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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 128-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016363

RESUMO

The Variable Volume Water Model (VVWM), the receiving water body model for the USEPA regulatory assessment of aquatic pesticide exposures, is composed of a set of static and quasistatic receiving water body conceptual models, but research comparing performance of these models to observations is limited. The water body models included are the constant volume (CVol), constant volume with overflow (CVO), and varying volume with overflow (VVO) models. This work quantified the performance of these three VVWM conceptual models compared with atrazine observations in 50 community water systems (CWSs), and the effect of alternative conceptual models on estimated environmental concentrations of pesticides in regulatory screening assessments. The 50 selected CWSs most relevant to the static and quasistatic VVWM concepts were small in size, with estimated time to peak flow of <1.5 d for consistency with the daily runoff assumption in USEPA landscape Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM). The CVO and VVO conceptual models resulted in similar distributions of bias across CWSs with the median result being close to no bias, but the CVol model resulted in overestimation in the majority of CWSs with median model bias near three times the observed values. At present, the CVol conceptual model parameterized with conservative input assumptions has been the regulatory standard invoked in VVWM, yet our results showed that a more physically correct conceptual model (CVO or VVO) could be invoked in regulatory exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment, reducing structural model bias while still allowing users to introduce conservative model inputs for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Água
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 152-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016367

RESUMO

Pesticides are important for agriculture in the United States, and atrazine is one of the most widely used and widely detected pesticides in surface water. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which atrazine and its degradation product, deethylatrazine, increase and decrease in surface waters can help inform future decisions for water quality improvement. This study considers causal factors for trends in pesticide concentration in U.S. streams and models the causal factors, other than use, in structural equation models. The structural equation models use a concomitant trend in corn (Zea mays L.) and a latent variable model, indicating moisture supply and management. The moisture supply and management latent variable model incorporates long-term moisture conditions in the individual watersheds by using the Palmer hydrologic drought index, human influence on the hydrologic cycle through the percentage of the watershed drained by tile drains in 2012, and the base-flow contribution to streamflow, using the base-flow index. The structural equation models explain 77 and 38% of the variability in atrazine and deethylatrazine trends, respectively, across the conterminous United States. The models highlight future water quality challenges, particularly in tile-drained settings where fall precipitation and heavy precipitation are increasing.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Atrazina/análogos & derivados , Estados Unidos
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1334-1346, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016454

RESUMO

Limited research has focused on factors affecting pesticide losses from ornamental plant production nurseries. This project evaluated the effects of overhead irrigation or simulated rainfall intensity and formulation and application methods on the losses of acephate, bifenthrin, and imidacloprid in drainage water. The liquid formulation of each respective pesticide was applied to individual replicates (potted Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton plant on a drainage collection saucer) as substrate-applied drenches or foliar sprays (acephate and bifenthrin only). Granular formulations of acephate and imidacloprid were spread across the tops of media in pots. After application of treatments, irrigation or simulated rainfall was applied daily for 19 consecutive days at rates of 42.3 ± 4.57, 56.7 ± 7.92, and 95.4 ± 19.47 ml min-1 , and drainage water from individual replicates was collected for analysis. Irrigation or simulated rainfall intensity had no effects on losses of the pesticides under the conditions tested. Concentrations in drainage of all three pesticides were highest from the drench applications, whereas respective foliar spray applications resulted in the lowest active ingredient concentrations in drainage. The percentage of active ingredient lost in drainage water ranged from a minimum of 0.2 ± 0.05% (mean ± SE) for granular acephate to a maximum of 19.5 ± 3.14% (mean ± SE) for the imidacloprid drench. Most pesticide losses occurred within the first 2 d after application of drenches or sprays. Granular formulations had a longer period of release, indicating a risk of loss from overirrigation during an extended period. Results emphasize the need for careful water management after applications.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Plantas , Água
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 692, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037524

