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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929913, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Two diagnostic models of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) were established using clinical data of among patients whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are in the gray area (4.0-10.0 ng/ml). MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 181 patients whose PSA levels were in the gray area were retrospectively analyzed, and the following data were collected: age, digital rectal examination, total PSA, PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA (f/t PSA), transrectal ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and pathological reports. Patients were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa by pathology reports, and PCa patients were separated into non-clinically significant PCa (NCS-PCa) and CS-PCa by Gleason score. Afterward, predictor models constructed by above parameters were researched to diagnose PCa and CS-PCa, respectively. RESULTS According to the analysis of included clinical data, there were 109 patients with BPH, 44 patients with NCS-PCa, and 28 patients with CS-PCa. Regression analysis showed PCa was correlated with f/t PSA, PSAD, and mpMRI (P<0.01), and CS-PCa was correlated with PSAD and mpMRI (P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 2 models for PCa (sensitivity=73.64%, specificity=64.23%) and for CS-PCa (sensitivity=71.41%, specificity=81.82%) were 0.79 and 0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The prediction models had satisfactory diagnostic value for PCa and CS-PCa among patients with PSA in the gray area, and use of these models may help reduce overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Modelos Estatísticos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exame Retal Digital/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
J Urol ; 205(1): 122-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that visceral fat quantity may be associated with post-prostatectomy outcomes and risk of prostate cancer related death. We evaluated whether increased fat volume, normalized to prostate size, is associated with decreased risk of disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled on a prospective active surveillance trial for at least 6 months who had magnetic resonance imaging within 2 years of enrollment were eligible. The surveillance protocol included a standardized followup regimen consisting of biennial prostate specific antigen and examination and yearly biopsy. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected at baseline. Three fat measurements were taken using prostate magnetic resonance imaging, including subcutaneous, linear periprostatic (pubic symphysis to prostate) and volumetrically defined periprostatic. Progression was defined as increase in Gleason grade group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate fat volumes normalized by prostate size (stratified into tertiles). RESULTS: A total of 175 patients were included in the study. Average age was 62.5 years (SD 7.4) and average prostate specific antigen was 5.4 ng/dl (SD 3.9). Median followup was 42 months (IQR 18-60) and 50 patients (28.6%) had progression. Compared to the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of volumetric periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.23-5.60, p=0.01) and linear periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.22, p=0.05) were associated with worsened progression-free survival, while subcutaneous fat measurement (p=0.97) was not. Importantly, the model did not substantively change when accounting for patient body mass index and other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Increased periprostatic fat volume, normalized to prostate size, may be associated with shortened progression-free survival in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tamanho do Órgão , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
3.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200848, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the current analysis was to explore the hypothetical advantages using rectal spacer during 1.5T MR-guided and daily adapted prostate cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared to a no-rectal spacer hydrogel cohort of patients. METHODS: The SBRT-protocol consisted of a 35 Gy schedule delivered in 5 fractions. Herein, we present a dosimetric analysis between spacer and no-spacer patients. Furthermore, treatment tolerability and feasibility were preliminarily assessed according to clinicians-reported outcomes at the end of treatment and patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) in both arms. Toxicity and quality of life were assessed at baseline and after treatment using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v. 5.0, International Prostatic Symptoms Score, ICIQ-SF, IIEF-5, and EORTC-QLQ-C30 and PR-25 questionnaires. RESULTS: 120 plans (pre- and daily adaptive SBRT planning) were analyzed in 20 patients (10 patients in spacer group and 10 patients in no-spacer group) treated using 1.5T MR-guided adaptive SBRT. Statistically significant dosimetric advantages were observed in favor of the spacer insertion, improving the planning target volume coverage in terms of V33.2Gy >95% and planning target volume 37.5 Gy <2% mainly during daily-adapted SBRT. Also, rectum V32, V28 and V18Gy and bladder V35Gy <1 cc were significantly reduced in the spacer cohort. Concerning the PROMS, all questionnaires showed no difference between the pre- and post-SBRT evaluation in both arms, excepting the physical functioning item of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire that was declined in the no-spacer group. