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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22048, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899065

RESUMO

Owing to hormonal changes, women experience various psychophysiological alterations over a wide age range, which may result in decreased quality of life as well as in increased risks of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. Although studies have been performed to research complementary methods, such as meditation, the research field still requires an adequate amount of studies for public health guidelines. This pilot cross-sectional study aims to investigate a potential association of meditation with menopausal symptoms and blood chemistry for healthy women. In this study, data of 65 healthy women (age range 25-67) including 33 meditation practitioners and 32 meditation-naïve controls were analyzed to compare the Menopausal Rating Scale scores and blood chemistry with 7 more dropouts in the blood chemistry. For blood chemistry, nine components including glucose (GLU) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Two-way analysis of variance was performed by dividing the total participants into 2 groups: premenopausal and postmenopausal participants. Compared to the control group, the meditation group showed a trend of reductions in the Menopausal Rating Scale total score (P = .054) and its 2 subcomponents: depressive mood (P = .064) and irritability (P = .061). In HDL level, there was a significant interaction between group and menopausal state (P = .039) with following post hoc results: among the premenopausal participants, a significant increase in the meditation group compared to the control group (P = .005); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P = .030). In GLU level, there was a mild interaction between group and menopausal state (P = .070) with following post hoc results: among the postmenopausal participants, a trend of increase in the control group compared to the meditation group (P = .081); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P = .040). Our research suggests a potential association of practicing meditation with alleviations in menopausal symptoms and changes in blood chemistry, warranting further studies with a longitudinal study design and larger populations to understand the underlying causal relationships.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Meditação/métodos , Menopausa/sangue , Menopausa/psicologia , Adulto , Glicemia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(2): 637-647, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted early breast cancer (EBC) treatment worldwide. This study analyzed how Brazilian breast specialists are managing EBC. METHODS: An electronic survey was conducted with members of the Brazilian Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (SBM) between April 30 and May 11, 2020. Bivariate analysis was used to describe changes in how specialists managed EBC at the beginning and during the pandemic, according to breast cancer subtype and oncoplastic surgery. RESULTS: The response rate was 34.4% (503/1462 specialists). Most of the respondents (324; 64.4%) lived in a state capital city, were board-certified as breast specialists (395; 78.5%) and either worked in an academic institute or one associated with breast cancer treatment (390; 77.5%). The best response rate was from the southeast of the country (240; 47.7%) followed by the northeast (128; 25.4%). At the beginning of the pandemic, 43% changed their management approach. As the outbreak progressed, this proportion increased to 69.8% (p < 0.001). The southeast of the country (p = 0.005) and the state capital cities (p < 0.001) were associated with changes at the beginning of the pandemic, while being female (p = 0.001) was associated with changes during the pandemic. For hormone receptor-positive tumors with the best prognosis (Ki-67 < 20%), 47.9% and 17.7% of specialists would recommend neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively. For tumors with poorer prognosis (Ki-67 > 30%), 34% and 10.9% would recommend it for postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively. Menopausal status significantly affected whether the specialists changed their approach (p < 0.00001). For tumors ≥ 1.0 cm, 42.9% of respondents would recommend neoadjuvant systemic therapy for triple-negative tumors and 39.6% for HER2 + tumors. Overall, 63.4% would recommend immediate total breast reconstruction, while only 3.4% would recommend autologous reconstruction. In breast-conserving surgery, 75% would recommend partial breast reconstruction; however, 54.1% would contraindicate mammoplasty. Furthermore, 84.9% of respondents would not recommend prophylactic mastectomy in cases of BRCA mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Important changes occurred in EBC treatment, particularly for hormone receptor-positive tumors, as the outbreak progressed in each region. Systematic monitoring could assure appropriate breast cancer treatment, mitigating the impact of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Masculino , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Mastectomia Profilática , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Tumoral