RESUMO

Residue levels of seven commonly used pesticides were determined in random samples of tomatoes, French beans, and kale collected from horticultural farms in Buuri, Imenti North, and Imenti South sub-counties in Meru, Kenya, just before delivery to the consumers. QuEChERS method for extraction followed by LC-MS/MS was used to determine the concentrations. The concentrations (µg kg-1 wet weight) in French beans, kale, and tomatoes ranged from below detection limit (BDL): BDL-48.65 (carbendazim), BDL-290.76 (imidacloprid), BDL-2.81 (acetamiprid), BDL-25.76 (azoxystrobin), BDL-105.18 (metalaxyl), BDL-0.15 (diazinon), and BDL-0.17(chlorpyrifos). The maximum residue levels determined in the horticultural produce from the three regions were 290 µg kg-1 for imidacloprid in tomatoes from Buuri and 25.76 µg kg-1for azoxystrobin in French beans from Imenti South. The pesticide residue levels generally were extremely low and met the MRLs set by EU and other countries, except for carbendazim and metalaxyl in French beans, and posed no concern to human health. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) (mg kg-1 BW/day) for the population of Meru County were very low ranging from 1.685 × 10-8 (acetamiprid) to 2.381 × 10-5 (imidacloprid) in tomatoes, 2.849 × 10-9 (metalaxyl) to 3.633 × 10-7 (azoxystrobin) in French beans, and 1.392 × 10-8 (diazinon) in kale, respectively. The health risk indices were subsequently extremely low for the detectable pesticide residues, ranging from 6.74 × 10-7 (acetamiprid) to 3.97 × 10-4 (imidacloprid) in tomatoes, 3.56 × 10-8 (metalaxyl) to 5.52 × 10-5 (chlorpyrifos) in French beans, and 6.96 × 10-5 (diazinon) in kale, respectively, indicating no health risk in the population, but their presence in these vegetables cannot be ignored as long-term exposure can still cause health risks.


Assuntos
Brassica , Lycopersicon esculentum , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Quênia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 615, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876774

RESUMO

Pesticides are not only used on food but also on non-food crops, such as tobacco, to control a range of unwanted animal, plant, and microbial, fungal pests. The residue levels in tobacco leaves are expected to decline up to harvest, during drying, and when the leaves are further processed. Additional pesticides may also be applied to the finished product and residue levels may remain present even when the tobacco is burned. Human exposure to pesticide residues on tobacco occurs when residues remaining in cigarette smoke are inhaled. Based on this assumption, the objectives of this research were (i) to determine the level of pesticides residues in harvested tobacco leaves and (ii) to assess the risk of human exposure to these residues in tobacco smoke. Pesticide residues were detected in all analysed tobacco samples. These detected residues represent ten different active ingredients (AI), three of these AIs (thiodicarb, alachlor, and endosulfan) are no longer allowed in Europe. A 54.7% of these residues were quantifiable. Furthermore, it was found that with the use of solid-phase extraction sorbent (SPE) as adsorbent and n-hexane as solvent, higher recoveries of the pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke from the amount spiked can be obtained. It was also found that cigarette filters help to reduce the intake of residues of pesticides that may be present in cigarettes. Finally, the study concluded that both active smoking and passive smoking populations are exposed to pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fumaça/análise , Tabaco
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141285, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943215

RESUMO

During water years (WY) 2013-2017, the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, sampled the National Water Quality Network - Rivers and Streams (NWQN) year-round and reported on 221 pesticides at 72 sites across the United States in agricultural, developed, and mixed land use watersheds. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was used to estimate the potential chronic and acute toxicity to three taxonomic groups - fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. For invertebrates (either cladocerans, benthic invertebrates, or both), the maximum PTI score exceeded the predicted acute toxicity screening level at 18 of the 72 sites (25%) at some point during WY 2013-2017. The predicted toxicity of a single pesticide compound was found to overwhelm the toxicity of other pesticides in the mixtures after concentrations were toxicity weighted. For this study, about 71%, 72%, and 92% of the Fish-, Cladoceran-, and Benthic Invertebrate-PTI scores, respectively, had one pesticide compound primarily contributing to sample potential toxicity (>50%). There were 17 (13 insecticides, 2 herbicides, 1 fungicide, and 1 synergist) of the 221 pesticide compounds analyzed that were the primary drivers of potential toxicity in each water sample in which the PTI and TUmax (toxic unit score for the pesticide that makes the single largest contribution to the PTI) scores were above predicted chronic (>0.1) or acute (>1) toxicity levels for one of the three taxa. For cladocerans and benthic invertebrates, the drivers of predicted chronic (>0.1) and acute (>1) PTIs were mostly insecticides. For cladocerans, the pesticide compounds driving the PTI scores were bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, diflubenzuron, flubendiamide, and tebupirimfos. For benthic invertebrates, atrazine (an herbicide), as well as the insecticides - bifenthrin, carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, fipronil, imidacloprid, and methamidophos - were the drivers of predicted toxicity. For fish, there were three pesticide types that contributed the most to predicted chronic (>0.1) PTIs - acetochlor, an herbicide; carbendazim, a fungicide degradate; and piperonylbutoxide, a synergist.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Estados Unidos , Água
7.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127312, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947663

