unaware of their disease and were not treated, the results of the present study can help policy-makers to increase hypertension awareness, control, and treatment, especially in high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/terapia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 133-141, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834766

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: recent studies warn of changes in dietary habits and an increase in overweight children as possible risk factors for early hypertension. Objectives: to know the prevalence of normotension, rehypertension and hypertension in the children studied, and to evaluate its possible association with diet and anthropometric indicators. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out within the Project "Anthropometry and Child Nutrition of Valencia" (ANIVA), where diet, blood pressure, and anthropometry were evaluated in 652 children between six and nine years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to identify normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive were applied. Results: there is a higher prevalence of normotensive (83.9%, p < 0.05). The prevalence of prehypertensive and hypertensive patients is 8.1% and 8.0%, respectively. Boys have higher levels of hypertension (8.4%), while girls have a higher prevalence of prehypertension (9.3%). In boys, significantly higher values are identified for the weight, height and hip circumference. Girls present significantly higher percentage of fat mass, bicipital fold, suprailiac fold, and heart rate. Significant correlations were found between the anthropometric indicators and blood pressure by sex, highlighting the waist circumference-blood pressure correlation in boys. Significant differences are observed between the nutrients ingested in the diet and blood pressure. Conclusions: a prevalence of hypertension of 8% in children aged 6-9 years of the province of Valencia is identified. The blood pressure values increase according to the body mass index, percentage of fat mass, waist circumference and the set of folds. A dietary pattern associated with hypertension in children is identified.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Dieta , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 15, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current nationwide study, for the first time, aimed to assess and compare the trend of pre-hypertension and hypertension among urban and rural adolescents in Iran. METHODS: This study has been conducted in the framework of the National Surveys of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases. To estimate pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among 9715 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, data collected in four repeated cross-sectional surveys (2007-2011) has been used. The prevalence trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension were examined across urban and rural areas of Iran. To calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) of pre-hypertension and hypertension over cycles across area of residence and genders, a complex sample survey and multinomial logistic analysis were performed. RESULTS: Using the definition of pre-hypertension and hypertension presented by the seventh Joint National Committee (JNC-VII) for adolescents, after adjusting for confounders, the prevalence of pre-hypertension changed in both urban (boys:28.96% to 29.24% and girls:18.33% to 20.06%) and rural (boys 31.58% to 32.05% and girls 22.25% to 24.13%) areas over the study duration. Non-significant rising prevalence of hypertension was also observed in boys and girls of both regions (urban 12.76% to 15.04% and 8.02% to 9.06%; rural 9.95% to 11.79% and 10.35% to 11.60%, for boys and girls respectively). The adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) of pre-hypertension (2.16; 95% CI 1.68-2.79 and 1.92, 95% CI 1.57-2.34, in urban and rural, respectively) and hypertension (2.40; 95% CI 1.65-3.51 and 1.82, 95% CI 1.36-2.45, in urban and rural, respectively) were higher in boys than girls. Comparing the adjusted PRs of pre-hypertension and hypertension in urban versus rural areas, in both genders, showed higher PRs of pre-hypertension in rural girls (1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.75). CONCLUSION: The current results showed high constant trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Iranian boys and girls, residing in both urban and rural areas.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E12, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702999

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood hypertension is associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease during adulthood. This study estimated the prevalence of hypertension and high blood pressure among children aged 8 to 17 years in the United States per the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guideline and compared that with the 2004 National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH/NHLBI) guideline's prevalence estimate during 2005-2008 and 2013-2016. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. High blood pressure included hypertension and elevated blood pressure (per the 2017 AAP guideline)/prehypertension (per the 2004 NIH/NHLBI guideline). RESULTS: The analysis included 3,633 children in 2005-2008 and 3,471 children in 2013-2016. Per the 2004 NIH/NHLBI guideline, 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3%-4.3%) had hypertension in 2005-2008 and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.6%) had hypertension in 2013-2016. Per the 2017 AAP guideline, prevalence was 5.7% (95% CI, 4.6%-7.1%) in 2005-2008 and 3.5% (95% CI, 2.7%-4.5%) in 2013-2016. About 2.5% (95% CI, 2.0%-3.1%) children in 2005-2008 and 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.0%) children in 2013-2016 were reclassified as hypertensive. We observed a similar change in prevalence for high blood pressure after application of the new guideline. The prevalence of high blood pressure also declined from 2005-2008 to 2013-2016 per both guidelines. CONCLUSION: Although the new guideline would reclassify a small proportion of children as having hypertension or high blood pressure, the prevalence declined from 2005-2008 to 2013-2016.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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