Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.915
Filtrar
1.
Talanta ; 233: 122542, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215045

RESUMO

The tailor-prepare solid phase microextraction (SPME) coatings with stable and excellent properties to effectively extract analytes from sample matrix still remains a challenge. Herein, a nitrogen doped graphitic carbon networks (NG-CNTW) coated fiber was fabricated by direct carbonization of nanosized ZIF-67 crystals (nano-ZIF-67) that grown on stainless steel wire. The NG-CNTW coated fiber coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was applied for enrichment and determination of pyrethroids. The NG-CNTW coating exhibited high surface area and hierarchical porous structures that facilitate diffusion and accessibility of target molecules. Simultaneously, the nitrogen doped and highly graphitic structures endow the coating with high adsorption affinity for aromatic compounds. Under optimum conditions, the SPME-GC-MS/MS method presented wide range of linearity performance (0.08-200.0 ng g-1), low limits of detection (0.02-0.5 ng g-1) and good repeatability (RSD < 9.6%) for 8 kinds of pyrethroids. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of pyrethroids in grape and cauliflower samples, as the results were in the range of 3.16-15.06 ng g-1and 2.08-9.29 ng g-1, respectively. This work not only provides a new method by fabricating carbon nanomaterial coatings in situ derived from MOFs, but also shows great potential of MOFs derivative materials in environmental analysis field.


Assuntos
Grafite , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Nitrogênio , Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide residues are a threat to the health of the global population, not only to farmers, applicators, and other pesticide professionals. Humans are exposed through various routes such as food, skin, and inhalation. This study summarizes the different methods to assess and/or estimate human exposure to pesticide residues of the global population. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out on Scopus and web of science databases of studies on human exposure to pesticide residues since 2019. RESULTS: The methods to estimate human health risk can be categorized as direct (determining the exposure through specific biomarkers in human matrices) or indirect (determining the levels in the environment and food and estimating the occurrence). The role that analytical techniques play was analyzed. In both cases, the application of generic solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, followed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, is decisive. Advances within the analytical techniques have played an unquestionable role. CONCLUSIONS: All these studies have contributed to an important advance in the knowledge of analytical techniques for the detection of pesticide levels and the subsequent assessment of nonoccupational human exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química
3.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117498, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261216

RESUMO

A monitoring network was established in streams within a catchment near the Costa Rican Pacific coast (2008-2011) to estimate the impact of pesticides in surface water (84 samples) and sediments (84 samples) in areas under the influence of melon and watermelon production. A total of 66 (water) and 47 (sediment) pesticides were analyzed, and an environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed for four taxa (algae, Daphnia magna, fish and Chironomus riparius). One fungicide and seven insecticides were detected in water and/or sediment; the fungicide azoxystrobin (water) and the insecticide cypermethrin (sediments) were the most frequently detected pesticides. The insecticides endosulfan (5.76 µg/L) and cypermethrin (301 µg/kg) presented the highest concentrations in water and sediment, respectively. The ERA revealed acute risk in half of the sampling points of the melon-influenced area and in every sampling point from the watermelon-influenced area. Safety levels were exceeded within and around the crop fields, suggesting that agrochemical contamination was distributed along the catchment, with potential influence of nearby crops. Acute risk was caused by the insecticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and endosulfan to D. magna, fish and C. riparius; the latter was the organism with the overall highest/continuous risk. High chronic risk was determined in all but one sampling point, and revealed a higher number of pesticides of concern. Cypermethrin was the only pesticide to pose chronic risk for all benchmark organisms. The results provide new information on the risk that tropical crops pose to aquatic ecosystems, and highlight the importance of including the analysis of sediment concentrations and chronic exposure in ERA.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Cucurbitaceae , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134442