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21211, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756099

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Within a rapidly expanding therapeutic armamentarium, the combination of everolimus (Eve) plus exemestane (Exe) utility needs to be reinstated in hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENT CONCERNS: We herein report on a patient affected by HR+ HER2- MBC treated with radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, who relapsed early on adjuvant tamoxifen, progressed rapidly on first line anastrozole, and failed treatment with third line capecitabine. DIAGNOSES: Metastatic luminal breast cancer progressed under standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. INTERVENTIONS: Third line with Eve plus Exe was given after chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: Patient experienced a 5-year progression free interval. LESSONS: Eve plus Exe remains a valid option in HR+HER2- MBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1027-e1037, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has distinct causes, prognoses, and outcomes and effects in patients at premenopausal and postmenopausal ages. We sought to assess the global burden and trends in breast cancer by menopausal status. METHODS: We did a population-based analysis of global breast cancer incidence and mortality among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Menopausal status was defined using age as a proxy, whereby breast cancer cases or deaths at age 50 years or older were regarded as postmenopausal. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence and mortality in 2018 were calculated using GLOBOCAN data. Incidence trends for 1998-2012 were assessed in 44 populations from 41 countries using the Cancer in Five Continents plus database, by calculating the annual average percent change. FINDINGS: Approximately 645 000 premenopausal and 1·4 million postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed worldwide in 2018, with more than 130 000 and 490 000 deaths occurring in each menopausal group, respectively. Proportionally, countries with a low UNDP human development index (HDI) faced a greater burden of premenopausal breast cancer for both new cases and deaths compared with higher income countries. Countries with a very high HDI had the highest premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence (30·6 and 253·6 cases per 100 000, respectively), whereas countries with low and medium HDI had the highest premenopausal and postmenopausal mortality, respectively (8·5 and 53·3 deaths per 100 000, respectively). When examining breast cancer trends, we noted significantly increasing age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) for premenopausal breast cancer in 20 of 44 populations and significantly increasing ASIRs for postmenopausal breast cancer in 24 of 44 populations. The growth exclusively at premenopausal ages largely occurred in high-income countries, whereas the increasing postmenopausal breast cancer burden was most notable in countries under transition. INTERPRETATION: We provide evidence of a rising burden of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer worldwide. Although early diagnosis and access to treatment remain crucial in low-income and middle-income countries, primary prevention efforts seeking to decrease exposure to known breast cancer risk factors are warranted in all world regions to curb the future breast cancer burden. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(8): 693-702, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although clinicians often measure the serum concentration of androgens in premenopausal women presenting with sexual dysfunction, with some women given testosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone as treatment if their concentrations are low, whether androgens are determinants of sexual function in women of reproductive age is uncertain. We aimed to clarify the associations between androgens and sexual function in a community-based sample of non-health-care-seeking women. METHODS: This is a substudy of the Grollo-Ruzzene cross-sectional study, which recruited women aged 18-39 years from eastern states in Australia (QLD, NSW, VIC). After providing consent, women completed an online survey that included the Profile of Female Secual Function (PFSF) questionnaire, and those who were who were not pregnant, breastfeeding, or using systemic steroids were asked to provide a blood sample. At sampling, women were asked the dates of their last menstrual bleed. Serum androgens was measured by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassay. Associations between androgens and domains of sexual function, assessed by the PFSF, were examined in participants with regular menstrual cycles. After univariable linear regression (model 1), age, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle, and smoking status were added to the model (model 2), and