RESUMO

As recognized risk factor to pose a health threat to humans and wildlife globally, atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were collected from a North African coastal city (Bizerte, Tunisia) for one year, and were characterized for their chemical compositions, including mercury (HgPM), as well as organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON), determined in a previous study. Then, we applied an in vitro reporter gene assay (DR-CALUX) to detect and quantify the dioxin-like activity of PM-associated organic contaminants. Results showed that average HgPM concentration over the entire sampling period was found to be 13.4 ± 12 pg m-3. Seasonal variation in the HgPM concentration was observed with lower values in spring and summer and higher values in winter and autumn due to the variation of meteorological conditions together with the emission sources. Principal component analysis suggested that fossil fuel combustion and a nearby cement factory were the dominant anthropogenic HgPM sources. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities were observed in all organic extracts of atmospheric PM from Bizerte city (388.3-1543.6 fg m-3), and shows significant positive correlations with all PM-associated organic contaminants. A significant proportion of dioxin-like activity of PM was related to PAHs. The dioxin-like activity followed the same trend as PM-associated organic contaminants, with higher dioxin-like activity in the cold season than in the warm season, indicating the advantage and utility of the use of bioassays in risk assessment of complex environmental samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Clima , Dioxinas/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Estações do Ano , Tunísia
8.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127333, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947666

RESUMO

Increasing use of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in Africa raises environmental and public health concerns. But there is a large uncertainty about their occurrence and the composition of pesticide mixtures on this continent. This paper investigates the presence of 27 CUPs in air across 20 sampling sites in Africa. 166 passive air samples, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF), were collected in 12 African countries between 2010 and 2018. Samples were extracted with methanol and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The detection frequencies of CUPs per site were compared to land use patterns and sampling years, while their similarities were assessed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Overall, 24 CUPs were detected at least once. In 93% of all samples, at least one CUP was detected, while 78% of the samples had mixtures of two or more CUPs (median 3, interquartile range 5). Atrazine and chlorpyrifos were detected in 19 out of 20 sampling sites. Carbaryl, metazachlor, simazine, tebuconazole and terbuthylazine had the highest detection frequencies at sampling sites dominated by croplands. Across all the sampling years, 16 CUPs were present. Seven CUPs were newly detected from 2016 onwards (azinfos-methyl, dimetachlor, chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, isoproturon, prochloraz and pyrazon), while metamitron was only present before 2012. Sites within a radius of about 200 km showed similarities in detected CUP mixtures across all samples. Our results show the presence of CUP mixtures across multiple agricultural and urban locations in Africa which requires further investigation of related environmental and human health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , África , Agricultura , Atrazina/análise , Clorpirifos/análise , Humanos , Poliuretanos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 655, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968858

