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2.
Mutat Res ; 861-862: 503302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551103

RESUMO

Inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC) for repairing pesticide-induced DNA oxidation damage may influence adverse health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate whether polymorphisms in genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway could modulate DNA damage in pesticide-exposed agricultural workers. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) (Arg415Gln, G1244A, rs1800067), xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) (Asp1104His, G3507C, rs17655), excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) (3'UTR, C8092A, rs3212986) and ERCC1 (Asn118Asn, C19007T, rs11615) polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in 225 pesticide-exposed agricultural workers and 225 controls from Punjab, North-West India. The assessment of DNA damage was carried out by alkaline comet assay. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the association of gene polymorphisms in NER pathway with DNA damage. Pesticide-exposed agricultural workers carrying variant XPF Gln/Gln (AA) genotype showed higher comet tail length (p < 0.01) than wild type Arg/Arg (GG) genotype. The comet tail length (p < 0.01) was found to be significantly increased in exposed agricultural workers carrying XPG His/His (CC) genotype than wild-type Asp/Asp (GG) genotype. In relation to the individuals carrying wild type ERCC1 3'UTR CC genotype, exposed individuals with variant ERCC1 3'UTR CA genotype showed elevation in the comet tail length (p = 0.029). However, we found no association of ERCC1 Asn118Asn (C19007T) genotype with DNA damage. These results indicate that XPF, XPG and ERCC1 genes of NER pathway may modulate the efficacy of the DNA repair system against pesticide exposure in our population.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 112007, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493637

RESUMO

Consistent gathering of immunotoxic substances on earth is a serious global issue affecting people under pathogenic stress. Organophosphates are among such hazardous compounds that are ubiquitous in nature. They fuel oxidative stress to impair antiviral immune response in living entities. Aside, organophosphates promote cytokine burst and pyroptosis in broncho-alveolar chambers leading to severe respiratory ailments. At present, we witness COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infection triggers cytokine storm coupled with inflammatory manifestations and pulmonary disorders in patients. Since organophosphate-exposure promotes necroinflammation and respiratory troubles hence during current pandemic situation, additional exposure to such chemicals can exacerbate inflammatory outcome and pulmonary maladies in patients, or pre-exposure to organophosphates might turn-out to be a risk factor for compromised immunity. Fortunately, antioxidants alleviate organophosphate-induced immunosuppression and hence under co-exposure circumstances, dietary intake of antioxidants would be beneficial to boost immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/etiologia , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , /patogenicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piroptose , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 132, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420104

RESUMO

The use of pesticides to reduce mosquito vector populations is a cornerstone of global malaria control efforts, but the biological impact of most pesticides on human populations, including pregnant women and infants, is not known. Some pesticides, including carbamates, have been shown to perturb the human immune system. We measure the systemic absorption and immunologic effects of bendiocarb, a commonly used carbamate pesticide, following household spraying in a cohort of pregnant Ugandan women and their infants. We find that bendiocarb is present at high levels in maternal, umbilical cord, and infant plasma of individuals exposed during pregnancy, indicating that it is systemically absorbed and trans-placentally transferred to the fetus. Moreover, bendiocarb exposure is associated with numerous changes in fetal immune cell homeostasis and function, including a dose-dependent decrease in regulatory CD4 T cells, increased cytokine production, and inhibition of antigen-driven proliferation. Additionally, prenatal bendiocarb exposure is associated with higher post-vaccination measles titers at one year of age, suggesting that its impact on functional immunity may persist for many months after birth. These data indicate that in utero bendiocarb exposure has multiple previously unrecognized biological effects on the fetal immune system.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feto/imunologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Sarampo/sangue , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Seguimentos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/prevenção & controle , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Fenilcarbamatos/efeitos adversos , Fenilcarbamatos/análise , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1526): 76-88, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332342