RESUMO

Historical use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Republic of Moldova could pose a potential risk for the aquatic environment due to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties of these environmental pollutants. However, knowledge on environmental concentrations of legacy OCPs in Moldova is limited. In this study, surface sediment from the two main rivers; Dniester (8 sites, n = 15) and Prut (6 sites, n = 12), and two tributary rivers; Bîc (11 sites, n = 11) and Raut (6 sites, n = 6), were collected during 2017-2018 and analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their transformation products (DDDs and DDEs) using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Sediment concentrations of Æ©6DDX (1.9-140 ng g-1 dry weight (dw)) and Æ©4HCHs (n.d-2.5 ng g-1 dw) were found. In the big rivers, the average Æ©6DDX concentration (18 ng g-1 dw) were 35 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.51 ng g-1 dw). Whereas, in the small rivers the average Æ©6DDX concentration (32 ng g-1 dw) was approximately 41 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.77 ng g-1 dw). Compared to previous studies from Eastern Europe, the sediment levels were generally similar as found in Moldova's neighboring countries (Romania and Ukraine). Overall, the contamination profile indicates long-term ageing of OCPs used in the past in the agricultural sector. Less than half of the sites (45%) had levels that pose a potential risk for benthic organisms. Hence, further work is needed to determine the bioaccumulation of OCPs in the aquatic food web in this region and the associated risks to ecosystems and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa Oriental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Moldávia , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Romênia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ucrânia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(23): 6676-6689, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098718

RESUMO

Existing methods for the analysis of pesticides in human breast milk involve multiple extraction steps requiring large sample and solvent volumes, which can be a major obstacle in large epidemiologic studies. Here, we developed a simple, low-volume method for extracting organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, atrazine, and imidacloprid from 100 to 200 µL of human breast milk. Multiple extraction protocols were tested including microwave-assisted acid/base digestion and double-solvent extraction with 2 or 20 mL of 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane/hexane, with or without subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analyte recoveries and reproducibility were highest when 100-200 µL of milk were extracted with 2 mL of dichloromethane/hexane without subsequent SPE steps. Analysis of 79 breast milk samples using this method revealed the presence of carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and imidacloprid at detection frequencies of 79-96, 53-90, 1-7, and 61%, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a simple low-volume extraction method for measuring pesticides in human breast milk.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147921, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134388

RESUMO

Pesticides pose a serious risk to ecosystems. In this study, we used European Food Safety Authority methods, such as risk quotient (RQ) and toxicity exposure ratios (TER), to assess the potential ecological risks of 15 pesticide residues detected in agricultural soils in the Gaidahawa Rural Municipality of Nepal. The mean and maximum concentrations of the detected pesticide residues in the soil were used for risk characterization related to soil organisms. RQmean, TERmean and RQmaximum, TERmaximum were used to determine general and the worst-case scenarios, respectively. Of all the detected pesticides in soils, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for 27% of the pesticides was not available in literature for the tested soil organisms and their TER and RQ could not be calculated. RQ threshold value of ≥1 indicates high risk for organisms. Similarly, TER threshold value of ≥5, which is acceptable trigger point value for chronic exposure, indicates an acceptable risk. The results showed that the worst-case scenario (RQmaximum) indicated a high risk for soil organisms from chlorpyrifos [RQmaximum > 9 at depths (cm) of 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 soil layer]; imidacloprid (1.78 in the 35-40 cm soil layer) and profenofos (3.37 in the 0-5 cm and 1.09 in the 35-40 cm soil layer). Likewise, for all the soil depths, the calculated TER for both the general and worst-case scenarios for chlorpyrifos ranged from 0.37 to 3.22, indicating chronic toxicity to F. candida. Furthermore, the risk of organophosphate pesticides for soil organisms in the sampling sites was mainly due to chlorpyrifos, except for two study sites where the risk was from profenofos. Ecological risk assessment (EcoRA) of the pesticide use in the study area indicated that the EFSA soil organisms were at risk at some of the localities where farmers practiced conventional farming.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Ecossistema , Nepal , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Verduras
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072924

