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1.
Urology ; 135: 171-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how bladder ultrasound can be useful in completing morcellation during difficult Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP). As HoLEP has emerged as a standard of care for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, multiple studies have reported the potentially catastrophic complication of bladder injury during morcellation. This video aims to assist any urologist performing HoLEP by providing step-by-step instruction for using ultrasound to complete morcellation safely. METHODS: Enucleation is performed using a 26-French continuous flow scope, off-set laser bridge with a laser stabilization catheter, and a 550 µm holmium laser fiber. Once the median and lateral lobes have been enucleated, the outer sheath is removed and the nephroscope is inserted to facilitate morcellation. Under dual inflow irrigation, the Piranha morcellator (Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany) is introduced and set to the manufacturer's recommended settings of 1500 rpm. A 3.5-MHz convex abdominal ultrasound transducer (Hitachi Prosound Alpha 7; Hitachi Aloka Medical America, Wallingford, CT) under B-mode is used to visualize the bladder, predominantly in the sagittal orientation. Morcellation proceeds under simultaneous ultrasound and direct cystoscopic guidance. RESULTS: The distended bladder is visualized concurrently with the ultrasound and via the nephroscope as the Piranha engages the adenoma and begins morcellation. Once the adenoma is engaged, the operator then drops their hands to place the morcellator in the center of the bladder. Ultrasound provides real-time feedback as to the location of the morcellator in relation to the adenoma and bladder. CONCLUSION: This video highlights the use of intraoperative bladder ultrasound as a visual aid to assist during the morcellation portion of HoLEP. This proof of concept demonstrates that ultrasound can be an additional tool to utilize during difficult cases when cystoscopic visualization during morcellation is limited.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Morcelação/métodos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/efeitos adversos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Morcelação/efeitos adversos , Morcelação/instrumentação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/instrumentação , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia , Bexiga Urinária/lesões
2.
Urology ; 135: 117-123, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the accuracy of MRI and MRI-ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy (TBx) on risk stratification in men who underwent subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was performed in men at risk for prostate cancer who (n = 140) underwent TBx and RP between November 2012 and August 2018. Comparisons were made between patients clinically staged by preoperative MRI and TBx Gleason grade group (GGG) and stage after RP. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors associated with MRI and TBx compared to RP grading, staging, and consistency with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk stratification. RESULTS: There was an increase in NCCN risk stratification in 47 men (33.6%) and a decrease in 17 men (12.1%) compared to the resected prostate. GGG upgrading and downgrading occurred in 35 (25.0%) and 31 men (22.1%), respectively. Upstaging occurred in 41 men (29.3%). In adjusted analysis for age, BMI, PSA Density (PSAD), median maximal diameter of the regions of interest, and PIRADS, men with PIRADS 4 were less likely to be upgraded (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.81, P = .020) than PIRADS 3. PSAD ≥ 0.15 ng/mL/cc was associated with upstaging (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.60-9.62, P = .003). CONCLUSION: Accurate risk stratification is critical for disease management, mandated by the increasing use of active surveillance, partial gland ablation, and androgen deprivation therapy with radiation therapy for men with unfavorable intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. This study confirms the need for advances in imaging and biomarker to increase the accuracy of pretreatment staging.


Assuntos
Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17627, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626145

RESUMO

Adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) is recommended without consideration of radical prostatectomy Gleason score (RP GS) for cases with adverse features. We compared the outcomes of pathologically localized high-grade (GS 8-10) prostate cancer (PC) with those of pT3 GS 7 PC.A total of 1585 men who underwent RP between 1995 and 2015 comprised the cohort, which was divided into group 1 (RP GS 7(3 + 4) and pT3; n = 760), group 2 (RP GS 7(4 + 3) and pT3; n = 565), and group 3 (RP GS 8-10 and pT2; n = 260). Biochemical recurrence (BCR), all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM) risk were compared among groups using Cox regression and competing risk analysis.At a median follow-up of 58 months (interquartile range: 37-85), 721 men experienced BCR and 84 died (22 due to PC). BCR-free survival rates were lower in group 3 than in group 1 (P < .001); nevertheless, no difference was observed between groups 2 and 3 (P = .638). Furthermore, no difference in ACM was noted among groups. PCSM rates were higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P = .001 and P = .005, respectively). This association persisted in multivariate models after adjustment for clinicopathological variables.Patients with RP GS 8-10 and pT2 PC had higher BCR and PCSM rates than those with RP GS 7 and pT3 PC. Localized high-grade PC should be considered in decision-making for ART.