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the number and weight of pesticides used in New Zealand agriculture that are classified as known or suspected human carcinogens. METHODS: The yearly usage of active ingredients was extracted from the most recent (2005) report on pesticide use. For each active ingredient, the carcinogenicity classification of three regulatory agencies (New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority [EPA NZ], US Environmental Protection Agency, European Chemicals Agency) was extracted. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph Programme's classifications were also considered. Total tonnes of active ingredients were calculated according to each classification. RESULTS: None of the pesticides are classified as known human carcinogens. In total, 56 active ingredients are listed as suspected carcinogens by at least one of the four agencies, including 16 high-use ingredients, representing up to 51% of the total yearly quantity. Agency-specific estimates ranged between 4-26% (148-872 tonnes) with the EPA NZ classification yielding the lowest estimate. The suspected carcinogen weight was highest for fungicides (estimates based on the three regulatory agencies ranged between 72-540 tonnes), followed by herbicides (60-200 tonnes) and insecticides (16 tonnes). CONCLUSIONS: New Zealand's use of pesticides that are suspected carcinogens is high. Efforts to increase awareness and reduce exposure need to be considered.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(6): 523-529, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lebanon, asthma is underdiagnosed due to low access to healthcare, particularly in rural areas, although asthma diagnosis in children is based mainly on clinical symptoms. Thus, wheezing might be more suggestive of undiagnosed respiratory diseases including asthma in Lebanese children. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with wheezing in Lebanese children without asthma diagnosis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and April 2016, enrolling a total of 1203 schoolchildren. RESULTS: Out of 1500 prepared questionnaires, 1380 questionnaires were distributed in schools, and 1203 (87.17%) were collected back from the parents of children aged between 4-17 years old. The sample included 42 (3.5%) [95% CI 0.025-0.045] children with reported chronic wheezing. A multivariable analysis was performed taking the presence versus absence of wheezing in children as the dependent variable. The results showed that spraying pesticides at home (aOR = 1.91), presence of humidity at home (aOR = 2.21) and child reflux (aOR = 2.60) were significantly associated with the presence of wheezing in children. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study suggest that certain environmental factors, such as pesticides, humidity at home and reflux disease, might be associated with wheezing episodes in children. Those factors can be prevented through raising awareness by health care professionals


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Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Modelos Logísticos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0228762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001987

RESUMO

Single-centre studies examining the transgenerational inheritance of pathologies in rodents exposed to pesticides have not always taken important design and analysis issues into account. This paper examines these methodological and statistical issues in detail. Its particular focus is on the estimation of 'litter effects': the tendency for rodents within a litter to be more alike than rodents in different litters. Appropriate statistical models were fitted to published data from a series of widely reported studies carried out at Washington State University. These studies were amalgamated into a single dataset in order to estimate these litter effects and associated treatment effects. Litter effects varied by outcome and were often substantial. Consequently, the effective sample size was often substantially less than the number of observations with implications for the power of the studies. Moreover, the reported precision of the estimates of treatment effects was too low. These problems are exacerbated by unexplained missing data across generations. Researchers in the life sciences could be more cognisant of the guidelines established in medicine for reporting randomised controlled trials, particularly cluster randomised trials. More attention should be paid to the design and analysis of multi-generational rodent studies; their imperfections have important implications for assessments of the evidence relating to the risks of pesticides for public health.


Assuntos
Hereditariedade , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Roedores , Estruturas Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Animais/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Tamanho da Amostra , Washington
8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 103, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For years the United States Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program and the United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency have published annual or quarterly data on pesticide residues in foods. Both programs report residues in conventionally grown, organic, and imported foods. The US program has tested about 288,000 food samples since 1992, primarily fruits and vegetables consumed by children. Since 1999 the UK has tested about 72,000 samples of a wider range of foods. These data are vital inputs in tracking trends in pesticide dietary risks. METHODS: The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system facilitates detailed analyses of US and UK pesticide residue data, trends, and chronic risk distributions. The DRI value for a pesticide is the dietary intake of that pesticide from a single serving of food divided by the pesticide's acceptable daily intake as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can be calculated based on average annual residue concentrations, and on residue levels in individual samples of food. DRI values can be aggregated over multiple pesticides in single foods, and over individual pesticides in multiple foods. RESULTS: The DRI system provides insights into the levels, trends, and distribution of pesticide dietary risk across most widely consumed foods. By drawing on both US Pesticide Data Program and UK-Food Standards Agency residue data, the DRI is capable of assessing pesticide risks in a significant portion of the global food supply. Substantial reductions in pesticide dietary risks occurred in the early 2000s, primarily from replacement of organophosphate insecticides with seemingly lower-risk neonicotinoids. However, there remain several areas of concern and opportunities to reduce risks. Both herbicide and fungicide dietary risks are rising. Organically grown produce poses risks far lower than corresponding, conventionally grown produce. Risk differences are inconsistent between domestic and imported foods. CONCLUSIONS: The surest ways to markedly reduce pesticide dietary risks are to shift relatively high-risk fruits and vegetables to organic production. For other foods, reducing reliance on pesticides overall, and especially high-risk pesticides, will incrementally lower risks. The DRI system can help focus such efforts and track progress in reducing pesticide dietary risk.