RESUMO

Farmers are among the most vulnerable populations because of the exposure to low levels of pesticides. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities are considered as biomarkers of pesticides poisoning. However, biomarkers of oxidative stress are also playing an important role in toxicity of these contaminants. Further, increased activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea and creatinine have been linked with hepatic and nephrotoxic cell damage, respectively. The aim of this study was to ascertain if the indirect exposure to pesticides leads to some biochemical parameter changes. Thus, cholinesterase activities, oxidative stress status (lipid and protein oxidation), hepatic function (AST and ALT levels), hormonal function (TSH, T4, FSH, LH and AMH), renal function (serum creatinine and urea), as well as possible subclinical kidney damage (urinary proteins and biomarkers of early kidney damage) were evaluated in farmer women who collect fruits and vegetables comparing with a group of women non-occupational exposed to pesticides but living in the same rural environment. Samples were taken periodically along one year to relate the observed effects to a chronic exposure. Our main results showed for the first time a subclinical kidney damage in a rural setting with indirect chronic exposure to pesticides.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Alanina Transaminase , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8859-8865, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165948

RESUMO

Although the use of pesticides has highlighted obvious advantages on agricultural yields, intensive and widespread pesticide use raises serious environmental and health concerns. In particular, organophosphate pesticides represent >40% of the totality used in the field of agriculture, and developing countries face the issue of agricultural poisoning, also due to scarce monitoring programs. In this work, a decentralized, miniaturized, sustainable, and portable paper-based electrochemical biosensor for the quantification of organophosphorus pesticides' level has been realized. The proposed approach highlights the use of a very common paper-based substrate, namely, office paper. Office paper offers several advantages due to its nature: it allows one to print conductive strips for electrochemical connection, loading bio-hybrid nanosized probes (Prussian blue, carbon black, and butyrylcholinesterase), evaluating pesticides and reducing waste disposal compared to plastic-based strips. The portable system has been characterized by a low detection limit of 1.3 ng/mL, and accordingly to total discovered pesticide contents in EU agricultural soils, up to ca. 3 µg/mL, it can offer a valuable tool for fast monitoring. To demonstrate its effectiveness, soil and fruit vegetables have been used to perform in situ quantification. Good recovery percentages between 90 and 110% have been achieved in different matrices, highlighting to be suitable for field measurements, and a good correlation has been obtained in comparison with LC-MS analysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Solo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147215, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088076

RESUMO

The present work is the first extensive study of large-scale pesticides research in wild animals. The investigation covered three game species: wild boar (n = 42), roe deer (n = 79) and deer (n = 15) collected from north-eastern Poland. To characterize the 480 pesticides in muscle samples, LC-GC-MS/MS techniques were used. A total of 28 compounds were detected: 5 neonicotinoids, 6 organochlorine and 5 other insecticides, 9 fungicides and 4 herbicides, in the range of 0.1-85.3 ng g-1. Over four hundred detections were done. The highest mean concentrations were as follows: anthraquinone (85.3 ng g-1) > DDT-p,p' (4.6 ng g-1) > imidacloprid (4.3 ng g-1) > permethrin (3.6 ng g-1) > thiacloprid (2.8 ng g-1). DDT and metabolites were the most frequently detected, followed by acetamiprid, tebuconazole, clothianidin and imidacloprid. Overall, 92% samples with residues were recorded, including 100% of wild boar, 88% of roe deer and 86% of deer. More than one pesticide (up to 9) was found in over 73% of the tested samples. The estimated chronic and acute risk to consumers of venison were very low (below 1% ADI and ARfD). This interdisciplinary study may be helpful for estimating ecological risk to wild animals and risk to consumers of wild animal products, and also as a source of biomonitoring data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas , Animais , Agricultura Florestal , Praguicidas/análise , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Talanta ; 232: 122397, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074393