Assuntos
Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
4.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1104): 20190480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for detecting extracapsular extension (ECE) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library up to December 2018. We included studies that used mpMRI to differentiate ECE from organ-confined PCa with a combination of T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. All studies included had pathological diagnosis with radical prostatectomy. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies by using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. We calculated pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic curve for mpMRI from 2 × 2 tables. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies that comprised 3374 participants were included. The pooled data showed a sensitivity of 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.66]) and specificity of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.82, 0.91) for extracapsular extension detection in PCa. CONCLUSION: First, our meta-analysis shows moderate sensitivity and high specificity for mpMRI to differentiate ECE from organ-confined prostate cancer before surgery. Second, our meta-analysis shows that mpMRI had no significant differences in performance compared with the former meta-analysis with use of T2WI alone or with additional functional MRI. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: It is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of mpMRI in combination of TWI, diffusion-weightedimaging and dynamiccontrast-enhanced-MRI for extracapsular extension detection.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalos de Confiança , Meios de Contraste , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Cancer Invest ; 37(10): 524-530, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597501

RESUMO

The oncological benefit of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is still debatable because data on clinical outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) without PLND are lacking. In this study, we reported oncological outcome in consecutive 146 patients who underwent RP without PLND. Although 27% of our patients developed biochemical recurrence, the estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 96.3%, and 95.7% in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. These data in our patients were not inferior to those in previous reports that investigated the survivals in patients who received PLND during RP. The therapeutic significance of PLND should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/cirurgia , Pelve/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/cirurgia , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Urologiia ; (4 ()): 7-11, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535791

RESUMO

Laser technology has taken a place among the methods of treatment of various urological diseases. The new laser devices are being developed in addition to commonly used. Physicists of the russian NTO "IRE Polus" in collaboration with doctors from Sechenov University have developed a new generation laser device - thulium fiber laser. It has been actively used since 2017 for laser enucleation of prostate. Later the laser was used for treatment of bladder tumor, lithotripsy. The device has already managed to prove its efficacy in in-vitro experiments and clinical practice surpassing foreign analogues.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Fotocoagulação a Laser/instrumentação , Terapia a Laser , Litotripsia a Laser/instrumentação , Túlio , Urologia , Humanos , Litotripsia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
7.
Urology ; 134: 199-202, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report long-term safety and efficacy data on middle lobe only-transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (MLO-TURP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated: (1) efficacy: International Prostate Symptom Score, Quality of Life, peak flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine, International Index of Erectile Function and ejaculatory function, which was assessed by the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire. Men were evaluated at 1 month, 6 months, and yearly thereafter. RESULTS: A total 312 men (mean age 61.3 ± 8.6) with significant lower urinary tract symptoms (n = 147) or urinary retention (n = 175 were treated with MLO-TURP from 2005 to 2017. Mean baseline prostate volume was 79.8 g (30-178 g); mean baseline intravesical-prostatic protrusion was 13.6. Improvements in International Prostate Symptom Score, Quality of Life, Qmax and postvoid residual urine were durable throughout the study period. There was no difference in outcomes between monopolar and bipolar MLO-TURPs. Postoperatively, the incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction was 2.6% (N = 8) and there was 1 case of new onset ED (0.3%). There were modest improvement in bother due to ejaculatory function (baseline: 2.4 and at 5 years: 1.27). CONCLUSION: MLO-TURP is a safe and effective treatment for men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients experience long-term improvement of symptoms and preserve antegrade ejaculation. In select men with prominent middle lobes, MLO-- should be considered a therapeutic, ejaculation-sparing option.