then parity, partner status, and psychotropic medication use (model 3). FINDINGS: Of 6986 women who completed the online survey (surveys completed between Nov 11, 2016, and July 21, 2017), 3698 were eligible and 761 (20·6%) provided blood samples by Sept 30, 2017. Of those who provided a blood sample, 588 (77·3%) had regular menstrual cycles and were included in the analysis. Adjusting for age, BMI, cycle stage, smoking, parity, partner status, and psychoactive medication, sexual desire was positively associated with serum dehydroepiandrosterone (ß-coefficient 3·39, 95% CI 0·65 to 6·03) and androstenedione (4·81, 0·16 to 9·12), and negatively with SHBG (-5.74, -9.54 to -1·90), each model explaining less than 4% of the variation in desire. Testosterone (6·00, 1·29 to 10·94) and androstenedione (6·05, 0·70 to 11·51) were significantly associated with orgasm, with the final models explaining less than 1% of the variation in orgasm. Significant associations were found between androstenedione (7·32, 0·93 to 13·08) and dehydroepiandrosterone (4·44, 0·86 to 7·95) and pleasure, and between testosterone and sexual self-image 5·87 (1·27 to 10·61), with inclusion of parity, partners status, and psychotropic drug use increasing the proportion of variation explained by each model to approximately 10%. There were no statistically significant associations between 11-oxygenated steroids and any PFSF domain, or between arousal or responsiveness and any hormone. No associations were seen between 11-oxygenated steroids and any sexual domain, or between arousal or responsiveness and any hormone. INTERPRETATION: Associations between androgens and sexual function in premenopausal women are small, and their measurement offers no diagnostic use in this context. Further research to determine whether 11-ketoandrostenedione or 11-ketotestosterone are of clinical significance is warranted. FUNDING: The Grollo-Ruzzene Foundation.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/sangue , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(2): 145-150, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women have higher severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) than premenopausal women and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor. AIM: To assess the severity of CHD in pre and postmenopausal patients undergoing coronary angiography and the impact of T2DM in both groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A coronary angiography was performed to 707 women due to suspected CHD during 2013 and 2014. Of these, 579 were older than 55 years and were considered as postmenopausal. Factors such as hypertension, obesity, smoking, creatinine and T2DM were registered. The severity of CHD in coronary angiography was evaluated according to the number of vessels with more than 50% stenosis. RESULTS: Compared to their postmenopausal counterparts, premenopausal women had less frequency of T2DM (31% and 42% p < 0.033), hypertension (52 and 78%, p < 0.001) and alteration of renal function (11 vs. 39%, p < 0.001). Absence of coronary lesions was found in 44 and 32% of premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively (p < 0.01). Premenopausal women with T2DM had a higher frequency of multi-vessel disease than those without the disease (25 and 4.5%, p < 0.001). The frequency of multi-vessel disease was higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women (24 and 11%, p < 0.01). Hypertension, T2DM and renal involvement were associated with a higher frequency multiple vessel disease. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of CHD is higher in postmenopausal women and T2DM is associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645841

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm among females. The proportion of women diagnosed in the premenopausal period is relatively small. Nevertheless, this is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among young women. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence rate of breast cancer in a group of young women based on data obtained in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship between 1984 and 2016. A total of 34,251 women with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer were analyzed. The median age of diagnosis exhibited an upward trend from 57 to 63. The youngest age of breast cancer diagnosis did not decrease. Women up to the age of 24 were sporadically diagnosed. Given the total number of cases, the proportion of women under the age of 39 was approximately 5%, and it did not increase throughout the entire examination period. The major increase in the growth trend during the analyzed period was observed in a group of women aged of 50-69 (regression coefficient: +24.9) and above 70 (regression coefficient +21.2). In a group of women under 40 the regression coefficient was only +4. It seems that breast cancer does not increasingly affect younger women since the risk in this age group remains low. However, an increasing incidence rate of breast cancer is more commonly observed in premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto Jovem
9.