RESUMO

The utilization of pesticides has been increased in recent years due to population growth and increasing urbanization. The constant use of pesticides has resulted in contamination of the environment and agricultural products with serious human health concerns associated with their use. Therefore, detection and quantification of pesticides by sensitive and selective methods is highly required in food safety management. Traditional detection methods cannot realize highly sensitive, selective and on-site detection, which limits their application. (Bio)sensors and (bio)assays are emerging tools with unique properties such as rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection. Among them, enzyme-based biosensors have been widely developed and some have even been commercialized. However, they suffer from some limitations such as instability and low reproducibility that originate from the nature of enzyme. Non-enzymatic (bio)sensors overcome the current limitations of enzyme-based detection methods and provide great potential for efficient, highly sensitive and low-cost detection assays using smart and miniaturized devices. In this study, we provide an overview of recent advances and new trends in optical and electrochemical non-enzymatic (bio)sensors for the detection of pesticides by focusing on antibody, aptamer and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition elements. Performance, advantages and drawbacks of the developed (bio)sensors are discussed well. The main advantage these recognition elements is their stability over an extended period of time compared to the enzymes. Furthermore, the combination of nanomaterials in these (bio)sensors can significantly improve their performance.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Impressão Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Humanos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063344

RESUMO

Safety and quality are key issues for the food industry. Consequently, there is growing demand to preserve the food chain and products against substances toxic, harmful to human health, such as contaminants, allergens, toxins, or pathogens. For this reason, it is mandatory to develop highly sensitive, reliable, rapid, and cost-effective sensing systems/devices, such as electrochemical sensors/biosensors. Generally, conventional techniques are limited by long analyses, expensive and complex procedures, and skilled personnel. Therefore, developing performant electrochemical biosensors can significantly support the screening of food chains and products. Here, we report some of the recent developments in this area and analyze the contributions produced by electrochemical biosensors in food screening and their challenges.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Antibacterianos/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068747

RESUMO

(1) Background: Halogenated pesticides are abundantly used in Cameroon, but there is no information on the health risk of consumers from exposure to their residues in foods. (2) Methods: Residues of 20 halogenated pesticides were determined in 11 agricultural products collected in the 3 largest cities of Cameroon using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and health risk from dietary exposure was assessed. (3) Results: Organochlorines pesticides aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) found in 85.0%, 81.9% and 72.5% of samples, respectively, were the most frequently detected. The highest average concentrations of residues were 1.12, 0.74 and 0.39 mg/kg for methoxychlor, alachlor and ß-HCH, respectively, found in chilli pepper. Chili pepper (58.9%), cowpea (56.8%), black beans (56.5%) and kidney beans (54.0%) exhibited the highest residue occurrences. Levels above the European Union maximum residue limits (MRLs) were found for all the 20 pesticides, in 40.1% of the positive analyses, and the food samples contained 14 pesticides banned in Cameroon. Chronic, acute, cumulative and carcinogenic risk assessments revealed that lifetime consumption of maize, black beans, kidney beans, groundnuts and chili pepper contaminated with aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and ß-HCH, could pose health risks. (4) Conclusion: These results show that there is an urgent need of pesticide usage regulation, effective application of pesticide bans and management of obsolete pesticide stocks in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adulto , Camarões , Exposição Dietética , Heptacloro/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120002, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090095

RESUMO

The utilization and residue of pesticides exist multifaceted non-restrictive effects on food safety and ecological protection. Exploitation of rapid and sensitive pesticide detection technology is imperative and will be helpful to better control the detriment of pesticides. Here, a novel flexible film has been prepared based on organic-inorganic composite materials (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid and GdF3:Sm3+), which exhibits good optical performance and can well realize the timely and maneuverable detection for different pesticides. The spectra and luminescence properties of each composition in the composite have been analyzed systematically, and the coordinated fluorescence emission of Sm3+ and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid is revealed at an excitation wavelength of 373 nm. Besides, the energy transfer mechanism is also researched by both experiment and theoretical calculation. The actual detection of different pesticides reveals differential fluorescence influence degree. Meanwhile, the flexible film still possesses sensitive recognition in the presence of micro concentration of pesticides. Results indicate that the flexible film with good optical performance can produce visual detection ability and provide a promising strategy for wider detection applications.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Cumarínicos , Luminescência , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071295