Assuntos
Ejaculação , Terapia a Laser , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disuria/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Urinário , Retenção Urinária/cirurgia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia
8.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 915-925, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466481

RESUMO

Purpose: Prostate cancer can be eradicated with heat exposure. However, high and rapid temperature elevations may cause thermofixation giving the appearance of viable tissue. The purpose was to characterize the immunoprofile and evaluate the viability of prostate regions with suspected thermofixation. Methods and materials: A prospective, ethics-approved and registered study (NCT03350529) enrolled six patients with MRI-visible, biopsy-concordant prostate cancer to undergo lesion-targeted MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound ablation (TULSA) followed by radical prostatectomy at 3 weeks, to evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of TULSA with whole-mount histology as a reference standard. If ambiguity about complete necrosis within the ablated region remained after hematoxylin-eosin staining, viability was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Treatment day MRI-thermometry and 3-week contrast-enhanced MRI post-TULSA were examined to assess ablation success and correlation with histopathology. Results: One patient presented with an apparently viable subregion inside the ablated area, surrounded by necrosis on H&E staining, located where temperature was highest on MRI-thermometry and tissues completely devascularized on MRI. Immunoprofile of the apparently viable tissue revealed changes in staining patterns suggesting thermofixation; the most significant evidence was the negative cytokeratin 8 staining detected with Cam5.2 antibody. A comprehensive literature review supports these observations of thermofixation with similar findings in prostate and other tissues. Conclusion: Thermally-fixed cells can sustain morphology on H&E staining. Misinterpretation of treatment failure may occur, if this phenomenon is not recognized and immunohistochemistry performed. Based on the previous literature and the current study, Cam5.2 staining for cytokeratin 8 appears to be a practical and reliable tool for distinguishing thermally-fixed from viable cells.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Terapia por Ultrassom , Morte Celular , Humanos , Queratina-8/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
9.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(10): 712-715, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154422

