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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(68): 10142-10145, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389424

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signalling molecule, is central to several pathophysiological processes in mammalian systems. It scavenges reactive oxygen species and is known to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease models. The rapid volatilization of H2S from spontaneously releasing sulfide salts being a challenge, we describe peptide conjugates which exhibit tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine mediated "slow and sustained" H2S release. These conjugates reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and significantly increased dopamine levels in transgenic C. elegans.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Tionas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Fosfinas/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tionas/síntese química , Tionas/química , Tiofenos/síntese química , Tiofenos/química , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11076-11084, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393117

RESUMO

Platinum drugs including cisplatin are widely used in clinics to treat various types of cancer. However, the lack of cancer-cell selectivity is one of the major problems that lead to side effects in normal tissues. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells but rarely presented in normal cells, making LHRH receptor a good candidate for cancer targeting. In this study, we report the synthesis and cytotoxic study of a novel platinum(IV) anticancer prodrug functionalized with LHRH peptide. This LHRH-platinum(IV) conjugate is highly soluble in water and quite stable in a PBS buffer. Cytotoxic study reveals that the prodrug selectively targets LHRH receptor-positive cancer cell lines with the cytotoxicities 5-8 times higher than those in LHRH receptor-negative cell lines. In addition, the introduction of LHRH peptide enhances the cellular accumulation in a manner of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the LHRH-platinum(IV) prodrug is proved to kill cancer cells by binding to the genomic DNA, inducing apoptosis, and arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. In summary, we report a novel LHRH-platinum(IV) anticancer prodrug having largely improved selectivity toward LHRH receptor-positive cancer cells, relative to cisplatin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Platina/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Receptores LHRH/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Platina/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Receptores LHRH/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(53): 7683-7686, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204739

RESUMO

An easy access to topical gels (both hydro- and organogels) derived from an anti-cancer prodrug namely 5-fluorouracil acetic acid (5-FuA) achieved by exploiting a simple salt formation strategy is reported for the first time. Nearly 85% of the salts synthesized were gelators. Single crystal structures of some of the gelator salts revealed an intriguing hydrogen bonding network including double stranded 1D chains stabilized through uracil-uracil complementary interactions and the crystal structures of the gelator salts corroborated well with the hypothesis based on which the gelators were designed. Studies indicated that both the hydrogel and the methyl salicylate gel of the gelator salt FuA-15 were suitable for self-drug-delivery application.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/síntese química , Ácido Acético/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluoruracila/síntese química , Fluoruracila/química , Géis/síntese química , Géis/química , Géis/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(52): 7474-7477, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184664

RESUMO

Inspired by clinical studies on alcohol abuse induced endoplasmic reticulum disruption, we designed a N-hydroxylethyl peptide assembly to regulate the ER stress response in cancer cells. Upon coupling with a coumarin derivative via an ester linkage, a prodrug was synthesized to promote esterase-facilitated self-delivery of N-hydroxylethyl peptide assemblies around the ER, inducing ER dilation. Following this, ER-specific apoptosis was effectively and efficiently activated in various types of cancer cells including drug resistant and metastatic ones.


Assuntos
Citosol/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/química , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 448-456, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174062

RESUMO

The colchicine site inhibitors (CSIs) showed promising prospects as antitumor agents due to their vascular disrupting activities besides antimitotic activities. 1-Phenyl-dihydrobenzoindazole was found as a novel scaffold of CSI without the cis-trans isomerization problem. The X-ray co-crystal structure of the lead compound with tubulin was determined, which revealed the binding mode including special water-bridged hydrogen bonds. The structure also provided guidance for the structural optimization of this type of CSI, which led to the discovery of the most potent inhibitor A3, with growth IC50 lower than 1 nM against human colon cancer cell lines and tubulin polymerization IC50 of 1.6 µM. In addition, its water-soluble prodrug B1 showed good in vivo antitumor activity on two human colon cancer xenograft nude mice models, encouraging further study of this type of antitumor compound.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Indazóis/síntese química , Indazóis/química , Indazóis/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 178: 515-529, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207463