Maturitas ; 138: 14-25, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631584

RESUMO

This narrative review discusses several aspects of the management of osteoporosis in patients under 50 years of age. Peak bone mass is genetically determined but can also be affected by lifestyle factors. Puberty constitutes a vulnerable period. Idiopathic osteoporosis is a rare, heterogeneous condition in young adults due in part to decreased osteoblast function and deficient bone acquisition. There are no evidence-based treatment recommendations. Drugs use can be proposed to elderly patients at very high risk. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in the young can be challenging, in particular in the absence of a manifest secondary cause. Young adults with low bone mineral density (BMD) do not necessarily have osteoporosis and it is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. A determination of BMD is recommended for premenopausal women who have had a fragility fracture or who have secondary causes of osteoporosis: secondary causes of excessive bone loss need to be excluded and treatment should be targeted. Adequate calcium, vitamin D, and a healthy lifestyle should be recommended. In the absence of fractures, conservative management is generally sufficient, but in rare cases, such as chemotherapy-induced osteoporosis, antiresorptive medication can be used. Osteoporosis in young men is most often of secondary origin and hypogonadism is a major cause; testosterone replacement therapy will improve BMD in these patients. Diabetes is characterized by major alterations in bone quality, implying that medical therapy should be started sooner than for other causes of osteoporosis. Primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and growth hormone deficiency or excess affect cortical bone more often than trabecular bone.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Pré-Menopausa
10.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(14): 1667-1674, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uterine fibroids (UF) are benign tumors common in premenopausal women, with strong impact on the health-care systems. For many years, surgery represented the only therapy for symptomatic fibroids. However, clinicians are observing a switch from surgery to noninvasive methods; in particular, medical treatment has been shown to be efficacious in obtaining a bleeding reduction and in ameliorating patient conditions. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the current options available for the treatment of women with UF, with a special focus on the newest one, relugolix. It is an orally active non-peptide Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-receptor antagonist recently licensed for women with symptomatic fibroids. Relugolix is a well-tolerated safe drug; it is effective in inducing a dose-dependent decrease in menstrual blood loss, with faster reduction of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and a greater shrinkage in fibroid volume compared to the current standard of GnRH agonist treatment. EXPERT OPINION: Relugolix is a promising drug for the non-surgical treatment of women with UF. To date, the only published data come from a well-selected Japanese female population study while results from worldwide ongoing studies are ongoing in order to confirm the efficacy of this GnRH agonist receptor.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Receptores LHRH/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacocinética , Pré-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinonas/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
11.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 485-489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate tamoxifen-related endometrial changes in premenopausal female patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). METHODS: This prospective study was performed on 71 premenopausal female patients (mean age, 41 years) who were receiving tamoxifen therapy. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging with DWI of the pelvis and hysteroscopic-guided endometrial biopsy. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the endometrial plate were calculated and correlated with pathological results. RESULTS: The mean ADCs of tamoxifen-related benign endometrial lesions (1.35 ± 0.19 and 1.32 ± 0.13 × 10 mm/s) were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those of normal endometrial plate (0.95 ± 0.11 and 0.93 ± 0.11 × 10 mm/s) by both reviewers, respectively. The cutoff ADC values used to differentiate tamoxifen-related benign endometrial lesions from normal endometrium were 1.07 and 1.02 × 10 mm/s with areas under the curve of 0.94 and 0.93 and accuracy of 94.4 and 95.8 by both reviewers, respectively. The mean ADC values of endometrial polyp (EP) (1.44 ± 0.19 and 1.42 ± 0.22 × 10 mm/s) were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) (1.25 ± 0.19 and 1.23 ± 0.19 × 10 mm/s) by both reviewers, respectively. The cutoff ADC values used to differentiate EP from EH were 1.38 × 10 and 1.36 × 10 mm/s with areas under the curve of 0.81 and 0.77 and accuracy of 80% and 70% by both reviewers, respectively. There was an insignificant difference in ADC value between typical and atypical EH. The ADC values of endometrial cancer (0.80 and 0.78 × 10 mm/s) were lower than those of tamoxifen-related benign endometrial lesions. The final diagnosis was normal endometrium (n = 36), benign endometrial lesions either EH (n = 17), or EP (n = 16), and endometrial cancer in only 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that DWI helps in detection and characterization of different tamoxifen-related endometrial changes in the premenopausal female patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Endometrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Hiperplasia Endometrial/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Endométrio/induzido quimicamente , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