Assuntos
Dieta , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Etários , Frutas/química , Humanos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Verduras/química
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110982, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888624

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems are constantly threatened by the advance of agricultural activities. Abiotic variables (such as temperature, ammonia, and nitrite) and contaminants (e.g. pesticides) can potentially interact, increasing metabolism and the absorption of toxic substances, which can alter the ability of organisms to establish adequate stress responses. This study aimed to verify which pesticides were most frequently found and in the greatest quantities in low-order streams, and whether the combination of these pesticides with the abiotic variables altered the biological metabolism of aeglids. These freshwater crustaceans are important shredders that inhabit low-order streams and are sensitive to disturbances and/or abrupt environmental variations. The animals were exposed in situ in four streams (reference site and sites 1, 2, and 3). The reference site is a preserved stream with no apparent anthropogenic interference where aeglids still occur, while the other sites no longer exhibit populations of these animals and are influenced by agricultural activities. The exposure was performed bimonthly from November 2017 to September 2018 and lasted 96 h. Measured abiotic data and water samples were collected through all days of exposure. The analyzed biochemical parameters were acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle; and glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, non-protein thiols, antioxidant capacity against peroxides, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, gills, and hepatopancreas. We found 24 active principles of pesticides, the most frequently being clomazone, atrazine, and propoxur. Bentazone was present at the highest amounts. The parameters evaluated in this study, including biochemical biomarkers and abiotic factors measured from the water, provided a separation of the months as a function of environmental conditions. There was a difference in activity and biomarker levels throughout the year within the same site and in some months between sites. The greater concentration or variety of pesticides associated with extreme abiotic (very high temperatures) data generated increased oxidative stress, with high levels of protein damage and considerable lipid damage in all tissues, as well as elevation in ROS, even with high levels of antioxidant capacity and non-protein thiols. With these data, we intend to warn about the risks of exposure to these environmental conditions by trying to contribute to the preservation of limnic fauna, especially aeglid crabs, because most species are under some degree of threat.


Assuntos
Anomuros/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anomuros/metabolismo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5423-5426, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Exposure to pesticides has been reportedly associated with several types of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used data from The United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Census, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to analyze the association between the area density of specific agricultural pesticides and the county level annual incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). RESULTS: Incidence of DLBCL was significantly associated with an area density of 14 of the pesticides reported by USGS. CONCLUSION: This highlights the need for further investigation into the safety of the use of these pesticides. The importance of this study comes not only from the significant association it shows between pesticides and the incidence of cancer, but also from the fact that it included all compounds reported to USGS as being used in agriculture. This helps in prioritizing pesticides for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667930