RESUMO

Carvacrol (CAR), a natural monoterpene particularly abundant in plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, has recently attracted much attention for its many biological properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antitumour, antibacterial, and several others). However, CAR has poor chemical-physical properties (low water solubility and high volatility), which hamper its potential pharmacological uses. In this paper, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 23 carvacrol derivatives (WSCP1-23) against a panel of selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are reported. Using the prodrug approach, CAR hydrophilic (WSCP1-17) and lipophilic prodrugs (WSCP18-23) were prepared. Notably, CAR water solubility was increased by using polar neutral groups (such as natural amino acids) with the aim of improving oral drug delivery. On the other hand, CAR lipophilic prodrugs, obtained by prenylation of CAR hydroxyl group, were designed to promote membrane permeation and oral absorption. Our results revealed that WSCP1-3, showing the highest water solubility (>1700-fold compared to that of CAR), possessed good antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria with MIC values comparable to those of CAR and antifungal properties against different species of Candida. WSCP18-19 were the most promising prodrugs, showing good antibacterial profiles against gram-positive bacteria by interfering with the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Moreover, WSCP18-19 resulted more stable in simulated fluids and human plasma than WSCP1-3. Toxicity studies performed on human erythrocytes and HaCaT cells revealed that all WSCPs were not toxic at the tested concentrations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/síntese química , Monoterpenos/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 307: 91-104, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047917

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia is the low tissue oxygen levels seen characteristically in rapidly proliferating and expanding neoplasms. It affects both malignant tumor cells and its microenvironment, resulting in dysfunctional neovascularization. This leads to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype, facilitating tumor progression through cell mobility, invasion, and metastasis. The hypoxic condition in solid tumors is thus an indicator of the process of cancer progression towards an aggressive malignant phenotype with an enhanced possibility of metastasis and resistance to treatment. Advancements in the detection of tumor hypoxia and its utilization as a treatment modality in solid tumors are highly imperative. The use of fluorescent probes is an evolving field for detecting hypoxic tumors in biological systems. The present review is an attempt to provide a contextual knowledge on the prominent role of tumor hypoxia in cancer progression and dissemination. The use of azodyes in detecting tumor hypoxia aiding in cancer diagnosis through fluorescence off-on imaging and azodye-based hypoxia selective pro-drugs for assisting cancer therapy are presented. The limitations of fluorescence based hypoxia imaging and further investigations desired for clinical usage of azodye based hypoxic probes for fluorescence imaging are also considered.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Hipóxia Tumoral , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(43): 6106-6109, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070201

RESUMO

We developed a spermine-conjugated lipophilic Pt(iv) prodrug that is able to reduce the cancer stem cell population in ovarian cancer. The therapeutic effect is attributed to the hydrophobic tail and cationic spermine head group, the combination of which allows the Pt(iv) prodrug to localize in mitochondria and induce corresponding damage.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Compostos de Platina/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Espermina/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pró-Fármacos/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Espermina/farmacologia
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(46): 6603-6606, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119252
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1675, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975988

RESUMO

Carboxylic acids are common moieties in medicines. They can be converted to phthalidyl esters as prodrugs. Unfortunately, phthalidyl esters are now mostly prepared in racemic forms. This is not desirable because the two enantiomers of phthalidyl esters likely have different pharmacological effects. Here we address the synthetic challenges in enantioselective modification of carboxylic acids via asymmetric acetalizations. The key reaction step involves asymmetric addition of a carboxylic acid to the catalyst-bound intermediate. This addition step enantioselectively constructs a chiral acetal unit that lead to optically enriched phthalidyl esters. A broad range of carboxylic acids react effectively under mild and transition metal-free conditions. Preliminary bioactivity studies show that the two enantiomers of chlorambucil phthalidyl esters exhibit different anti-cancer activities to inhibit the growth of Hela cells. Our catalytic strategy of asymmetric acetalizations of carboxylic acids shall benefit future development of chiral phthalidyl ester prodrugs and related molecules.