12.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1175-1181, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552022

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the United States have declined by up to two thirds in recent decades. Closer examination of these trends reveals substantial inequities in the distribution of mortality benefits. It is worrying that the uneven distribution of CHD that exists from lowest to highest social class-the social gradient-has become more pronounced in the United States since 1990 and is most pronounced for women.Here we consider ways in which this trend disproportionately affects premenopausal women aged 35 to 54 years. We apply a social determinants of health framework focusing on intersecting axes of inequalities-notably gender, class, ethnicity, geographical location, access to wealth, and class-among other power relations to which young and middle-aged women are especially vulnerable, and we argue that increasing inequalities may be driving these unprecedented deteriorations. We conclude by discussing interventions and policies to target and alleviate inequality axes that have potential to promote greater equity in the distribution of CHD mortality and morbidity gains.The application of this framework in the context of women's cardiovascular health can help shed light regarding why we are seeing persistently poorer outcomes for premenopausal US women.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 693-698, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare patient characteristics, imaging results, surgical management and prognosis of borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) between pre and postmenopausal patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all cases of histologically verified BOT between 1990-2018, comparing presentation, imaging, surgical procedures and recurrence. Patients were included in the postmenopausal group if they reported 12 months of amenorrhea with or without menopausal symptoms. RESULTS: During this 28 year study period, 66 operations were performed in which BOT was confirmed. Postmenopausal patients were 37-89 years old and premenopausal patients 18-50 years old, with an average age of 63.9 ± 13.4 and 36.2 ± 8.4 years, respectively (p < 0.001). The majority of patients in both groups were diagnosed due to abdominal pain, followed by incidental diagnosis on routine ultrasound. Imaging and CA-125 levels upon presentation were similar. Almost sixty percent of postmenopausal and 26.3% of premenopausal patients underwent laparotomy (p = 0.01), while those who underwent laparoscopy were 35.7% and 60.5%, respectively (p = 0.03). Most postmenopausal patients underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), whereas premenopausal surgeries involved cystectomy. Nearly all study patients were diagnosed in stage one. Malignant transformation occurred in 7.1% of postmenopausal patients. No malignant transformation was found in premenopausal patients. CONCLUSION: BOT's present similarly in pre and postmenopausal patients. Postmenopausal patients undergo more extensive surgery, and are diagnosed in early stage disease. Despite a tendency for a more conservative approach in premenopausal patients, prognosis is similar in both groups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(3): 87-93, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-prandial lipaemia (PL), oxidative stress (OS), and complement component C3 (C3) values are related to the atherosclerosis process. The post-prandial response of C3 after an oral fat load test (OFLT) using unsaturated fat is poorly addressed. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the post-prandial response of OS markers and C3 values in men and women after an OFLT using unsaturated fat. METHODS: The study included a total of 22 healthy subjects with normal lipids and normal blood glucose (11 men and 11 pre-menopausal women). An oral unsaturated fat load test (OFLT: 50g fat per m2 body surface) was performed using a commercial liquid preparation of long chain triglycerides (Supracal®). OS markers and C3 were measured using standardized methods at fasting state and every 2h up to 8h after the OFLT. RESULTS: Men showed statistically significant higher C3, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and oxidized-reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio values at fasting state compared to that obtained in women. In addition, post-prandial C3 values and GSSG/GSH ratios were significantly higher in men compared to women. The GSSG value and GSSG/GSH ratio significantly decreased in men after the OFLT compared to fasting values. In contrast, the post-prandial OS markers decrease observed in women was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In fasting state, men showed higher statistically significant C3 values and OS markers than women. The post-prandial OS markers (GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio) significantly decrease after the OFLT with unsaturated fat in men compared to women