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results strongly suggest the adoption of perirectal spacer due to dosimetric advantages not only for rectal sparing but also for target coverage. Longer follow-up is required to validate the clinical impact in terms of clinicians-reported toxicity and PROMs. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This the first experience reporting preliminary data concerning the potential dosimetric impact of rectal hydrogel spacer on MR-guided SBRT for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
4.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200696, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using moderate or ultra-hypofractionation, which is also known as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of localized prostate cancer patients has been increased. We present our preliminary results on the clinical utilization of MRI-guided adaptive radiotherapy (MRgRT) for prostate cancer patients with the workflow, dosimetric parameters, toxicities and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response. METHODS: 50 prostate cancer patients treated with ultra-hypofractionation were included in the study. Treatment was performed with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (step and shoot) technique and daily plan adaptation using MRgRT. The SBRT consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions with a 7.25 Gy fraction size. The time for workflow steps was documented. Patients were followed for the acute and late toxicities and PSA response. RESULTS: The median follow-up for our cohort was 10 months (range between 3 and 29 months). The median age was 73.5 years (range between 50 and 84 years). MRgRT was well tolerated by all patients. Acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity rate of Grade 1 and Grade 2 was 28 and 36%, respectively. Only 6% of patients had acute Grade 1 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and there was no Grade ≥ 2 GI toxicity. To date, late Grade 1 GU toxicity was experienced by 24% of patients, 2% of patients experienced Grade 2 GU toxicity and 6% of patients reported Grade 2 GI toxicity. Due to the short follow-up, PSA nadir has not been reached yet in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MRgRT represents a new method for delivering SBRT with markerless soft tissue visualization, online adaptive planning and real-time tracking. Our study suggests that ultra-hypofractionation has an acceptable acute and very low late toxicity profile. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: MRgRT represents a new markerless method for delivering SBRT for localized prostate cancer providing online adaptive planning and real-time tracking and acute and late toxicity profile is acceptable.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
5.
J Urol ; 205(1): 109-114, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Men with low risk prostate cancer on active surveillance undergo multiple biopsies over time. The long-term clinical significance of consecutively negative biopsies is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men with low risk prostate cancer prospectively enrolled in an active surveillance database with at least 4 biopsies were included in the study. Exposure variables were 0, 1 or 2 consecutively negative biopsies after diagnosis. Other variables included age, prostate specific antigen, prostate specific antigen density, Gleason grade group, percent positive cores and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Outcome variables were the detection of any cancer at fourth biopsy and active treatment. RESULTS: A total of 514 men were included, with 112 (22%) men having 1 negative biopsy and 78 (15%) with 2 consecutively negative biopsies. Median prostate specific antigen density was lower for men with 1 negative biopsy (0.11) and consecutively negative biopsies (0.10) compared to men who never had a negative biopsy (0.13, p <0.01). On univariable logistic regression higher prostate specific antigen density (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.45) and suspicious magnetic resonance imaging lesions (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.16-3.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of detecting cancer on fourth biopsy. On multivariable logistic regression 1 negative biopsy (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12-0.41) and consecutively negative biopsies (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.24) were associated with a lower likelihood of detecting cancer at outcome biopsy. Unadjusted 10-year treatment-free survival was highest for patients with consecutively negative biopsies (84%) and 1 negative biopsy (74%) than those who had none (66%) (log rank p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Consecutively negative surveillance biopsies are correlated with favorable clinical risk factors and independently associated with subsequent negative biopsy and lower risk of active treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334759

