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1.
Curr Med Chem ; 27(1): 54-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272346

RESUMO

Pesticides are used today on a planetary-wide scale. The rising need for substances with this biological activity due to an increasing consumption of agricultural and animal products and to the development of urban areas makes the chemical industry to constantly investigate new molecules or to improve the physicochemical characteristics, increase the biological activities and improve the toxicity profiles of the already known ones. Molecular databases are increasingly accessible for in vitro and in vivo bioavailability studies. In this context, structure-activity studies, by their in silico - in cerebro methods, are used to precede in vitro and in vivo studies in plants and experimental animals because they can indicate trends by statistical methods or biological activity models expressed as mathematical equations or graphical correlations, so a direction of study can be developed or another can be abandoned, saving financial resources, time and laboratory animals. Following this line of research the present paper reviews the Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies and proposes a correlation between a topological connectivity index and the biological activity or toxicity made as a result of a study performed on 11 molecules of organophosphate compounds, randomly chosen, with a basic structure including a Phosphorus atom double bounded to an Oxygen atom or to a Sulfur one and having three other simple covalent bonds with two alkoxy (-methoxy or -ethoxy) groups and to another functional group different from the alkoxy groups. The molecules were packed on a cubic structure consisting of three adjacent cubes, respecting a principle of topological efficiency, that of occupying a minimal space in that cubic structure, a method that was called the Clef Method. The central topological index selected for correlation was the Wiener index, since it was possible this way to discuss different adjacencies between the nodes in the graphs corresponding to the organophosphate compounds molecules packed on the cubic structure; accordingly, "three dimensional" variants of these connectivity indices could be considered and further used for studying the qualitative-quantitative relationships for the specific molecule-enzyme interaction complexes, including correlation between the Wiener weights (nodal specific contributions to the total Wiener index of the molecular graph) and the biochemical reactivity of some of the atoms. Finally, when passing from SAR to Q(uantitative)-SAR studies, especially by the present advanced method of the cubic molecule (Clef Method) and its good assessment of the (neuro)toxicity of the studied molecules and of their inhibitory effect on the target enzyme - acetylcholinesterase, it can be seen that a predictability of the toxicity and activity of different analogue compounds can be ensured, facilitating the in vivo experiments or improving the usage of pesticides.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Acetilcolinesterase , Simulação por Computador , Organofosfatos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
3.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(1): 1-18, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724447

RESUMO

Ecological risk assessment is challenged by the need to assess hazard to the diverse communities of organisms inhabiting aquatic and terrestrial systems. Computational approaches, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models, are useful tools that provide estimates of acute toxicity where data are lacking or limited for ecological risk assessments (ERA). This review describes the technical basis of ICE models for use in pesticide ERA that may be used in conjunction with QSAR model estimates or surrogate species toxicity data and demonstrates the potential for improving hazard assessment. Validation and uncertainty analysis of ICE model predictions are summarized and used as guidance for selecting ICE models and evaluating toxicity predictions. A user-friendly web-based ICE modelling platform (Web-ICE) is described and demonstrated through case studies. Case studies include the development of Species Sensitivity Distributions generated from QSAR and ICE estimates, comparative sensitivity for a pesticide and its degradate, and application of ICE-estimated toxicity values for listed species assessments.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Incerteza
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 839-849, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(51): 14048-14055, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791125