RESUMO

There is currently no consensus among pathologists on the optimal method of sampling pelvic lympadenectomy specimens (PLND) in prostate cancer. We evaluated the impact of complete PLND submission on lymph node (LN) yield, detection of metastasis and laboratory workload in a series of 141 cases. Following isolation of grossly identifiable LNs/potential LNs, the remaining fatty tissue was embedded in toto. Complete PLND submission increased median LN yield from 10 (1-42) to 17 (3-57). Metastatic deposits were identified in nine non-palpable LNs, which altered the pN category in four cases (3%). The primary tumour (pT) was grade group ≥3 and/or pT3 at radical prostatectomy in 96% of pN+ cases. A median of seven additional blocks (1-28) was required for complete tissue embedding. Our findings indicate that submission of the entire fat can optimise PLND assessment but has a significant impact on laboratory workload. Complete submission of selected high-risk cases may be a reasonable alternative.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes
10.
Prostate ; 79(11): 1316-1325, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urogenital infection with Schistosoma haematobium is a risk factor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The pathophysiology is thought to be mediated in part by inflammation, cellular damage, and bladder regeneration induced by the parasitic infection. Herein, we report an unusual case of schistosomiasis of the prostate that was found concurrent with prostate adenocarcinoma in a radical prostatectomy specimen from a man in the United States. METHODS: The infecting Schistosoma species was characterized via histomorphology and acid-fast stain. The concurrent Gleason score 6 prostate cancer was assessed for ETS transcription factor ERG (ERG), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p27, and p53 status using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cellular proliferation and the presence of intermediate cells in prostatic atrophy were assessed via immunostaining for Ki67 and CK903, respectively. RESULTS: Histomorphology and acid-fast stain of the infecting species were consistent with S. haematobium. We classified the Gleason score 6 prostate adenocarcinoma via IHC as ERG positive, PTEN intact, p27 intact, and without p53 nuclear accumulation. The prostatic epithelium immediately adjacent to the schistosomiasis-related granulomatous inflammation was atrophic and accompanied by increased cellular proliferation and the presence of intermediate cells. Upon literature review, we determined that prostate schistosomiasis is associated with a young age of prostate cancer diagnosis and highly aggressive prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This is a rare case of prostate schistosomiasis in the United States; however, prostate schistosomiasis occurs frequently in endemic areas. The patient had traveled to a Schistosoma-endemic region, which was the likely location of exposure to the parasite. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association of proliferative inflammatory atrophy and intermediate cells with schistosomiasis of the prostate. We propose that prostate schistosomiasis may be considered as a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer in geographic regions where Schistosoma species are endemic.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/parasitologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Próstata/parasitologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Inflamação/parasitologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Esquistossomose/complicações
11.
J Urol ; 202(3): 592-598, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is common in men and can have negative effects on quality of life (QoL). It is the hope that this Guideline becomes a reference for effective evidence-based surgical management of LUTS/BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evidence team searched Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality database to identify studies indexed between January 2007-September 2017. Following initial publication, this guideline was amended in 2019 and reflects relevant literature published through January 2019. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate), or C (low) for support of Strong, Moderate, or Conditional Recommendations. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions (table 1 in supplementary unabridged guideline, https://www.jurology.com). RESULTS: This Guideline provides evidence-based recommendations regarding management of LUTS/BPH utilizing surgery and minimally invasive surgical therapies (MIST). Additional statements are made regarding diagnostic and pre-operative tests. Clinical statements are made in comparison to what is generally accepted as the gold standard (i.e. transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP] monopolar and/or bipolar). This guideline is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated treatment algorithm (see figure).[Figure: see text]Conclusions:The prevalence and the severity of LUTS increases as men age and is an important diagnosis in the healthcare of patients and the welfare of society. This document will undergo updating as knowledge regarding treatments and future surgical options continues to expand.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/normas , Urologia/normas , Idoso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Próstata/cirurgia , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Urologia/métodos
12.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 423, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) is variable, and while the majority of cases remain indolent, 10% of patients progress to deadly forms of the disease. Current clinical predictors used at the time of diagnosis have limitations to accurately establish progression risk. Here we describe the development of a tumor suppressor regulated, cell-cycle gene expression based prognostic signature for PCa, and validate its independent contribution to risk stratification in several radical prostatectomy (RP) patient cohorts. METHODS: We used RNA interference experiments in PCa cell lines to identify a gene expression based gene signature associated with Tmeff2, an androgen regulated, tumor suppressor gene whose expression shows remarkable heterogeneity in PCa. Gene expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Correlation of the signature with disease outcome (time to recurrence) was retrospectively evaluated in four geographically different cohorts of patients that underwent RP (834 samples), using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for standard clinicopathological variables. Performance of the signature was compared to previously described gene expression based signatures using the SigCheck software. RESULTS: Low levels of TMEFF2 mRNA significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with reduced disease-free survival (DFS) in patients from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) dataset. We identified a panel of 11 TMEFF2 regulated cell cycle related genes (TMCC11), with strong prognostic value. TMCC11 expression was significantly associated with time to recurrence after prostatectomy in four geographically different patient cohorts (2.9 ≤ HR ≥ 4.1; p ≤ 0.002), served as an independent indicator of poor prognosis in the four RP cohorts (1.96 ≤ HR ≥ 4.28; p ≤ 0.032) and improved the prognostic value of standard clinicopathological markers. The prognostic ability of TMCC11 panel exceeded previously published oncogenic gene signatures (p = 0.00017). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the TMCC11 gene signature is a robust independent prognostic marker for PCa, reveals the value of using highly heterogeneously expressed genes, like Tmeff2, as guides to discover prognostic indicators, and suggests the possibility that low Tmeff2 expression marks a distinct subclass of PCa.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Urol ; 202(3): 511-517, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer surgery after previous bladder outlet surgery of benign prostatic hyperplasia is an uncommon yet challenging scenario. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis of comparative studies on laparoscopic and robotic minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after bladder outlet surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the literature on PubMed®, Embase® and Web of Science™ up to February 2019 according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) statement to identify eligible studies. Surgical, oncologic and functional outcomes in patients who underwent minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after bladder outlet surgery were compared to those without a history of bladder outlet surgery. Sensitivity analysis was done according to surgical technique (laparoscopic or robotic). RevMan 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 12 comparative studies were included in analysis. Patients who underwent minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after bladder outlet surgery were older (p ≤0.00001) and had a smaller prostate (p = 0.04) and lower prostate specific antigen (p = 0.003). The previous bladder outlet surgery group had lower odds of nerve sparing procedures, longer operative time, a higher rate of bladder neck reconstruction (each p <0.0001) and longer catheter time (p = 0.03). They were at higher risk for intraoperative (p = 0.001), overall (p <0.00001) and major complications (p = 0.0008), a higher positive surgical margin rate (p = 0.0005) and biochemical recurrence (p = 0.05). Moreover, potency (p = 0.03) and continence recovery (p = 0.007) at 12 months were lower in men with previous bladder outlet surgery. Robotic surgery seemed to offer better outcomes than laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after previous bladder outlet surgery represents a challenging surgical task with a higher risk of complications, and higher odds of worse functional and oncologic outcomes. Patients should be aware of these drawbacks and these factors should be considered during patient counseling. When surgery is pursued, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy should be preferred over laparoscopic radical prostatectomy since it can offer superior outcomes. The overall literature on this topic is of low quality and further efforts should be made to obtain higher levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Duração da Cirurgia , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Urol ; 202(4): 725-731, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Salvage radical prostatectomy has historically yielded a poor functional outcome and a high complication rate. However, recent reports of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy have demonstrated improved results. In this study we assessed salvage radical prostatectomy functional outcomes and complications when comparing robotic and open approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on salvage radical prostatectomy for recurrent prostate cancer after local nonsurgical treatment at 18 tertiary referral centers from 2000 to 2016. The Clavien-Dindo classification was applied to classify complications. Complications and functional outcomes were evaluated by univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: We included 395 salvage radical prostatectomies, of which 186 were open and 209 were robotic. Robotic salvage radical prostatectomy yielded lower blood loss and a shorter hospital stay (each p <0.0001). No significant difference emerged in the incidence of major and overall complications (10.1%, p=0.16, and 34.9%, p=0.67), including an overall low risk of rectal injury and fistula (1.58% and 2.02%, respectively). However, anastomotic stricture was more frequent for open salvage radical prostatectomy (16.57% vs 7.66%, p <0.01). Overall 24.6% of patients had had severe incontinence, defined as 3 or more pads per day, for 12 or 6 months. On multivariable analysis robotic salvage radical prostatectomy was an independent predictor of continence preservation (OR 0.411, 95% CI 0.232-0.727, p=0.022). Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the absence of a standardized surgical technique. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary series to our knowledge salvage radical prostatectomy showed a low risk of major complications and better functional outcomes than previously reported. Robotic salvage radical prostatectomy may reduce anastomotic stricture, blood loss and hospital stay, and improve continence outcomes.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Constrição Patológica/epidemiologia , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
15.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 71(4): 386-394, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086130