RESUMO

A 67-year-old man presented to his general practitioner with intermittent episodes of unilateral sciatica over a 2-month period for which he was referred for an outpatient MRI of his spine. This evidenced a significant lumbar vertebral mass that showed tight canal stenosis and compression of the cauda equina. The patient was sent to the emergency department for management by orthopaedic surgeons. He was mobilising independently, pain free on arrival and without neurological deficit on assessment. Clinically, this patient presented with no red flag symptoms of cauda equina syndrome or reason to suspect malignancy. In these circumstances, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines do not support radiological investigation of the spine outside of specialist services. However, in this case, investigation helped deliver urgent care for cancer that otherwise may have been delayed. This leads to the question, do the current guidelines meet clinical requirements?


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Cauda Equina/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/sangue , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/etiologia , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/sangue , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Estenose Espinal/etiologia , Estenose Espinal/terapia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370963

RESUMO

Malignant lymphomas of the prostate are very rare tumours and are generally not considered in the clinical or pathological diagnosis of prostatic enlargement. We report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented with long-standing history of low back pain and a 2-month history of voiding lower urinary tract symptoms. He denied any history of urinary retention, trauma, catheterisation or any constitutional symptoms. Examination revealed no lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Digital rectal examination showed an irregular, moderately enlarged nodular prostate. His prostate-specific antigen was 1.54 ng/mL. MRI of the pelvis did not show any focal lesion apart from abnormal signal intensity in the central zone. Bone scan was negative. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy and whole body positron emission tomography/CT were unremarkable. The patient achieved complete remission after receiving six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/complicações , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23574, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327317

RESUMO

Hypofractionation for localized prostate cancer treatment is rapidly spreading in the medical community and it is supported by radiobiological evidences (lower α/ß ratio compared with surrounding tissues). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a technique to administer high doses with great precision, which is commonly performed with CyberKnife (CK) in prostate cancer treatment. Since the CyberKnife (CK) is not available at all radiotherapy center, alternative SBRT techniques are available such as Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Helical Tomotherapy (HT). The aim of the present study was to compare the dosimetric differences between the CK, VMAT, and HT plans for localized prostate cancer treatment.Seventeenpatients have been recruited and replanned using VMAT and HT to this purpose: they received the treatment using the CK with a prescription of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions; bladder, rectum and penis bulb were considered as organs at risk (OAR). In order to compare the techniques, we considered DVHs, PTV coverage, Conformity Index and new Conformity Index, Homogeneity Index, beam-on time and OARs received dose.The 3 treatments methods showed a comparable coverage of the lesion (PTV 95%: 99.8 ± 0.4% CK; 98.5 ± 0.8% VMAT; 99.4 ±â€Š0.5% HT. P < .05) and good sparing of OARs. Nevertheless, the beam-on time showed a significant difference (37 ±â€Š9 m CK; 7.1 ±â€Š0.3 m VMAT; 17 ±â€Š2 m HT. P < .05).Our results showed that, although CK is the best SBRT technique for prostate cancer treatment, in case this technology is not available, it can be replaced by a similar treatment delivered by VMAT technique. VMAT can be administrated only if it has an appropriate Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) tracking system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radiometria/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos
9.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1222-1228, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessd the long-term outcomes from a large prospective cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer managed with active surveillance and determined the clinical prognostic factors that may predict the risk of metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of men enrolled on active surveillance at our institution between 1990 and 2018 with low or intermediate risk disease (stage cT1-2, prostate specific antigen less than 20 ng/ml, and biopsy Grade Group [GG]1-2). Patients were classified into 3 groups by diagnostic GG and prostate specific antigen density. Primary outcome was metastatic prostate cancer detected on imaging or at prostatectomy. In addition, upgrade at surveillance biopsy, active treatment, and overall and prostate cancer specific survival outcomes were assessed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. RESULTS: A total of 1,450 men met the inclusion criteria. Median followup was 77 months (IQR 49-114). The 7-year metastasis-free survival rate was 99%. Metastases developed in 15 men at a median of 62 months (IQR 29-104), of which 69% were confined to lymph nodes. Men with GG2 had a lower metastasis-free survival rate compared to those with GG1 disease. GG2, prostate specific antigen velocity and PI-RADS® 4-5 lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging were associated with a higher risk of metastases. The 7-year prostate cancer specific survival was greater than 99%. CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance seems to preserve favorable long-term prognosis, as metastases and prostate cancer specific death are rare. However, the higher risk of metastases associated with higher Gleason grade, prostate specific antigen velocity, and characteristics on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when selecting and counseling patients for active surveillance.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239975, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the value of the PI-RADS 2.1 scoring system in the detection of prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI in comparison to the standard PI-RADS 2.0 system and to assess its inter-reader variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This IRB-approved study included 229 patients undergoing multiparametric prostate MRI prior to MRI-guided TRUS-based biopsy, which were retrospectively recruited from our prospectively maintained institutional database. Two readers with high (reader 1, 6 years) and low (reader 2, 2 years) level of expertise identified the lesion with the highest PI-RADS score for both version 2.0 and 2.1 for each patient. Inter-reader agreement was estimated, and diagnostic accuracy analysis was performed. RESULTS: Inter-reader agreement on PI-RADS scores was fair for both version 2.0 (kappa: 0.57) and 2.1 (kappa: 0.51). Detection rates for prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) were almost identical for both PI-RADS versions and higher for the more experienced reader (AUC, Reader 1: PCa, 0.881-0.887, csPCa, 0.874-0.879; Reader 2: PCa, 0.765, csPCa, 0.746-0.747; both p > 0.05), both when using a PI-RADS score of ≥ 4 and ≥3 as indicators for positivity for cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The new PI-RADS 2.1 scoring system showed comparable diagnostic performance and inter-reader variability compared to version 2.0. The introduced changes in the version 2.1 seem only to take effect in a very small number of patients.