RESUMO

Chemical residues in the environment are considered to be important factors that cause obesity. Bifenthrin is one of the pyrethroid pesticides and is widely used worldwide. However, its effect on adipose tissue is ill-defined. Here, we administered bifenthrin/corn oil to adult C57BL/6 mice by gavage. After 6 weeks, the bifenthrin treatment significantly increased their body weight (P = 0.015) and fat mass (P < 0.001). Then we identified 246 differently expressed proteins by proteomic analysis, and they were highly involved in fatty acid uptake and lipid metabolism processes. Interestingly, protein hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triacylglyceride lipase were downregulated while lipoprotein lipase is upregulated after bifenthrin treatment. Similar effects in 3T3-L1 cells treated with bifenthrin validated the in vivo results. Thus, this study suggests that long-term exposure to low-dose bifenthrin induces fat deposition in mice by improving fatty acid uptake and inhibiting lipolysis, and it may cause obesity in humans.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/genética , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo
6.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105243, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure during pregnancy is thought to adversely affect fetal growth, which in turn may impact child growth, but results have been inconsistent across studies and few have explored these effects in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To quantify urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers in early pregnancy (<16 weeks' gestation), and to estimate the association of these concentrations with preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and stunting at ~1 and 2 years of age. METHODS: Eight pesticide biomarkers were quantified in urine collected from 289 pregnant women (aged 18-40 years) participating in a birth cohort study in Bangladesh. Anthropometry measurements were conducted on the index child at birth and approximately 1 and 2 years of age. A directed acyclic graph was used to identify minimal sufficient adjustment sets. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl, and 4-nitrophenol, a metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion, were detected in nearly all women with geometric mean (95% CI) values of 3.17 (2.82-3.56) and 18.66 (17.03-20.46) µg/g creatinine, respectively. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a non-specific metabolite of several pyrethroids, and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY), a diazinon metabolite, were detected in 19.8% and 16.1% of women, respectively. The remaining four pesticide biomarkers were detected in <10% of women. Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were more than 3 times more likely to deliver preterm than women in the lowest quartile: unadjusted RR (95% CI), 3.57 (1.65, 7.73). Women in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol were also at increased risk of having a child born small for gestational age: RR (95% CI) adjusted for household income, maternal education, and maternal total energy and meat intake, 3.81 (1.10, 13.21). Women with detectable concentrations of IMPY were at increased risk of having a child born with low birth weight compared to women with non-detectable concentrations: adjusted RR (95% CI), 2.13 (1.12, 4.08). We observed no association between any of the pesticide biomarkers and stunting at 1 or 2 years of age. DISCUSSION: Exposure to the insecticides parathion and diazinon during early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 3084501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611921

RESUMO

Biomonitoring of pesticides exposure has currently become a matter of great public concern due to the potential health effects of pesticides. This study assessed levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and associated health effects in uncontrolled smallholder farming systems in rural Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 90 exposed farmers and 61 nonexposed controls from horticultural zones. A structured questionnaire was administered, and a capillary blood sample of 10 µl was used to measure AChE activity using an Erythrocyte Acetylcholinesterase Test Mate Photometric Analyzer kit (Model 400). A multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate determinants of pesticide exposure. The study revealed that smallholder farmers are occupationally exposed to pesticides. Exposed farmers had significantly lower AChE levels. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) did not significantly reduce the likelihood of AChE inhibition. Women, younger and older farmers, and underweight, overweight, and obese farmers were at increased risk of AChE inhibition. Increase in age (10 years) increased likelihood of AChE inhibition by 6.7%, while decrease in BMI increased likelihood of AChE inhibition by 86.7% while increased pesticides contact hours increased risk of having lower AChE at about 3 times. The number of exposure symptoms (14.10 ± 7.70) was higher in exposed farmers than unexposed. Self-reported symptoms are confirmed to correlate to lower AChE. Prevalence of tiredness (71.6% against 15.5%), fatigue (64.8% against 27.6%), soreness in joints (59.1% against 20.7%), thirst (52.3% against 12.1%), skin irritation (52.1% against 17.2%), salivation and abdominal pain (50% against 8.6% and 31.0%, respectively), muscle weakness (47.7% against 24.1%), and memory loss (47.7% against and 29.3%) differed significantly between exposed and control. This study provides useful information regarding the level of occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in smallholder horticultural production systems. Pesticides use needs to be controlled at farm level by developing pesticides monitoring and surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas , Adulto , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/enzimologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Autorrelato , Tanzânia
8.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487774