RESUMO

Historically, chemicals exceeding maximum allowable exposure levels have been disastrous to underdeveloped countries. The global food industry is primarily affected by toxic chemical substances because of natural and anthropogenic factors. Food safety is therefore threatened due to contamination by chemicals throughout the various stages of food production. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the form of pesticides and other chemical substances such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) have a widely documented negative impact due to their long-lasting effect on the environment. This present review focuses on the chemical contamination pathways along the various stages of food production until the food reaches the consumer. The contamination of food can stem from various sources such as the agricultural sector and pollution from industrialized regions through the air, water, and soil. Therefore, it is imperative to control the application of chemicals during food packaging, the application of pesticides, and antibiotics in the food industry to prevent undesired residues on foodstuffs. Ultimately, the protection of consumers from food-related chemical toxicity depends on stringent efforts from regulatory authorities both in developed and underdeveloped nations.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo
15.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130055, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984903

RESUMO

The worldwide development of agriculture and industry has resulted in contamination of water bodies by pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other xenobiotics. Even at trace levels of few micrograms per liter in waters, these contaminants induce public health and environmental issues, thus calling for efficient removal methods such as adsorption. Recent adsorption techniques for wastewater treatment involve metal oxide compounds, e.g. Fe2O3, ZnO, Al2O3 and ZnO-MgO, and carbon-based materials such as graphene oxide, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and carbon/graphene quantum dots. Here, the small size of metal oxides and the presence various functional groups has allowed higher adsorption efficiencies. Moreover, carbon-based adsorbents exhibit unique properties such as high surface area, high porosity, easy functionalization, low price, and high surface reactivity. Here we review the cytotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs and pesticides in terms of human risk and ecotoxicology. We also present remediation techniques involving adsorption on metal oxides and carbon-based materials.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Humanos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Óxidos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 104: 11-16, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985714

RESUMO

Determination of pesticides in cannabis facilities is increasingly important as medicinal and recreational uses of cannabis products expand rapidly. We report a method involving wipe sampling, liquid chromatography separation, and tandem mass spectrometry, which enables determination of 82 pesticides out of the 96 regulated by Health Canada. To demonstrate an application of the method, we sampled and measured pesticides in two cannabis growing facilities, representing a non-certified and a certified site. We detected 41 pesticides in surface wipe samples at the non-certified site and 6 at the certified site. This study provides the first evidence showing pesticide occurrence on common surfaces in cannabis growing facilities and points to a need for routine monitoring and strict control of pesticide use in cannabis facilities.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Canadá , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(6): 936-941, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014360