Assuntos
Acetais/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Pró-Fármacos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catálise , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1580, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952842

RESUMO

Hypoxia-based agents (HBAs), such as anaerobic bacteria and bioreductive prodrugs, require both a permeable and hypoxic intratumoural environment to be fully effective. To solve this problem, herein, we report that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PNPs) can be used to create a long-lasting, penetrable and hypoxic tumour microenvironment for ensuring both the delivery and activation of subsequently administered HBAs. In addition to the increased permeability and enhanced hypoxia caused by the PNPs, the PNPs can be retained to further achieve the long-term inhibition of intratumoural O2 reperfusion while enhancing HBA accumulation for over 24 h. Therefore, perfluorocarbon materials may have great potential for reigniting clinical research on hypoxia-based drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Tirapazamina/administração & dosagem , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Tirapazamina/farmacologia , Hipóxia Tumoral
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 171: 383-400, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928710

RESUMO

The use of nitroreductases (NTR) that catalyze the reduction of nitro compounds by using NAD(P)H in GDEPT (Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy) studies which minimize toxicity at healthy cells and increases concentration of drugs at cancer cells is remarkable. Discovery of new prodrug/NTR combinations is necessary to be an alternative to known prodrug candidates such as CB1954, SN23862, PR-104A. For this aim, nitro containing aromatic amides (A1-A23)2 were designed, synthesized, performed in silico ADMET and molecular docking techniques in this study. Prodrug candidates were studied on reduction potentials with Ssap-NtrB by HPLC system. Also, cyototoxic properties and prodrug ability of these amides were investigated using different cancer cell lines such as Hep3B and PC3. As a result of theoretical and biological studies, combinations of A5, A6 and A20 with Ssap-NtrB can be suggested as potential prodrugs/enzyme combinations at NTR based cancer therapy compared with CB1954/NfsB.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrorredutases/química , Células PC-3 , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 6507-6516, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013065

RESUMO

Cancer is characterized by abnormal cellular energy metabolism, which preferentially switches to aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation as a means of glucose metabolism. Many key enzymes involved in the abnormal glycolysis are potential targets of anticancer drugs. Platinum(IV) complexes are potential anticancer prodrugs and kinetically more inert than the platinum(II) counterparts, which offer an opportunity to be modified by functional ligands for activation or targeted delivery. A novel platinum(IV) complex, c, c, t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(C10H15N2O3S)(C2HO2Cl2)] (DPB), was designed to explore the effects of axial ligands on the reactivity and bioactivity of the complex as well as on tumor energy metabolism. The complex was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 195Pt) NMR spectroscopy. The introduction of dichloroacetate (DCA) markedly increases the lipophilicity, reactivity, and cytotoxicity of the complex and blocks the growth of cancer cells having active glycolysis, and the introduction of biotin (C10H16N2O3S) enhances the tumor-targeting potential of the complex. The cytotoxicity of DPB is increased dramatically in a variety of cancer cell lines as compared with the platinum(IV) complex PB without the DCA group. DPB alters the mitochondrial membrane potential and disrupts the mitochondrial morphology. The levels of mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species are also decreased. Furthermore, the mitochondrial function of tumor cells was impaired by DPB, leading to the inhibition of both glycolysis and glucose oxidation and finally to the death of cancer cells via a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. These findings demonstrate that DPB suppresses cancer cells mainly through altering metabolic pathways and highlight the importance of dual-targeting for the efficacy of anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HCT116 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939771