RESUMO

Pesticide exposure is an important rural public health concern that is linked to a spectrum of health outcomes in farmers. However, little is known about these effects on residents living in close proximity to agricultural fields and who are not involved in regular farming. This paper compared the effects of residential proximity to farming lands on a number of neurological and mental health outcomes in adults. A cross-sectional study was performed on 57 adults involved in farming only occasionally in rural Matlab in Bangladesh. A health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and geocoding were used to define proximity to the agricultural field. Neurological health was measured using the trail making test, vibrotactile threshold measurement, and dominant ulnar nerve conduction velocity (NCV) amplitude. An adapted Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health. Results indicated that respondents living near agricultural fields had significantly higher vibrotactile threshold in big toes (p < 0.004) and needed a longer time to complete the trail making test (p < 0.004) than those living far from fields after accounting for the covariates. Results of this pilot study suggest further investigations to establish the impact of pesticide exposure among occasional and non-farmers on neurological health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Características de Residência
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1243-1250, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies have found an increased risk of multiple myeloma (MM) in farmers. Few studies have investigated the detailed circumstances of occupational pesticide exposure which could explain these increased risks (pesticide use on crops, seeds or on animals, contact with treated crops) and the role of other exposures. In the Agriculture and Cancer cohort (AGRICAN), we assessed the associations between MM and crop- or animal-related activities, with specific attention to pesticide exposure via use on animals and crops or contact with treated crops and to disinfectant exposure. METHODS: Analyses concerned 155,192 participants, including 269 incident MM identified by cancer registries from enrolment (2005-2007) to 2013. Cox models using attained age as time scale were run to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: MM risk was increased in farmers (i) who started using pesticides on crops in the 1960s, especially among those applying pesticides on corn (≥ 20 years: HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08, 2.78, p for trend < 0.01) and (ii) using insecticides on animals (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11, 1.98), especially among horse farmers (≥ 10 years: HR 2.77, 95% CI 1.22-6.27, p for trend = 0.01). We also observed significant elevated risks with disinfectant use in animal barns. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the role of pesticide use on crops and animals in the occurrence of MM risk in farmers.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agricultura , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 632-643, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lower mortality rates compared with the general population have been reported for Agricultural Health Study (AHS) participants (enrolled 1993-1997) followed through 2007. We extended analysis of mortality among AHS participants (51 502 private pesticide applicators, their 31 867 spouses and 4677 commercial pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa) through 2015 and compared results using several analytical approaches. METHODS: We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), causal mortality ratios (CMR) and relative SMRs (rSMR) using state-specific mortality rates of the general populations as the referent. RESULTS: Over the average 16 years of follow-up (1999-2015), 9305 private applicators, 3384 spouses and 415 commercial applicators died. SMRs and CMRs, with expected deaths calculated using the person-time among the cohort and the general population, respectively, indicated lower overall mortality in all study subgroups (SMRs from 0.61 to 0.69 and CMRs from 0.74 to 0.89), although CMRs indicated elevated mortality in private applicators from North Carolina and in ever-smokers. In SMR analyses, there were fewer than expected deaths from many causes, but deaths from some external causes including transportation-related injuries and mechanical forces were elevated in private applicators. CMRs indicated higher than expected deaths from prostate cancer, lymphohaematopoietic cancers, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and chronic glomerulonephritis in private applicators, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in spouses (from 1.19 to 1.53). rSMR results were generally elevated, similar to CMR findings. CONCLUSIONS: AHS participants experienced lower overall mortality than the general population.Mortality from a few specific causes was increased in private applicators, specifically when CMR and rSMR approaches were used.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Cônjuges , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Int ; 131: 105002, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides has been associated with altered neuronal cell development and behavioral changes in animal offspring. However, the few studies investigating the association between prenatal OP pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autistic traits in children produced mixed findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine whether maternal urinary concentrations of OP pesticide metabolites are associated with ADHD and autistic traits in children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort from Rotterdam, the Netherlands. METHOD: Maternal concentrations of 6 dialkylphosphates (DAPs) were measured using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in urine samples collected at <18 weeks, 18-25 weeks, and > 25 weeks of gestation in 784 mother-child pairs. DAP metabolite concentrations were expressed as molar concentrations divided by creatinine levels and log10 transformed. ADHD traits were measured at ages 3, 6, and 10 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 781) and autistic traits were measured at age 6 years using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n = 622). First, regression models were fit for the averaged prenatal exposure across pregnancy. Second, we investigated associations for each collection phase separately, and applied a mutually adjusted model in which the effect of prenatal DAP concentrations from each time period on ADHD and autistic traits were jointly estimated. All associations were adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Median DAP metabolite concentration was 309 nmol/g creatinine at <18 weeks, 316 nmol/g creatinine at 18-25 weeks, and 308 nmol/g creatinine at >25 weeks of gestation. Overall, DAP metabolite concentrations were not associated with ADHD traits. For instance, a log10 increase in averaged total DAP concentrations across gestation was not associated with a lower ADHD score (-0.03 per SD 95 CI: -0.28 to 0.23). Similarly, no associations between maternal DAP concentrations and autistic traits were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of maternal urinary DAP metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, we did not observe associations with ADHD and autistic traits in children. These are important null observations because of the relatively high background DAP concentrations across pregnancy, the relatively large sample size, and the 10-year follow-up of the offspring. Given the measurement error inherent in our OP pesticide exposure biomarkers, future studies using more urine samples are needed to accurately measure OP pesticide exposure over pregnancy in relation to ADHD and autistic traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna , Organofosfatos/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
13.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 55-63, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445060