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Área Sob a Curva , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6499-6503, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Late toxicity and long-term outcomes of a phase I-II trial on patients with prostate cancer treated with an integrated boost to the dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, with a simultaneous integrated boost to the DIL, defined on staging magnetic resonance imaging, delivering 72 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction to prostate/seminal vesicles and 80 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction to the DIL. The primary endpoint was acute toxicity and secondary endpoints were late toxicity and biochemical disease-free survival. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 120 (range=25-150) months. Five-year rates of grade 3 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity were 2.3% and 4.5%, respectively; only one grade 4 late genitourinary toxicity was recorded. Five-year biochemical relapse-free and overall survival rates were 95.3% and 95.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The treatment was well tolerated and achieved excellent results in terms of outcome in patients with low-intermediate Gleason's score and low risk of nodal metastasis.


Assuntos
Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1183-1187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913154

RESUMO

Aims: This study compared the analgesic effect of apical peri-prostatic block with that of intra-rectal xylocaine gel for trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx) in Nigeria. Methods: This is a prospective randomized comparative study carried out over one year in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria. The participants were randomized into two groups; Group A had 10 mls of intra-rectal xylocaine gel instillation while Group B had apical infiltration of 10 mls of 1% xylocaine all before TRUS-PBx. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean pain score during and one hour after TRUS-PBx between Group A and Group B of the study population respectively (p < 0.0001). Those that had intra-rectal xylocaine gel (Group A) had more pain during and after biopsy. There was no difference in the mean pain score during probe insertion between the two groups (p = 0.952). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the superiority of apical peri-prostatic nerve block over intra rectal xylocaine gel instillation during TRUS-PBx with respect to its anesthetic efficacy. Therefore, centers providing TRUS-PBx in Nigeria should consider apical peri-prostatic nerve block as their mode of anesthesia for the procedure due to its efficacy and high safety profile.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Administração Retal , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biópsia por Agulha/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/inervação , Reto/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
13.
J Urol ; 204(5): 941-949, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contemporary biopsy methods were used to determine the success rate of hemigland cryoablation as a primary treatment for prostate cancer. Previous studies, often including men at low risk, have used magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy to a variable extent. Here, we uniformly used the new diagnostic modality to study all men, each with clinically significant cancer, at baseline and at short and intermediate-term followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an open label trial (NCT03503643) 61 men with unilateral cancer (all clinically significant, ie Grade Group 2 or greater) underwent primary hemigland cryoablation. Subjects were 80% Caucasian, average age 69 years, prostate specific antigen 6.6 ng/ml and prostate volume 38 cc. Biopsy was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion prior to treatment and at the followup intervals of near-term (6 months, in 61) and intermediate-term (18 months, in 27). All utilities of fusion biopsy, ie targeting of magnetic resonance imaging visible lesions, template systematic sampling, and in followup, tracking of prior positive sites, were used throughout the study to detect clinically significant cancer, the primary end point. RESULTS: Following treatment 82% of men (50 of 61) had no biopsy detectable clinically significant prostate cancer at 6-month near-term followup and 82% of men (22 of 27) reaching the 18-month intermediate-term remained biopsy negative. Combination of the 3 sampling methods provided maximal cancer detection. During followup a new focus of cancer was found in the contralateral prostate in only 1 of 27 men. No adverse events above Clavien-Dindo grade 2 were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Hemigland cryoablation, when rigorously evaluated by all utilities of magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy, appears to eliminate clinically significant cancer in 82% of men, a success rate that endures for at least 18 months.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1229-1235, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We identified baseline imaging and clinical characteristics of patients that may improve risk stratification among patients being evaluated for active surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2007 to January 2020 patients referred to our institution for prostate cancer were evaluated and those who remained on active surveillance were identified. Men underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging upon entry into our active surveillance protocol during which baseline demographic and imaging data were documented. Patients were then followed and outcomes, specifically progression to Gleason Grade Group (GG)3 or greater disease, were recorded. RESULTS: Of the men placed on active surveillance 344 had at least 1 PI-RADS score documented. For those with an index lesion PI-RADS category of 5, 33% (17/51) had progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance with a median time to progression of 31 months. When comparing the progression-free survival times and progression rates in each category, PI-RADS category was found to be associated with progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance (p <0.01). On univariable analysis factors associated with progression included an index lesion PI-RADS category of 5, prostate specific antigen density and the size of the largest lesion. On multivariable analysis only PI-RADS category of 5 and prostate specific antigen density were associated with progression on active surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: PI-RADS lesion categories at baseline multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging during active surveillance enrollment can be used to predict cancer progression to GG3 or greater on active surveillance. This information, along with other clinical data, can better assist urologists in identifying and managing patients appropriate for active surveillance.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/estatística & dados numéricos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1202-1208, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study we determined the optimal number of transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy cores per lesion needed for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 101 patients with at least 1 lesion with a PI-RADS® (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) score of 3 or greater were recruited prospectively. At least 4 transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy cores per lesion were performed, followed by systematic biopsy. The Kappa test was used to evaluate the consistency of the clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate between different targeted biopsy cores and 4 or more cores, which was regarded as reference standard. RESULTS: In the total cohort of 101 patients 49 (48.5%), 55 (54.5%) and 57 (56.4%) were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer by systematic biopsy, targeted biopsy or targeted biopsy plus systematic biopsy, respectively. As for the total of 161 lesions, the clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate based on 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more targeted biopsy cores was made in 27.3%, 32.9%, 37.3% and 39.1%, respectively. Three cores showed great consistency with 4 or more cores in clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate (Kappa coefficient of 0.961, p <0.001) with a sensitivity of 95.2% (95% CI 85.8-98.8), and only missed 3 lesions harboring clinically significant prostate cancer. Similar results were obtained in cases with PI-RADS 3 or 4 or maximal diameter of less than 1.5 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Three targeted biopsies per lesion were suitable during transperineal magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound fusion biopsy, especially for lesions of PI-RADS 3 or 4, or small lesions (maximal diameter less than 1.5 cm), which may help to tailor targeted prostate biopsy procedures.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/normas , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