RESUMO

Despite their side effects, cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors remain the only approved drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease patients, along with the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine. In the last few years, the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) has also been studied as a promising target for the development of new drugs for this pathology. In this context, and based on our previous characterization of bio-oxidizable prodrugs of potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, we envisioned a strategy involving the synthesis of a bio-oxidizable prodrug of both ChE and DYRK1A inhibitors. To this end, we fixed our interest on a known potent inhibitor of DYRK1A, namely INDY. The designed prodrug of both ChE and DYRK1A inhibitors was successfully synthesized, connecting both inhibitors by a carbonate link. This prodrug and its corresponding drug were then evaluated as ChEs and DYRK1A inhibitors. Remarkably, in vitro results were in accordance with the starting hypothesis, showing a relative inactivity of the prodrug against DYRK1A and ChEs and a potent inhibition of ChEs by the oxidized form. Molecular docking and kinetic studies of ChE inhibition by the active compound are also discussed in this report.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/química , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Conformação Proteica
16.
Pharm Res ; 36(5): 70, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prepare an oligo(lactic acid)8-rapamycin prodrug (o(LA)8-RAP)-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelle for injection and characterize its compatibility and performance versus a RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelle for injection in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Monodisperse o(LA)8 was coupled on RAP at the C-40 via DCC/DMAP chemistry, and conversion of o(LA)8-RAP prodrug into RAP was characterized in vitro. Physicochemical properties of o(LA)8-RAP- and RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelles and their antitumor efficacies in a syngeneic 4 T1 breast tumor model were compared. RESULTS: Synthesis of o(LA)8-RAP prodrug was confirmed by 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy. The o(LA)8-RAP prodrug underwent conversion in PBS and rat plasma by backbiting and esterase-mediated cleavage, respectively. O(LA)8-RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelles increased water solubility of RAP equivalent to 3.3 mg/ml with no signs of precipitation. Further, o(LA)8-RAP was released more slowly than RAP from PEG-b-PLA micelles. With added physical stability, o(LA)8-RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly inhibited tumor growth relative to RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelles in 4 T1 breast tumor-bearing mice without signs of acute toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: An o(LA)8-RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelle for injection is more stable than a RAP-loaded PEG-b-PLA micelle for injection, and o(LA)8-RAP converts into RAP rapidly in rat plasma (t1/2 = 1 h), resulting in antitumor efficacy in a syngeneic 4 T1 breast tumor model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Lactatos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Lactatos/toxicidade , Ácido Láctico/química , Camundongos , Micelas , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/toxicidade , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/química , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/toxicidade , Solubilidade , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
17.
Chem Asian J ; 14(9): 1570-1576, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843348

RESUMO

DNA damage repair through the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is one of the major reasons for the decreased antitumor efficacy of platinum-based anticancer drugs that have been widely applied in the clinic. Inhibiting the intrinsic NER function may enhance the antitumor activity of cisplatin and conquer cisplatin resistance. Herein, we report the design, optimization, and application of a self-assembled lipid nanoparticle (LNP) system to simultaneously deliver a cisplatin prodrug together with siRNA targeting endonuclease xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF), a crucial component in the NER pathway. The LNP is able to efficiently encapsulate both the platinum prodrug and siRNA molecules with a tuned ratio. Both platinum prodrug and XPF-targeted siRNA are efficiently carried into cells and released; the former damages DNA and the latter specifically downregulates both mRNA and protein levels of XPF to potentiate the platinum drug, leading to enhanced expression levels of apoptosis markers and improved cytotoxicity in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human lung cancer cells. Our results demonstrate an effective approach to utilize a multi-targeted nanoparticle system that can specifically silence an NER-related gene to promote apoptosis induced by cisplatin, especially in cisplatin-refractory tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Cisplatino/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico
18.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 728-739, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822267