OBJETIVO: Los valores de lipemia postprandial (PL), estrés oxidativo (OS) y componente C3 del complemento (C3) están relacionados con el proceso de aterosclerosis. La respuesta postprandial de C3 tras una sobrecarga oral de grasa (OFLT) utilizando grasa insaturada no es completamente conocida. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar y comparar la respuesta postprandial de los marcadores de OS y los valores de C3 en hombres y mujeres después de una OFLT utilizando grasa insaturada. MÉTODOS: Estudiamos 22 sujetos normolipidémicos y normoglicémicos (11 hombres y 11 mujeres premenopáusicas). Se realizó una sobrecarga oral con grasa insaturada (OFLT: 50g de grasa por m2 de superficie corporal) utilizando una preparación líquida comercial de triglicéridos de cadena larga (Supracal®). Los marcadores OS y C3 se midieron utilizando métodos estandarizados en estado de ayuno y cada 2 horas hasta 8 horas después de OFLT. RESULTADOS: Los hombres mostraron valores significativamente mayores de C3, glutatión oxidado (GSSG) y glutatión reducido (GSSG/GSH) en estado de ayuno en comparación con los obtenidos en mujeres. Además, los valores de C3 postprandiales y la relación GSSG/GSH fueron significativamente más altos en los hombres que en las mujeres. El valor GSSG y la relación GSSG/GSH disminuyeron significativamente en los hombres después de OFLT en comparación con los valores de ayuno. En contraste, la disminución de marcadores postprandiales de OS observada en mujeres no fue estadísticamente significativa. CONCLUSIONES: En ayunas, los hombres muestran valores estadísticamente mayores de C3 y marcadores OS que las mujeres. Los marcadores OS postprandial (GSSG y GSSG/GSH ratio) disminuyen significativamente tras OFLT con grasa insaturada en los hombres en comparación con las mujeres


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Gorduras Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Glutationa/sangue , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropometria , Lipoproteínas/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 54, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) has demonstrated efficacy in post-menopausal patients with hormone-responsive breast cancer. This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with NET in pre-menopausal breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomised, phase III study, oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative, and lymph node-positive pre-menopausal breast cancer patients were recruited from 7 hospitals in South Korea. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 24 weeks of either NCT or NET with goserelin and tamoxifen. The primary purpose was to evaluate the non-inferiority of NET compared to NCT using clinical response, assessed by MRI. Besides, pathological complete response rate (pCR), changes in Ki-67 expression, breast conservation surgery (BCS) rate, and quality of life were included as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients were assigned to receive NCT (n = 95) or NET (n = 92), and 87 patients in each group completed treatments. More NCT patients had complete response or partial response than NET patients using MRI (NCT 83.7% vs. NET 52.9%, 95% CI 17.6-44.0, p < 0.001) and callipers (NCT 83.9% vs. NET 71.3%, 95% CI 0.4-24.9, p = 0.046). Three NCT patients (3.4%) and one NET patient (1.2%) showed pCR (p < 0.005). No difference existed in the conversion rate of BCS (13.8% for NCT vs. 11.5% for NET, p = 0.531) and Ki-67 change (p = 0.114) between the two groups. Nineteen NCT patients had treatment-related grade 3 or worse events compared with none in the NET group. CONCLUSIONS: Better clinical responses were observed in pre-menopausal patients after 24 weeks of NCT compared to those observed after NET. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01622361. Registration June 19, 2012.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linfonodos/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gosserrelina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
16.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(1): 73-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of amenorrhea after chemotherapy among breast cancer patients". METHODS: Total 201 premenopausal females (having menstruation during the past 6 months at the time of diagnosis) of age 15-45 years and had confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer requiring chemotherapy were included in the study using non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Amenorrhea within 6 months after the completion of chemotherapy was labelled as chemotherapy induced amenorrhea. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS-23. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was reported as 37.06±5.68 years. Majority of the females were married (86.6%) & multigravida (81.1%). Most of the patients (23.9%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiotherapy. A total of 129 patients received Adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel as chemotherapy regimen. Out of 201 females, 184 (91.5%) experienced amenorrhea after start or completion of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of CIA was very high among breast cancer patients in our study, long term follow-up is needed to see input of CIA on future fertility.