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination. Overall, 47.5% had pesticide residues, 74.2% exceeded Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Organophosphorus (95.2%), organochlorines (24.0%), pyrethroids (17.3%), and carbamates (9.2%) residues dominated. MRL values were mostly exceeded in tomatoes, onions, watermelons, cucumbers, Chinese cabbage, and sweet paper. Tetramethrin (0.0329-1.3733 mg/kg), pirimiphos-methyl (0.0003-1.4093 mg/kg), permethrin (0.0009-2.4537 mg/kg), endosulfan (beta) (0.0008-2.3416 mg/kg), carbaryl (0.0215-1.5068 mg/kg), profenofos (0.0176-2.1377 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.0004-1.2549 mg/kg) and dieldrin (0.0011-0.5271 mg/kg) exceeded MRLs. The prevalence of bacteria contamination was high (63.2%). Enterobacter (55.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.4%), E. coli (28.2%), Citrobacter (26.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.8%), and Salmonella (7.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, 46.4% tested positive for both pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants. Vegetables from farms (60.7%) contained more dual contaminants than market-based vegetables (41.8%). This may have resulted from excessive pesticide use and unhygienic handling of fresh fruits and vegetables at production level. Binary logistic regression showed that fresh fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues were 2.231 times more likely to have bacteria contaminants (OR: 2.231; 95% CI: 0.501, 8.802). The contamination levels of pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants could be perceived as a serious problem as most fresh fruits and vegetables recorded values of pesticide residues far above the MRLs with pathogenic bacteria isolated in higher proportions. MRLs was higher in most vegetables consumed raw or semi-cooked such as watermelons, carrots, cucumber, tomatoes, onion and sweet paper. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at farmer level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides and bacterial contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella oxytoca/patogenicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia
12.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 84, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous biomonitoring studies have shown that people in the rural population of Coquimbo, the major agricultural area in northern Chile are being occupationally and environmentally exposed to organophosphate/carbamate (OP/CB) pesticides. Given their harmful effects, this study had two aims; first, to evaluate the effect of cumulative or chronic exposure to OP/CB pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of agricultural workers and rural inhabitants; second, to determine if changes in the neurobehavioral performance are associated to changes in blood biomarkers of OP/CB pesticides during the spray season, when exposure is higher. METHODS: For the first aim, a cross sectional study of neurobehavioral performance in adult volunteers (men and women, 18-50 years-old, right-handed) was carried out in the pre-spray season. Sampling was done by convenience and a questionnaire was used to categorize participants depending on their level of chronic exposure, as either: occupationally exposed (OE, n = 87), environmentally exposed (EE, n = 81), or non-exposed controls or reference group (RG, n = 100). A neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 21 tests to measure cognitive, motor and emotional state was applied. For the second aim, neurobehavioral measures were taken a second time from EE and OE groups during the spray season, and their exposure corroborated by blood-based biomarker inhibition. RESULTS: Lower neurobehavioral performance was observed in the pre-spray evaluation of EE and OE groups compared to the non-exposed, OE being the worst performing group. Seasonal exposure impaired performance in both exposure groups on all tests except those on attention and mood. Data modeling of the basal (pre-spray) measurements showed that the level of exposure was the best predictor of performance. During spraying, inhibition of BChE activity in the EE group was the best predictor of low performance in tests measuring logical, auditory and visual memory, inhibitory control of cognitive interference, constructional and planning abilities, executive functions, and motor speed and coordination. CONCLUSION: Long-term occupational or environmental exposure to pesticides caused impairment in neurobehavioral functioning, which worsened during the spraying season, mainly in EE. BChE inhibition was the best predictor for seasonal neurobehavioral changes in EE.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9489, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528116

RESUMO

Pesticides commonly contaminate the aquatic environments inhabited by mosquito juveniles. However, their role in shaping the mosquito microbiota is not well understood. We hypothesized that environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, permethrin and malathion will mediate a shift in the mosquito gut bacterial community structure due to their toxic effect on the aquatic bacterial communities, and reduce mosquito gut bacterial diversity by enriching pesticide-degrading bacterial communities over susceptible taxa. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16 S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of larval and adult stages of the two mosquito species and the water samples from microcosms treated with each of the pesticides, separately. Bacterial community composition differed by sample type (larval stage vs. adult stage) and water sampling date (day 3 vs. day 7), but not by pesticide treatment. In larval stages, bacterial OTU richness was highest in samples exposed to malathion, intermediate in permethrin, and lowest in controls. Bacterial richness was significantly higher in larval stages compared to adult stages for all treatments. This study provides a primer for future studies evaluating mosquito microbial responses to exposures to chemical pesticides and the possible implications for mosquito ecology.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/microbiologia , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Atrazina/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/efeitos adversos , Permetrina/efeitos adversos
14.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 221-227, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598326