RESUMO

It is known that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are used worldwide, and these pollutants are dangerous for human health. However, there are still countries where measurements of these pollutants have not been adequately measured. Although many studies have been published for determining the concentrations of POPs in Turkey, there are limited studies in Latin American countries like Peru. For this reason, it is essential both to conduct a study in Peru and to compare the study with another country. This study is aimed at determining the atmospheric POPs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations using passive air samplers in Yurimaguas (Peru) and Bursa (Turkey). Molecular diagnosis ratios and ring distribution methods were used to determine the sources of PAHs. According to these methods, coal and biomass combustions were among the primary sources of PAHs in Peru, while petrogenic and petroleum were the primary sources of PAHs in Turkey. Then, α-HCH/γ-HCH and ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios were used to determine the sources of OCPs. According to the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios, the primary sources of OCPs in both countries were lindane. Similarly, according to ß-/(α+γ)-HCH ratios, the HCHs have been historically used in Peru while they were recently utilized in Turkey. Finally, homologous group distributions were used to determine the sources of PCBs. Similar distributions of homologous groups were observed in the sampling sites in both countries. Also, the homologous group distributions obtained have been determined that industrial activities could be effective in the sampling areas in both countries. When the cancer risks that could occur via inhalation were evaluated, no significant cancer risk has been determined in both countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Peru , Medição de Risco , Turquia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140271, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783856

RESUMO

Dietary exposure is a major cause of pesticide bioaccumulation in herbivores. However, various types of natural conditions affect the structure of the complicated herbivores' diets, making it difficult to assess their exposure to pesticides. In this study, to evaluate the role of pesticides in the terrestrial food web, a dynamic hybrid dietary model was developed for North American white-tailed deer (or whitetails), which integrates different plant types and the digestibility of deer's foods. Moreover, an equivalent season approach was introduced to generalize the pesticide intake rate geographically. The results indicate that the soil-to-whitetail (meat) bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in summer are significantly higher than those of other seasonal periods, owing to the high food availability and digestibility. Pesticides with low octanol/water partition coefficients have a high computed soil-to-plant BAF, but a low plant-to-whitetail (meat) BAF, because the transpiration process dominates the bioaccumulation process in plants. Lipid absorption plays a more important role in herbivores and lowers the biomagnification ratio (a smaller amount of pesticides flows to the next level of the food chain). According to the equivalent season approach, geographic locations with warmer climates facilitate pesticide bioaccumulation at a higher level of the terrestrial food web.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Estados Unidos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806399

RESUMO

Surface seawater and lower atmosphere gas samples were collected simultaneously between 18°N and 40°S in the open Pacific Ocean in 2006-2007. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to assess their distribution patterns, the role of ocean in the long-range transport (LRT), and the air-water exchange directions in the open Pacific Ocean. Such open ocean studies can yield useful information such as establishing temporal and spatial trends and assessing primary vs secondary emissions of legacy OCPs. Target compounds included hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and its derivatives, and chlordane compounds. Concentrations for α-HCH, γ-HCH, trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC) were higher in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in both gaseous and dissolved phases, while the distribution patterns of DDTs and heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX) showed a reversed pattern. In the N Pacific, concentrations of α-HCH and γ-HCH in the present work were lower by 63 and 16 times than those observed in 1989-1990. The distribution patterns of DDT suggested there was usage in the SH around 2006. Calculated fugacity ratios suggested that γ-HCH was volatilizing from surface water to the atmosphere, and the air-water exchange fluxes were 0.3-11.1 ng m-2 day-1. This is the first field study that reported the open Pacific Ocean has become the secondary source for γ-HCH and implied that ocean could affect LRT of OCPs by supplying these compounds via air-sea exchange.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Pacífico , Água
12.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114953, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806427

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface water (lakes, major rivers and tributaries) and potential discharge sources (fish ponds, livestock and poultry farms, and sewage treatment plants) in Wujin District (northwest of Taihu Lake), Jiangsu province, China. An analytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for 38 pesticides, which was applied in the monitoring of 240 surface water samples and 76 potential discharge source samples. Eleven insecticides and five fungicides with temporal and spatial variation were detected in surface water. The total pesticide concentrations in surface water in different seasons were as follows: March > August > June > November. The two most polluting and widespread pesticides were carbendazim (maximum concentration 508 ng L-1, detection rate 100%) and imidacloprid (maximum concentration 438 ng L-1, detection rate 88%). Gehu Lake (S46) and Sanshangang River (S12) were seriously polluted water bodies. Seven insecticides and four fungicides were detected in the potential discharge sources; and their composition changed significantly with the seasons. The concentrations of detected organophosphorus pesticides and neonicotinoids (e.g. acetamiprid in March and dichlorvos in November) in a few non-agricultural planting sources were far greater than those detected in surface water, and hence a few fish ponds, livestock and poultry farms, and sewage treatment plants might be the potential discharge sources of pesticides in the surrounding surface water. The estimated input flux of the studied pesticides from upstream rivers to Taihu Lake was 141.95 kg a-1. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the medium or high aquatic ecotoxicological risk presented by the levels of organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, and benzimidazoles.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Medição de Risco , Água
13.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114579, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806438