17.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1141-1149, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2) categorizes the likelihood of clinically significant prostate cancer on magnetic resonance imaging and determines the diagnostic pathway. We determined clinically significant prostate cancer and all prostate cancer detection rates in each PI-RADS v2 category. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE®, EMBASE® and Cochrane databases were searched for prospective studies reporting the detection rates of clinically significant prostate cancer or all prostate cancer. Random effects models were used to determine pooled detection rates of clinically significant prostate cancer and all prostate cancer for each PI-RADS category. The risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Meta-regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting study heterogeneity. RESULTS: Thirteen prospective studies including 4,265 men who underwent magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and/or systematic biopsy for a PI-RADS v2 category 3 or greater, or systematic biopsy for PI-RADS 1-2 were included. The pooled detection rates of clinically significant prostate cancer monotonically increased for each PI-RADS v2 category, ie 4% (95% CI 2-8) for category 1-2, 17% (95% CI 13-21) for category 3, 46% (95% CI 38-55) for category 4 and 75% (95% CI 73-78) for category 5. Substantial study heterogeneity was noted in clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates for categories 1-2 and 4, which were significantly affected by study subject selection (biopsy naïve patients only or not) and studies with a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: PI-RADS v2 can be useful for the stratification of the risk of clinically significant prostate cancer in patients at risk for prostate cancer but the limitations in category 4 still remain.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Procedimentos Clínicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235779, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the added value of preoperative prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) supplementary to clinical variables and their role in predicting post prostatectomy adverse findings and biochemically recurrent cancer (BCR). METHODS: All consecutive patients treated at HUS Helsinki University Hospital with robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) between 2014 and 2015 were included in the analysis. The mpMRI data, clinical variables, histopathological characteristics, and follow-up information were collected. Study end-points were adverse RALP findings: extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and BCR. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score and the Partin score were combined with any adverse findings at mpMRI. Predictive accuracy for adverse RALP findings by the regression models was estimated before and after the addition of MRI results. Logistic regression, area under curve (AUC), decision curve analyses, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used. RESULTS: Preoperative mpMRI data from 387 patients were available for analysis. Clinical variables alone, MSKCC nomogram or Partin tables were outperformed by models with mpMRI for the prediction of any adverse finding at RP. AUC for clinical parameters versus clinical parameters and mpMRI variables were 0.77 versus 0.82 for any adverse finding. For MSKCC nomogram versus MSKCC nomogram and mpMRI variables the AUCs were 0.71 and 0.78 for any adverse finding. For Partin tables versus Partin tables and mpMRI variables the AUCs were 0.62 and 0.73 for any adverse finding. In survival analysis, mpMRI-projected adverse RP findings stratify CAPRA and MSKCC high-risk patients into groups with distinct probability for BCR. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative mpMRI improves the predictive value of commonly used clinical variables for pathological stage at RP and time to BCR. mpMRI is available for risk stratification prebiopsy, and should be considered as additional source of information to the standard predictive nomograms.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Nomogramas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco
19.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1209-1215, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several transperineal biopsy series have proven feasibility under local anesthesia. However, there is a lack of large analyses detailing pain outcomes and factors influencing pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2016 to 2019 we performed a multicenter prospective study in men undergoing multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-transperineal fusion biopsies (target+systematic cores) under local anesthesia. Primary outcomes were 1) pain scores (assessed through a 0 to 10-point numeric rating scale) and 2) identification of factors associated with severe pain. The secondary outcome was to evaluate pain influence on clinically significant prostate cancer target cores detection. RESULTS: We included 1,008 men undergoing transperineal fusion biopsies under local anesthesia. Mean±SD numeric rating scale pain scores were 3.9±2.1 at local anesthesia administration and 3.1±2.3 when performing biopsies. Pain was not associated with lower clinically significant prostate cancer detection on targeted cores (p=0.23 and p=0.47 depending on clinically significant prostate cancer definition). On multivariate analysis age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99) and severe anxiety (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.83-4.89) were a protective and risk factor, respectively, for severe biopsy pain. Procedural time was also associated with an increased risk of experiencing severe biopsy pain (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08). If aiming to test the possible effects of anxiety preventive measures on pain, an anxiety cutoff greater than 6 on a numeric rating scale would decrease to 13% the number of patients being treated while identifying 56% of those experiencing severe pain. CONCLUSIONS: Transperineal fusion biopsies under local anesthesia result in moderate pain. Pain does not influence clinically significant prostate cancer target detection. Patient anxiety predicts pain. A numeric rating scale based anxiety assessment may be used to identify those at higher risk for experiencing severe pain in men undergoing transperineal fusion biopsies.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Dor Processual/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/efeitos adversos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/psicologia , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/psicologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Medição da Dor , Dor Processual/diagnóstico , Dor Processual/etiologia , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
20.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1180-1186, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614257