RESUMO

Pesticides represent a wide variety of chemicals presented as different formulations and concentrations and used in different settings: agriculture, animal sanitary bath, domestic use, and vector control. Lack of awareness, poor agricultural practices, and inappropriate disposal of containers will increase the exposure and risk of health effects during childhood. The concern about children's exposure to pesticides is based on their toxic properties and the special vulnerability to the exposure, which may occur in different stages, from the prenatal period to infancy. Pesticide related diseases may manifest during the infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Children may be exposed by multiple routes of exposure, in different scenarios. In domestic settings, insecticides and rodenticides are usually stored within the reach of children, or may be transferred to non-original containers, leading to acute non intentional ingestion. Exploratory behavior increases the risk for exposure to pesticides present on the ground. Gardens and playgrounds may have pesticides residues. Children may be in contact with domestic animals that have been treated with pesticides. In rural settings, children can be exposed to pesticide residues in areas where they have been applied, or by contamination of work equipment and parents clothing. Families dedicated to rural activity have higher levels of exposure, through ingesting contaminated fruits, vegetables, milk, eggs, and water. Several studies confirmed pesticide exposure in children by biomonitoring. Higher levels of organophosphate metabolites have been reported in children compared to adult populations. Toxic effects of pesticides depend on their intrinsic toxic properties as well as on the dose, duration, and life period of exposure. Acute poisonings are related to high doses exposure, while chronic, subtle and delayed effects are often related to low levels/doses exposure. Epidemiologic, animal, and clinical studies suggest an association between chronic, low-level exposures and alterations in growth and development (particularly impaired neurobehavioral development), cancer and increased susceptibility to infections. New research presents evidence that some pesticides are a risk factor of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. Better practices and public health policies are needed to prevent and protect children from pesticides exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 194-200, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pesticides are widely employed in agriculture, and the food industry is forced to combat the pests and diseases they cause. Respiratory pathology is related to occupational exposure to pesticides. Impairment of pulmonary function was observed among people professionally exposed to pesticides. Because of the marked use of pesticides in agriculture during the last 20 years, there has been a significant increase in respiratory problems within the population, not only among people who come in direct contact with them, but even in the case of manipulators. OBJECTIVE: The aim is a review of the literature of the past 10 years on the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic search in 'Pub Med' and 'Web of Science' was performed in September 2019 to find papers regarding the above-investigated aspects. Abstracts and full-text articles containing the targeted subject were included. Reviews and studies about the influence of pesticides on other pathologies than respiratory were excluded. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eligible full-text articles were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to pesticides is highly correlated with respiratory pathologies (asthma, COPD, lung cancer). Contact with these substances can occur at any time in the production, transport, preparation or application of the treatments. Numerous studies documented the association between exposure to pesticides, and therefore the increased incidence of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases, as well as the aging phenomenon.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Humanos
16.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 68, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have suggested that various pesticides are associated with a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) and may influence the progression of the disease. However, the evidence regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on mortality among patients with PD is equivocal. This study examines whether pesticide exposure influences the risk of mortality among patients with PD in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A total of 150 patients with idiopathic PD were enrolled from 2008 to 2013 and followed until 2019. In addition to undergoing a detailed neurologic evaluation, patients completed surveys regarding socioeconomic status and environmental exposures. RESULTS: Twenty patients (13.3%) reported a history of occupational pesticide exposure with a median duration of exposure of 10 years (mean = 13.1, SD = 11.2). Patients with a history of occupational pesticide exposure had higher UPDRS-III scores, though there were no significant differences in regards to age, sex, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and age at symptom onset. Patients with occupational pesticide exposure were more than twice as likely to die than their unexposed PD counterparts (HR = 2.32, 95% CI [1.15, 4.66], p = 0.018). Occupational pesticide exposure was also a significant predictor of death in a cox-proportional hazards model which included smoking and caffeine intake history (HR = 2.23, 95% CI [1.09, 4.59], p = 0.03)) and another which included several measures of socioeconomic status (HR = 3.91, 95% CI [1.32, 11.58], p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we found an increased all-cause mortality risk in PD patients with occupational exposure to pesticides. More studies are needed to further analyze this topic with longer follow-up periods, more detailed exposure information, and more specific causes of mortality.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/mortalidade , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 65, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure during susceptible windows and at certain doses are linked to numerous birth defects. Early experimental evidence suggests an association between active ingredients in pesticides and holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the forebrain in humans (1 in 250 embryos). No human studies to date have examined the association. This study investigated pesticides during multiple windows of exposure and fetal risk for HPE. It is hypothesized that pre-conception and early pregnancy, the time of brain development in utero, are the most critical windows of exposure. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed for this retrospective case-control study to estimate household, occupational, and environmental pesticide exposures. Four windows of exposure were considered: preconception, early, mid and late pregnancy. Cases were identified through the National Human Genome Research Institute's ongoing clinical studies of HPE. Similarly, controls were identified as children with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a genetic syndrome also characterized by congenital malformations, but etiologically unrelated to HPE. We assessed for differences in odds of exposures to pesticides between cases and controls. RESULTS: Findings from 91 cases and 56 controls showed an increased risk for HPE with reports of maternal exposure during pregnancy to select pesticides including personal insect repellants (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.89, confidence interval (CI): 0.96-9.50) and insecticides and acaricides for pets (aOR 3.84, CI:1.04-16.32). Exposure to household pest control products during the preconception period or during pregnancy was associated with increased risk for HPE (aOR 2.60, OR: 0.84-8.68). No associations were found for occupational exposures to pesticides during pregnancy (aOR: 1.15, CI: 0.11-11.42), although exposure rates were low. Higher likelihood for HPE was also observed with residency next to an agricultural field (aOR 3.24, CI: 0.94-12.31). CONCLUSIONS: Observational findings are consistent with experimental evidence and suggest that exposure to personal, household, and agricultural pesticides during pregnancy may increase risk for HPE. Further investigations of gene by environment interactions are warranted.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Holoprosencefalia/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Holoprosencefalia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 719-728, May-June, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128887