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the capacity of a semi-closed, tubular horizontal photobioreactor (PBR) to remove pesticides from agricultural run-off. The study was carried out in summer (July) to study its efficiency under the best conditions (highest solar irradiation). A total of 51 pesticides, including 10 transformation products, were selected and investigated based on their consumption rate and environmental relevance. Sixteen of them were detected in the agricultural run-off, and the estimated removal efficiencies ranged from negative values, obtained for 3 compounds, namely terbutryn, diuron and imidacloprid, to 100%, achieved for 10 compounds. The acidic herbicide MCPA was removed by 88% in average, and the insecticides 2,4-D and diazinon showed variable removals, between 100% and negative values. The environmental risk associated to the compounds still present in the effluent of the PBR was evaluated using hazard quotients (HQs), calculated using the average and highest measured concentrations of the compounds. HQ values > 10 (meaning high risk) were obtained for imidacloprid (21), between 1 and 10 (meaning moderate risk) for 2,4-D (2.8), diazinon (4.6) and terbutryn (1.5), and <1 (meaning low risk) for the remaining compounds diuron, linuron and MCPA. The PBR treatment yielded variable removals depending on the compound, similarly to conventional wastewater treatment plants. This study provides new data on the capacity of microalgae-based treatment systems to eliminate a wide range of priority pesticides under real/environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Água
14.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806444

RESUMO

Pesticides are potentially toxic to aquatic systems, even at low concentration, depending on their individual ecotoxicological properties and their mixture composition. Thus, to evaluate possible ecological stress due to pesticide load, a thorough assessment of the potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures is required. Here we report water discharge and quality data of an eastern Mediterranean micro-estuary (Alexander stream), targeting the temporal distribution of a pesticide mixture. Over 150 water samples were collected during 2 hydrological years representing base-flow and flood conditions. On average, each water sample contained 34 and 45 different pesticides with peak concentrations of 1.4 µg L-1 of Imidacloprid and 55 µg L-1 of Diuron during base-flow and flood events, respectively. Pesticide mixtures were potentially toxic to benthic invertebrates and algae during flood events, surpassing the toxicity benchmark with medians of 110% and 155%, respectively. The herbicide Diuron and the insecticide Imidacloprid were the main pesticides responsible for the high potential toxicity during flood events. The falling limb of the flood hydrographs was found to inflict the highest stress on the estuarine environment due to elevated toxicity combined with prolonged residence time of the water. Examination of the potential chronic toxicity of single compounds showed continuous stress for plants, algae, amphibians, crustaceans, insects and fish from nine pesticides. Our data show that the ecosystem of the Alexander micro-estuary is under a continuous chronic stress with acute peaks in potential toxicity during flood events and the period that follows them. We propose that analyzing a small set of flood-tail samples is needed for the evaluation of small estuarine ecosystems risk during the rainy season. From a management perspective, we suggest better control of application practices for Diuron in the watershed to minimize the stress to the estuarine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Estuários , Rios
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 567, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767114

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to severe pollution into water resources which limits to reach safe drinking and irrigation water globally. One of the most important pollutants of environment that brought along with industrialization and technology are pesticides. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the pesticide residues in Dim Stream, due to intense touristic and agricultural activities in the region. Thus, four locations alongside the river were selected for sampling to evaluate the pesticide residue in the stream. The water samples were collected representing the rainy and dry seasons and extracted according to the Quechers method which is validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ). Pesticide residues were analyzed by injecting LC-MSMS and GC-MS. The most recurrent pesticides were cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, dicofol, metribuzin, parathion-methyl, permethrin, malathion, and tetradifon in the samples. Some of the levels of pesticides detected in water were significantly high compared with guideline values set by the Surface Water Quality Regulation of Turkey, EU, and World Health Organization, and this may be hazardous to aquatic life and human health. The obtained 18 recoveries of pesticides in the samples varied between 70 and 120%. LOD was ranged 19 from 0.23 to 9.67 µg/L. LOQ of 11 of the pesticides were higher than 1 µg/L.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , Turquia
16.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111084, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854888