RESUMO

Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides has been associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study assessed the association between environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of developing thyroid diseases. A population-based case-control study was carried out among Spanish populations living in areas categorized as of high or low pesticide use according to agronomic criteria, which were used as surrogates for environmental exposure to pesticides. The study population consisted of 79.431 individuals diagnosed with goiter, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and thyroiditis (according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) and 1.484.257 controls matched for age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected from computerized hospital records for the period 1998 to 2015. Prevalence rates and risk of having thyroid diseases were significantly higher in areas with higher pesticide use, with a 49% greater risk for hypothyroidism, 45% for thyrotoxicosis, 20% for thyroiditis and 5% for goiter. Overall, this study indicates an association between increased environmental exposure to pesticides as a result of a greater agricultural use and diseases of the thyroid gland, thus supporting and extending previous evidence. This study also provides support to the methodology proposed for real-life risk simulation, thus contributing to a better understanding of the real life threat posed by exposure to multiple pesticides from different sources.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(4): 503­526, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309787

RESUMO

Objectives: Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) were exposed to a myriad of potentially hazardous chemicals during deployment. Epidemiological data suggest a possible link between chemical exposures and Parkinson's disease (PD); however, there have been no reliable data on the incidence or prevalence of PD among GW veterans to date. This study included the following 2 questions: 1. Do deployed GW veterans display PD-like symptoms? and 2. Is there a relationship between the occurrence and quantity of PD-like symptoms, and the levels of deployment-related exposures in GW veterans? Material and Methods: Self-reports of symptoms and exposures to deployment-related chemicals were filled out by 293 GW veterans, 202 of whom had undergone 3 Tesla volumetric measurements of basal ganglia volumes. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationship between the frequency of the veterans' self-reported exposures to deployment-related chemicals, motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, and the total basal ganglia volumes. Results: Healthy deployed GW veterans self-reported few PD-like non-motor symptoms and no motor symptoms. In contrast, GW veterans with Gulf War illness (GWI) self-reported more PD-like motor and non-motor symptoms, and more GW-related exposures. Compared to healthy deployed veterans, those with GWI also had lower total basal ganglia volumes. Conclusions: Although little is known about the long-term consequences of GWI, findings from this study suggest that veterans with GWI show more symptoms as those seen in PD/prodromal PD, compared to healthy deployed GW veterans. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):503­26


Assuntos
Guerra do Golfo , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Tremor/epidemiologia
16.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(6): 936-947, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310045