RESUMO

BACKROUND: To evaluate the factors including pelvic dimensions, which might influence operative difficulty and complications after open radical cystoprostatectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction in men. METHODS: A total of 198 RC patients operated in our institution with preoperative magnetic resonance (MRI) were analyzed were included in the study. Pelvic dimensions, including interspinous distance (ISD), bony femoral - (BFW) and soft tissue width (SW), apical prostate depth (AD), upper conjugate (UC), lower conjugate (LC) were measured by preoperative MRI. BFW, ISD, and SW indexes were defined as BFW/AD, ISD/AD, and SW/AD, respectively. Complicatons were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. As indicators of surgical difficulty; transfusion rate (TR), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time (OT) and hospital stay (HS) were assessed. SPSS version 17.0 was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: A total of 239 complications developed in 143 of the 198 patients (72.2%). Correlation analysis revealed a significant indirect relationship between TR and SW/AD (P=0.023). For EBL, there were significant indirect correlations between the SW/AD, BFW/AD and ISD/AD indexes (P=0.026, P=0.05, P=0.009; respectively). Additionally, OT was directly correlated body mass index (BMI) (P=0.001); and indirectly correlated with UC, SW/AD, and BFW/AD (P=0.047, P=0.038, P=0.016, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analyses higher American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score was associated with major complications. Multivariate analyses revealed that pathological stage was a significant predictor of EBL. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with smaller pelvises might undergo more difficult surgeries. However, it seems that small sized pelvis does not impact on operative difficulty and complication rate in radical cystoprostatectomy and orthotopic neobladder.