RESUMO

Point pollution of pesticides originating from the washing of spraying machines could be controlled by biobed system and it is in use in temperate countries. The biobed system is yet to be established in tropical countries. An indigenous biobed system was prepared using local resources like rice straw, farm yard manures (FYM) and paddy field soil to suit the tropical climate. Lowermost 3 cm layer of the biobed system was filled with rice husk biochar to prevent leaching of pesticides from the system. This model system was tested with high doses of imidacloprid (178 mg/column), a commonly used pesticide against number of insect-pests in different crops, for its degradation. The bio-mix trapped a major part of the imidacloprid on the top most layer of the biobed column and only a very small part of imidacloprid recovered from the leachate. The biobed system could degrade 70.13% of applied imidacloprid within 15 days of the experiment and only 5.27% of the total pesticide recovered 90 days after incubation. Addition of biochar layer adsorbed imidacloprid from the outgoing leachate from the biobed column. Biomixture boosted microbial activity more particularly fungal population, which might be responsible for imidacloprid degradation. Microbial biomass carbon, and soil enzymes indicated faster dissipation of imidacloprid from the top layer of the biobed. This simple but efficient biobed system using local resources can fulfill the need of the small and marginal farmers of Asian countries for pesticide decontamination.


Assuntos
Nitrocompostos , Praguicidas/análise , Ásia , Neonicotinoides , Solo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800240

RESUMO

The group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are particularly dangerous for the environment and by consequence for human health because of the risk to be transmitted in the food chain. Among them, the urgent problem of obsolete and forbidden organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) needs a rigorous management in many countries, including Kazakhstan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides content in food products on the genetic status and health of the population living on the contaminated areas near destroyed warehouses for OCPs (4 villages of Talgar district and 1 control site, Almaty region). The food products sampled in Taukaraturyk (control site), and in 4 villages where non-utilized obsolete pesticides were discovered: Beskainar, Kyzylkairat, Amangeldy, and Belbulak. The contents of 24 pesticides in food products from plant (apples, pears, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers) and animal (beef meat, cow milk, honey) origin, that grown in places of localization of non-utilized OCPs, were determined, sometimes in high and unacceptably high concentrations (before 2500 times over MRL). In pears, the pesticides content (especially DDT, γ-HCH, ß-HCH, endosulfan, and aldrin pesticide group), was higher than in other fruits. Among vegetables, the highest levels of all groups of pesticide were found in cucumbers. Beef meat samples demonstrated increased contents of ß-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin and dieldrin. In cow milk samples only the high concentration of dieldrin was found. The content of pesticides in meat was 4-5 times higher than in milk. The medical examinations, carried out among the cohorts living around the polluted by pesticides territories and control cohort from ecologically favorable village, showed that there were more individuals with high and middle levels of somatic health in the control group than in groups exposed to OCPs. The long-term effect of the pesticide contamination of the environment on genetic status of the population was assessed by chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies. The highest level of chromosomal aberrations was identified for the examined residents of Kyzylkairat (41%) and Belbulak (38%), a high level in Amangeldy (12%), and middle level in Beskainar (6.5%). The association between the CA frequency, health status and the pesticides contents in food were assessed by a Spearman rank correlation. The low indicators of somatic health status were strictly associated with high levels of CA, and good health status indicates that the CA rates did not exceed the spontaneous level of mutagenesis. The strongest correlation was shown between high levels of chromosomal aberrations and the content of different pesticides in pears (Cr = 0.979-0.467), tomatoes (Cr = 0.877-0.476), cucumbers (Cr = 0.975-0.553) and meat (Cr = 0.839-0.368). The obtained results highlight the need to improve health protection by increasing the public awareness to the security of the storage of obsolete OCPs in order to strengthen food safety by efficient control services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110912, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800247