RESUMO

River water-column and bottom-sediments samples were screened for 160 pesticide compounds to compare the types of pesticides present in the water-column versus bottom-sediments, and between segments of rivers flowing through intensively-managed versus semi-natural habitats. Of the 35 pesticide compounds detected, current-use pesticides accounted for 96% (water) and 76% (bottom sediments). Pesticide mixtures were present in 72% (water) and 51% (sediment) of the total samples. Only the river flowing through the most intensively managed habitat showed a wide range of pesticides in sediments, and many of these pesticides were also present in the water-column of that river. Current-use fungicides were detected in both the water-column and bottom-sediments but not in samples taken from rivers flowing predominantly through semi-natural habitats. The study period (May to August) corresponds to the peak time of regional pesticide applications and hence the time period that is most likely to show elevated concentrations of current-use pesticides in the water-column. The environmental concentrations of pesticide mixtures detected in the water-column were used to calculate Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values as it applies to non-vascular or vascular plants, invertebrates, and fish. The PTI values were largest for non-vascular and vascular plants, reflecting that the pesticide mixtures in water-column were dominated by herbicides.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Pradaria , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Res ; 199: 111282, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential exposure to pesticides may occur via inhalation of airborne pesticides, direct skin contacts with pesticide-contaminated surfaces, and consumption of food containing pesticide residues. The aim was to study the association of dermal exposure to pesticides between the use and non-use periods, between farmer and non-farmer families and between dermal exposure and the excretion of metabolites from urine in residents living close to treated agricultural fields. METHODS: In total, 112 hand wipes and 206 spot urine samples were collected from 16 farmer and 38 non-farmer participants living within 50 m from an agricultural field in the Netherlands. The study took place from May 2016 to December 2017 during the use as well as the non-use periods of pesticides. Hand wipes were analysed for the parent compound and urines samples for the corresponding urinary metabolite of five applied pesticides: asulam, carbendazim (applied as thiophanate-methyl), chlorpropham, prochloraz and tebuconazole. Questionnaire data was used to study potential determinants of occurrence and levels of pesticides in hand wipes according to univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Carbendazim and tebuconazole concentrations in hand wipes were statistically significantly higher in the pesticide-use period compared to the non-use period. In addition, especially during the use periods, concentrations were statistically significantly higher in farmer families compared to non-farmer families. For asulam, chlorpropham and prochloraz, the frequency of non-detects was too high (57-85%) to be included in this analysis. The carbendazim contents in urine samples and hand wipes were correlated on the first and second day after taking the hand wipe, whereas chlorpropham was only observed to be related on the second day following the spray event. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations in hand wipes were overall higher in pesticide use periods compared to non-use periods and higher in farmer families compared to non-farmer families. Only for carbendazim a strong correlation between concentrations in hand wipes and its main metabolite in urine was observed, indicating dermal exposure via contaminated indoor surfaces. We expect this to be related to the lower vapour pressure and longer environmental lifetime of carbendazim compared to the other pesticides studies.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mãos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Praguicidas/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 361: 130116, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029898

RESUMO

A magnetic mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers was synthesized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles silanized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate to introduce reactive methacrylate groups. Subsequently, methacrylic acid monomers were grafted onto the surface of this adsorbent functionalized via polymerization by precipitation. Magnetic mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymer was properly characterized by different techniques and applied as adsorbent in magnetic solid phase extraction for selective determination of two organophosphorus pesticides, azamethiphos and chlorpyrifos, in mineral water and grape samples. After sample preparation optimization, recoveries of 99.56% and 98.86% were obtained for azamethiphos and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The magnetic solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC-UV presented limit of quantification of 5 ng mL-1, linearity ranged of 5 to 1000 ng mL-1, in addition to adequate accuracy, precision and robustness. The pesticides showed stability in the matrix and were satisfactorily quantified in real mineral water and grape samples.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/química , Águas Minerais , Vitis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Magnetismo , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/química , Organotiofosfatos/química , Organotiofosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/química , Porosidade , Extração em Fase Sólida
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(11): 7365-7375, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006107

RESUMO

The life-critical matrices of air and water are among the most complex chemical mixtures that are ever encountered. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometers, such as the Orbitrap, provide unprecedented analytical capabilities to probe the molecular composition of such matrices, but the extraction of non-targeted chemical information is impractical to perform via manual data processing. Automated non-targeted tools rapidly extract the chemical information of all detected compounds within a sample dataset. However, these methods have not been exploited in the environmental sciences. Here, we provide an automated and (for the first time) rigorously tested methodology for the non-targeted compositional analysis of environmental matrices using coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric data. First, the robustness and reproducibility was tested using authentic standards, evaluating performance as a function of concentration, ionization potential, and sample complexity. The method was then used for the compositional analysis of particulate matter and surface waters collected from worldwide locations. The method detected >9600 compounds in the individual environmental samples, arising from critical pollutant sources, including carcinogenic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals among others. This methodology offers considerable advances in the environmental sciences, providing a more complete assessment of sample compositions while significantly increasing throughput.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...