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy which reveals no cancer may impart reassurance beyond that offered by ultrasound guided biopsy. However, followup of men after a negative magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy has been mostly by prostate specific antigen testing and reports of followup tissue confirmation are few. We investigated the incidence of clinically significant prostate cancer in such men who, because of persistent cancer suspicion, subsequently underwent a repeat magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were all men with a negative initial magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy who underwent at least 1 further magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy due to continued clinical suspicion of clinically significant prostate cancer (September 2009 to July 2019). Biopsies were magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion with targeted and systematic cores. Regions of interest from initial magnetic resonance imaging and any new regions of interest at followup magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy were targeted. The primary end point was detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason Grade Group 2 or greater). RESULTS: Of 2,716 men 733 had a negative initial magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy. Study subjects were 73/733 who underwent followup magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy. Median (IQR) age and prostate specific antigen density were 64 years (59-67) and 0.12 ng/ml/cc (0.08-0.17), respectively. Baseline PI-RADS® scores were 3 or greater in 74%. At followup magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy (median 2.4 years, IQR 1.3-3.6), 17/73 (23%) were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer. When followup magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion (PI-RADS 3 or greater), clinically significant prostate cancer was found in 17/53 (32%). When followup magnetic resonance imaging was negative (PI-RADS less than 3), cancer was not found (0/20) (p <0.01). Overall 54% of men with PI-RADS 5 at followup magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Men with negative magnetic resonance imaging following an initial negative magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy are unlikely to harbor clinically significant prostate cancer and may avoid repeat biopsy. However, when lesions are seen on followup magnetic resonance imaging, repeat magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy is warranted.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem Multimodal/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/normas , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/normas , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/estatística & dados numéricos
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