Assuntos
Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 41, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrafascial prostatectomy was a modified technique from the conventional nerve-sparing surgery in order to improve patients' post-surgical continence and erectile function; however, ongoing controversy exists regarding the oncological safety of this technique. In this study we aimed to provide a critical and pooled analysis based on published literatures regarding the oncological outcomes after intrafascial nerve-sparing prostatectomy. METHODS: Database searches were performed for published articles till June 2018 on PubMed. Three reviewers screened fulfilled papers and extracted data independently. Main outcome was the positive surgical margins (PSMs) rates stratified by pathological stages. We performed both one-arm and comparative meta-analysis to evaluate the oncological safety of intrafascial technique. Moreover, we built meta-regression models to assess the confounding factors. RESULTS: We retrieved a total of 117 records after electronic search, of which 21 studies were finally included in this review. There were 15 controlled studies and 6 surgical series. Our one-arm meta-analysis demonstrated that the total PSM rates after intrafascial techniques ranging from 2.2 to 35%, with a pooled rate of 14.5% on average (480 of 3151 patients, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 11.2-17.5%). Meta-regression model showed that patients' age, pT2 cancer percentage and Selection Score of Oncological Safety (SSOS) were significantly associated with total PSM rate; moreover, each 1 point of SSOS could decrease the total PSM rate by 1.3% on average. Comparative meta-analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between intra- and inter-fascial group regarding PSM rates. CONCLUSIONS: With stringent case selection and when performed by experienced surgeons, intrafascial prostatectomy could offer an acceptable or, at least, equivalent PSM rate compared with the conventional interfascial approach. Preoperative SSOS more than 7 points could be considered as an indication of intrafascial radical prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Próstata/inervação , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fáscia/inervação , Fasciotomia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Acta Oncol ; 58(8): 1118-1126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994052

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have identified apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can stratify prostate cancer into high- and low-grade disease (HG and LG, respectively). In this study, we consider the improvement of incorporating texture features (TFs) from T2-weighted (T2w) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) relative to mpMRI alone to predict HG and LG disease. Material and methods: In vivo mpMRI was acquired from 30 patients prior to radical prostatectomy. Sequences included T2w imaging, DWI and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. In vivo mpMRI data were co-registered with 'ground truth' histology. Tumours were delineated on the histology with Gleason scores (GSs) and classed as HG if GS ≥ 4 + 3, or LG if GS ≤ 3 + 4. Texture features based on three statistical families, namely the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), grey-level run length matrix (GLRLM) and the grey-level size zone matrix (GLSZM), were computed from T2w images. Logistic regression models were trained using different feature subsets to classify each lesion as either HG or LG. To avoid overfitting, fivefold cross validation was applied on feature selection, model training and performance evaluation. Performance of all models generated was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) method. Results: Consistent with previous studies, ADC was found to discriminate between HG and LG with an AUC of 0.76. Of the three statistical TF families, GLCM (plus select mpMRI features including ADC) scored the highest AUC (0.84) with GLRLM plus mpMRI similarly performing well (AUC = 0.82). When all TFs were considered in combination, an AUC of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.87-0.95) was achieved. Conclusions: Incorporating T2w TFs significantly improved model performance for classifying prostate tumour aggressiveness. This result, however, requires further validation in a larger patient cohort.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Período Pré-Operatório , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
18.
J Urol ; 202(4): 795-800, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009288