Assuntos
Amenorreia , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Menopausa
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 66, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Müllerianosis is a very rare neoplasm composed of two or three Müllerian derived tissues (endosalpinx, endometrium and endocervix). We report the first case of concurrent müllerianosis of the urinary bladder and the umbilicus presenting with umbilical bleeding. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old Asian premesopausal female, gravida 1, para 1, presented with intermittent umbilical bleeding. An umbilical nodule and a bladder tumor on the posterior wall of the urinary bladder were identified. She underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and excision of the umbilical nodule successively. Diagnosis of müllerianosis was confirmed by the histological and immunological features. No tumor recurrence was noted at 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Müllerianosis is extremely rare and mainly reported in the urinary bladder, and generally affects women of reproductive age. Despite the common presentations of müllerianosis of the urinary bladder including irritative voiding symptoms, abdominal/pelvic pain and gross hematuria, our rare case had no symptom except umbilical bleeding. The possibility of concurrent bladder müllerianosis should be considered when müllerianosis is found at other location. We suggest a surgical intervention to establish the correct pathological diagnosis because it is essential to exclude malignant neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The majority of patients have a favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/patologia , Umbigo/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Cesárea , Endométrio , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Humanos , Pré-Menopausa , Doenças Raras , Resultado do Tratamento , Umbigo/patologia , Umbigo/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(5): 902-906, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether baseline (pre-weight loss) metabolic variables can predict weight regain. METHODS: About 117 women with overweight completed a weight loss program to achieve BMI < 25 kg/m2 and were followed for 2 years. Resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, insulin sensitivity, and serum leptin concentration were measured pre-weight loss, while on energy balance, and as predictors of weight regain at 1 and 2 years. Rate and amount of weight loss also were examined as predictors, as these outcomes may reflect metabolic phenotype. RESULTS: Average weight loss was 12 (SD 2.5) kg, and regain was 48% (SD 35%) and 80% (SD 52%) at 1 and 2 years, respectively. In regression modeling, metabolic variables (both pre-weight loss and changes with weight loss) did not predict weight regain. However, initial weight loss and time to achieve BMI < 25 were significant predictors of weight regain at 1 and 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline (pre-weight loss) resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, insulin sensitivity, and leptin did not predict weight regain. However, a larger and faster weight loss was associated with a lower weight regain. Understanding the mechanisms behind interindividual variation in magnitude and rate of weight loss is needed to ensure better weight loss maintenance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1219-1225, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic value and clinical significance of serum HE4 levels in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian disease in patients with elevated CA125 levels. METHODS: The levels and positive expression rate of HE4 were compared between 371 patients with elevated CA125 levels and benign ovarian disease, and 132 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer to determine the diagnostic value of HE4. RESULTS: The level and positive expression rate of HE4 differed significantly between the benign and malignant groups, in that, there was no significant difference in HE4 expression between CA125 low- and high-level groups within the benign ovarian disease group, with levels of HE4 being in the normal range in both groups. However, the positive expression rates and levels of HE4 in the malignant group were significantly different between the serum CA125 low- and high-level groups. ROC curve analysis showed that optimal HE4 cutoff values for increased accuracy in diagnosis were 78.03 pmol/L and 119.70 pmol/L before and after menopause, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HE4 levels can potentially be used as a marker to differentiate between benign and malignant ovarian disease with elevated serum CA125 levels. The high specificity of HE4 was superior in identifying benign ovarian disease. We recommend increasing the cutoff values of HE4 in premenopausal patients and decreasing the cutoff values in postmenopausal patients for increased accuracy in the differential diagnosis of patients with elevated CA125 levels.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Pré-Menopausa , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/análise
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 53-60, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1/2 carriers reduces the breast cancer (BC) risk is conflicting, potentially due to methodological issues of prior analysis. We analysed the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC risk in BRCA1/2 carriers after adjusting for potential biases. METHODS: We analysed data from 444 BRCA1 and 409 BRCA2 carriers under age 51 with no cancer prior to genetic testing or during first 6 months of surveillance (to avoid cancer-induced testing bias and prevalent-cancer bias). Observation started 6 months after genetic testing (to avoid event-free time bias), until BC diagnosis, risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) or death. A multistate model with four states (non-RRSO, RRSO, RRM and BC) and five transitions was fitted to characterise outcomes and to calculate the BC risk reduction after premenopausal RRSO (before age 51). A systematic review was performed to assess the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 96 women (11.3%) developed BC (54 BRCA1, 42 BRCA2). The risk of BC after premenopausal RRSO decreased significantly in BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI):0.22-0.92]), but was not conclusive in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.77 [95%CI:0.35-1.67]). The systematic review suggested that premenopausal RRSO is associated with a decrease of BC risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Premenopausal RRSO was associated with BC risk reduction in BRCA1 carriers, which can help guide cancer risk-reducing strategies in this population. Longer follow-up and larger sample size may be needed to estimate the potential benefit in BRCA2 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pré-Menopausa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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