RESUMO

The most challenging issue facing peptide drug development is producing a molecule with optimal physical properties while maintaining target binding affinity. Masking peptides with protecting groups that can be removed inside the cell, produces a cell-permeable peptide, which theoretically can maintain its biological activity. Described are series of prodrugs masked using: (a) O-alkyl, (b) N-alkyl, and (c) acetyl groups, and their binding affinity for Hsp90. Alkyl moieties increased compound permeability, Papp, from 3.3 to 5.6, however alkyls could not be removed by liver microsomes or in-vivo and their presence decreased target binding affinity (IC50 of ≥10 µM). Thus, unlike small molecules, peptide masking groups cannot be predictably removed; their removal is related to the 3-D conformation. O-acetyl groups were cleaved but are labile, increasing challenges during synthesis. Utilising acetyl groups coupled with mono-methylated amines may decrease the polarity of a peptide, while maintaining binding affinity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 197, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system is among the best explored enzyme/prodrug systems in the field of the suicide gene therapy. Recently, by the screening of the environmental metagenomic libraries we identified a novel isocytosine deaminase (ICD), termed Vcz, which is able of specifically converting a prodrug 5-fluoroisocytosine (5-FIC) into toxic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The aim of this study is to test the applicability of the ICD Vcz / 5-FIC pair as a potential suicide gene therapy tool. METHODS: Vcz-expressing human glioblastoma U87 and epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells were treated with 5-FIC, and the Vcz-mediated cytotoxicity was evaluated by performing an MTT assay. In order to examine anti-tumor effects of the Vcz/5-FIC system in vivo, murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were transduced with the Vcz-coding lentivirus and co-injected with 5-FIC or control reagents into subcutaneous GL261 tumors evoked in C57/BL6 mice. RESULTS: 5-FIC alone showed no significant toxic effects on U87 and Caco-2 cells at 100 µM concentration, whereas the number of cells of both cell lines that express Vcz cytosine deaminase gene decreased by approximately 60% in the presence of 5-FIC. The cytotoxic effects on cells were also induced by media collected from Vcz-expressing cells pre-treated with 5-FIC. The co-injection of the Vcz-transduced mesenchymal stem cells and 5-FIC have been shown to augment tumor necrosis and increase longevity of tumorized mice by 50% in comparison with control group animals. CONCLUSIONS: We have confirmed that the novel ICD Vcz together with the non-toxic prodrug 5-FIC has a potential of being a new enzyme/prodrug system for suicide gene therapy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Flucitosina/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Genes Transgênicos Suicidas , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Citosina/metabolismo , Citosina Desaminase/genética , Citosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Flucitosina/metabolismo , Flucitosina/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Lentivirus , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Nucleosídeo Desaminases/genética , Nucleosídeo Desaminases/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo
20.
Pharm Res ; 36(4): 64, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib (Tofa) has been approved for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). To improve its therapeutic efficacy and limit dose-dependent toxicity, we developed a macromolecular prodrug of Tofa (P-Tofa). If the prodrug design improves the potency and duration of Tofa therapy, it would widen its therapeutic window, potentially leading to improved safety and better clinical management of UC. METHODS: P-Tofa was synthesized by conjugating Tofa to N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer via a cleavable carbamate linker. DSS-induced UC mouse model were treated with Tofa (daily oral gavage, from day 8), P-Tofa (single intravenous administration on day 8, dose equivalent to Tofa treatment) and saline. Healthy mice were used as a positive control. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated using disease activity index (DAI), endoscopic score and end-point histology. The optical imaging, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were used to understand P-Tofa's working mechanism. RESULTS: DAI results suggested that a single dose P-Tofa treatment was more efficacious than dose equivalent daily Tofa treatment. Endoscopic evaluation and histology analyses confirmed that while both P-Tofa and Tofa protected the colon, P-Tofa treated group was observed with better colon integrity with less tissue damage. Optical imaging, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry results showed that P-Tofa passively targeted the inflamed colon and being retained via cellular sequestration. CONCLUSIONS: Single intravenous administration of P-Tofa was more effective than dose equivalent daily oral Tofa gavage in ameliorating DSS-induced colitis. This observed superior therapeutic efficacy may be attributed to P-Tofa's passive targeting to and retention by the inflamed colon.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia
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