RESUMO

Characterizing potential spatial overlap between federally threatened and endangered ("listed") species distributions and registered pesticide use patterns is important for accurate risk assessment of threatened and endangered species. Because accurate range information for such rare species is often limited and agricultural pesticide use patterns are dynamic, simple spatial co-occurrence methods may overestimate or underestimate overlap and result in decisions that benefit neither listed species nor the regulatory process. Here, we demonstrate a new method of co-occurrence analysis that employs probability theory to estimate spatial distribution of rare species populations and areas of pesticide use to determine the likelihood of potential exposure. Specifically, we 1) describe a probabilistic method to estimate pesticide use based on crop production patterns; 2) construct species distribution models for 2 listed insect species whose ranges were previously incompletely described, the rusty-patched bumble bee (Bombus affinis) and the Poweshiek skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek); and 3) develop a probabilistic co-occurrence methodology and assessment framework. Using the principles of the Bayes' theorem, we constructed probabilistic spatial models of pesticide use areas by integrating information from land-cover spatial data, agriculture statistics, and remote-sensing data. We used maximum entropy methods to build species distribution models for 2 listed insects based on species collection and observation records and predictor variables relevant to the species' biogeography and natural history. We further developed novel methods for refinement of these models at spatial scales relevant to US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) regulatory priorities (e.g., critical habitat areas). Integrating both probabilistic assessments and focusing on USFWS priority management areas, we demonstrate that spatial overlap (i.e., potential for exposure) is not deterministic but instead a function of both species distribution and land use patterns. Our work serves as a framework to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of threatened and endangered species assessments using a data-driven likelihood analysis of species co-occurrence. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:1-12. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Produção Agrícola , Insetos/fisiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Análise Espacial
17.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310974

RESUMO

Worldwide freshwater bodies that cross agricultural or urban areas are exposed to mixtures of xenobiotics. In particular, pesticides are usually part of these mixtures and could come into direct or indirect contact with biota and therefore, organisms have to cope with this altered scenario and the detrimental effects of these substances. Commercial formulations of chlorpyrifos and glyphosate, and their mixtures were evaluated using a set of biomarkers in the native fish C. decemmaculatus exposed to relevant environmentally pesticides concentrations. The biomarkers measured were: histopathological indices and tissue ultrastructure in liver and nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei in erythrocytes. During 42 days adult females were exposed to the following concentrations of Clorfox and Roundup Max (chlorpyrifos and glyphosate, respectively): 0.84 nl/l and 8.4 nl/l of Clorfox (CF), 0.2 and 2 mg/l of Roundup Max (RM) and all the combinations of these concentrations. Being the low concentrations of both pesticides environmentally relevant. Nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes were registered under CF, RM and only one mixture. Histological inflammatory alterations increased in individuals exposed to CF and two mixtures. Finally, some pesticide combinations increased the circulatory alterations in liver. Ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes were registered at all the pesticide treatments. The different biomarker responses showed in the mixtures treatments reflected complex interactions, showing the mixture of the low concentrations of both pesticides (the environmentally relevant), potentiated effects. According to our results the presence of these substances in freshwaters could impose important risks for natural populations by causing deleterious effects on the native fish species C. decemmaculatus.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/química , Clorpirifos/efeitos adversos , Ciprinodontiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Glicina/efeitos adversos
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

RESUMO

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias , Brasil , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Modelos Animais , Camundongos , Manifestações Neurológicas
20.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(1): 66-70, 2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing widespread use of Pesticides is as an issue in the agricultural sector. Pesticides use is one of the occupational risks in farmers of low-income countries including Nepal. Objective of this study was to explore the health effects of Pesticides among agricultural farmers of Sunsari. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was carried out in Duhabi-Bhaluwa of Sunsari District, Nepal from September 2015 to February 2016. Non-probability sampling technique was used to enroll the total 300 study participants. Data were collected by face to face interview with farmers using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Data were recorded by reading the original container of the Pesticides. RESULTS: Fungicides (60.3%), Herbicides (56.3%), pyrethrum (35.3%) and Organophophate (11.6%) Pesticides were commonly used by the agricultural farmers in their farms. The health problem within 48 hours after application of pesticides was reported by more than one-sixth (17%) of the farmers. Dizziness (74.5%) and headache (58.8%) were the most common health problems found among the farmers. Skin irritation (19.6%), nausea (13.7%), paraesthesia (9.8%), restlessness (5.8%), eye irritation (5.8%) and vomiting (1.9%) were also reported by pesticides handlers. Factors associated with health problems were hazardous pesticides use (AOR=26.95, CI 6.15 - 118.0), good knowledge on impacts of pesticides (AOR=3.16, CI 1.09-9.13), determination of wind direction first and spray (AOR=2.25, CI 1.08-4.67), working experience of 20-29 years on farm (AOR=3.38, CI 1.05-10.83). CONCLUSIONS: One-sixth of the farmers reported health problems. Farmers working with hazardous Pesticides were in need of special attention in terms of safe handling, determing the wind direction and spray.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/induzido quimicamente , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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