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to pesticides has been identified as a factor that predisposes to disorders of the immune system. Immunosuppression, autoimmunity, cancer of various organs and other diseases in people who apply these products have been reported by the studies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the immunological profile in 43 farmers exposed to mixtures of pesticides for at least 15 years. A control group composed of 30 individuals without a history of occupational exposure to pesticides was also evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were processed by flow cytometry and cells were labelled with an 8-color monoclonal antibody panel. Plasma cytokines were also measured. Significant increase in classical monocytes (p < 0.001) and dendritic cells (p < 0.001) in the exposed group was observed as well in total T cells (p = 0.04), central memory CD8 T cells (p = 0.02) and effector memory CD8 T cells (p = 0.01). On the other hand, the activation markers of T cells as the expression of CD57, HLA-DR, CD25 and CD28 were evaluated and no difference was found between groups. When the B cells were analyzed, a significant decrease in total B cells (p = 0.01), regulatory B cells (p < 0.001) and plasmablasts (p < 0.001) in the exposed group, compared to healthy controls, was observed. Pro-inflammatory IL-6 was significantly elevated (p = 0.04) in the plasma of farmers compared to that of controls. The constant antigenic stimulus that occurs during exposure to pesticides can favor the recruitment of dendritic cells and macrophages (APCs) presents in the skin and respiratory tract. In the secondary lymphoid organs, the CD4 T and B cells that process such antigens are possibly undergoing proliferative exhaustion, with the consequent depletion of all mature B subpopulations. The resulting drop in humoral immunity may be offset by an increase in the number of circulating CD8 T lymphocytes due to their cytotoxic action.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Brasil , Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/metabolismo
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 178-185, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819692

RESUMO

The distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air and surface waters were monitored in Nairobi City using triolein-filled semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The SPMDs were extracted by dialysis using n-hexane, followed by cleanup by adsorption chromatography on silica gel cartridges. Sample analysis was done by GC-ECD and confirmed by GC-MS. Separation of means was achieved by analysis of variance, followed by pair-wise comparison using the t-test (p≤ 0.05). The total OCPs ranged between 0.018 - 1.277 ng/m3 in the air and Kibera > Industrial Area > City Square > Ngong' Forest. However, these were lower than the USEPA acceptable risks, 10-6 - 10-4. This study concluded that atmospheric OCPs did not pose significant cancer risks to the residents.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Quênia , Diálise Renal , Medição de Risco
20.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115387, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829126

RESUMO

The quality of groundwater (GW) resources is decreasing partly due to chemical contaminations from a wide range of activities, such as industrial and agricultural enterprises and changes in land-use. In urban areas, one potential major pathway of GW contamination is associated with urban water management practices based on stormwater runoff infiltration systems (SIS). Data on the performance of the upper layer of soil and the unsaturated zone of infiltration basins to limit the contamination of GW by hydrophilic compounds are lacking. With this aim, the impact of infiltration practices on GW contamination was assessed for 12 pesticides and 4 pharmaceuticals selected according to their ecotoxicological relevance and their likelihood of being present in urban stormwater and GW. For this purpose, 3 campaigns were conducted at 4 SIS during storm events. For each campaign, passive samplers based on the use of Empore™ disk were deployed in GW wells upstream and downstream of SIS, as well as in the stormwater runoff entering the infiltration basins. Upstream and downstream GW contaminations were compared to evaluate the potential effect of SIS on GW contamination and possible relationships with stormwater runoff composition were examined. Our results showed two interesting opposite trends: (i) carbendazim, diuron, fluopyram, imidacloprid and lamotrigine had concentrations significantly increasing in GW impacted by infiltration, indicating a contribution of SIS to GW contamination, (ii) atrazine, simazine and 2 transformation products exhibited concentrations significantly decreasing with infiltration due to a probable dilution of historic GW contaminants with infiltrated stormwater runoff. The other 7 contaminants showed no general trend. This study demonstrates that passive samplers deployed in GW wells enabled the capture of emerging polar pollutants present at very low concentrations and allowed the assessment of infiltration practices on GW quality. New data on GW and urban stormwater are provided for poorly studied hazardous compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Água Subterrânea , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chuva , Solo
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