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report our experience with long-term outcomes of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate during a period of 18 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively collected database from March 1998 through June 2016 for patients who underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia as performed or supervised by a single expert surgeon. Demographic and perioperative data were collected, including scores on the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score), quality of life, peak flow rate, post-void residual urine and prostate specific antigen. Perioperative and late adverse events were also assessed. RESULTS: At a median followup of 9.1 years 1,476 patients with a mean age of 70.7 years were included in study. Mean catheter time and hospital stay were 1.2 and 1.3 days, respectively. Mean ± SD I-PSS and quality of life scores (15.9 ± 6.5 vs 6.8 ± 5.6 and 3.1 ± 1.4 vs 1.5 ± 1.4, respectively, each p <0.001) were significantly improved after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate compared to preoperative values. Likewise the mean peak flow rate and post-void residual urine were significantly improved (mean 7.2 ± 4.0 vs 17.7 ± 10.4 ml per second and 204 ± 258 vs 43 ± 73 ml, respectively, each p <0.001) in the 132 patients who could be followed more than 10 years. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 0.8% of patients. Prostate specific antigen was significantly reduced by 66.7% at the most recent followup (p <0.001). Postoperative complications included urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture in 21 (1.4%) and 30 patients (2.1%), respectively. Repeat holmium laser enucleation of the prostate was required in 21 patients (1.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is a safe, effective and durable procedure to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia during long-term followup.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Prostatectomia/métodos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Retenção Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/instrumentação , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Retenção Urinária/diagnóstico , Retenção Urinária/etiologia
19.
J Urol ; 202(3): 539-545, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009291

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The United States health care system is rapidly moving away from fee for service reimbursement in an effort to improve quality and contain costs. Episode based reimbursement is an increasingly relevant value based payment model of surgical care. We sought to quantify the impact of modifiable cost inputs on institutional financial margins in an episode based payment model for prostate cancer surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent robotic radical prostatectomy in 2016 at a tertiary academic medical center. We compiled comprehensive episode costs and reimbursements from the most recent urology consultation for prostate cancer through 90 days postoperatively and benchmarked the episode price as a fixed reimbursement to the median reimbursement of the cohort. We identified 2 sources of modifiable costs with undefined empirical value, including preoperative prostate magnetic resonance imaging and perioperative functional recovery counseling visits, and then calculated the impact on financial margins (reimbursement minus cost) under an episode based payment. RESULTS: Although they comprised a small proportion of the total episode costs, varying the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (33% vs 100% of cases) and functional recovery counseling visits (1 visit in 66% and 2 in 100%) reduced average expected episode financial margins up to 22.6% relative to the margin maximizing scenario in which no patient received these services. CONCLUSIONS: Modifiable cost inputs have a substantial impact on potential operating margins for prostate cancer surgery under an episode based payment model. High cost health systems must develop the capability to analyze individual cost inputs and quantify the contribution to quality to inform value improvement efforts for multiple service lines.


Assuntos
Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Prostatectomia/economia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/economia , Idoso , Redução de Custos/métodos , Aconselhamento/economia , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Urol ; 202(3): 506-510, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As enrollment in active surveillance expands, it is increasingly important to assess the potential risks of deferred treatment. We evaluated the risk of prostate specific antigen recurrence in a large cohort of men who underwent radical prostatectomy after initial active surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included men who underwent radical prostatectomy after a period of active surveillance. At diagnosis the men had GG (Gleason Grade Group) 1 or 2, clinical T2 or less and low or intermediate risk disease. They were stratified by a composite variable of GG and the volume of high grade cores at diagnosis. Pathological characteristics and recurrence after radical prostatectomy were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 1,916 men enrolled in active surveillance between 1994 and 2017, 448 (23.4%) underwent deferred radical prostatectomy. Median time to radical prostatectomy was 27 months (IQR 15.5-46.5). At diagnosis 388 men (86.6%) had GG1 disease, 31 (6.9%) had GG2 disease with 1 high grade core and 29 (6.5%) had GG2 disease with 2 or more high grade cores. GG2 with 2 or more high grade cores at diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of recurrence compared to GG1 disease (HR 3.29, 95% CI 1.49-7.26, p <0.01). GG2 disease with 1 high grade core did not significantly differ from GG1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the careful use of active surveillance in men with GG2 and 1 high grade core at diagnosis. Men with 2 or more high grade (GG2 or greater) cores at diagnosis may benefit from immediate treatment.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Seleção de Pacientes , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
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