RESUMO

Este estudo investigou a toxicidade pré-natal do inseticida piriproxifeno em ratos Wistar, de forma a detectar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento fetal da progênie exposta durante o período organogênico. Três doses de piriproxifeno (100, 300 e 500mg.kg-1) foram administradas por via oral às progenitoras, do sexto ao 15º dia de gestação. Os fetos foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização modificada descrita por Taylor e Van Dyke, para avaliação de malformações e alterações esqueléticas. Os resultados não demonstraram a ocorrência de toxicidade materna sistêmica ou alterações nos índices reprodutivos avaliados. Malformações ou alterações teratogênicas não foram detectadas, no entanto alterações esqueléticas sugestivas de retardo no desenvolvimento foram observadas especialmente nas doses mais altas testadas (300mg.kg-1 e 500mg.kg-1). Considerando-se a situação complexa de risco para a saúde humana, mostra-se importante a execução de investigações adicionais, de modo a contribuir para a adequada avaliação de risco do piriproxifeno em água potável.(AU)


This study investigated the prenatal toxicity of the insecticide pyriproxyfen in Wistar rats to detect the possible changes in the fetal development of the progeny exposed during the organogenic period. Three doses of pyriproxyfen (100, 300, and 500mg.kg-1) were administered orally to the progenitors, from day 6 to 15 of gestation. The fetuses were processed using the Taylor and Van Dyke modified diaphanization technique to evaluate malformations and skeletal changes. The results did not demonstrate the occurrence of systemic maternal toxicity or changes in the reproductive indexes evaluated. Malformations or teratogenic changes were not detected, however, skeletal changes suggestive of developmental delay were observed, especially in the highest doses tested (300 mg.kg-1 and 500 mg.kg-1). Owing to the potentially complex situation regarding its risk to human health, it is important that further studies be performed to contribute to the risk assessment of the addition of pyriproxyfen in drinking water.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas , Teratogênios/análise , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar/embriologia , Zika virus , Microcefalia/veterinária
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437365

RESUMO

Pesticide exposures can have detrimental impacts on bee pollinators, ranging from immediate mortality to sub-lethal impacts. Flupyradifurone is the active ingredient in Sivanto™ and sulfoxaflor is the active ingredient in Transform®. They are both relatively new insecticides developed with an intent to reduce negative effects on bees, when applied to bee-attractive crops. With the growing concern regarding pollinator health and pollinator declines, it is important to have a better understanding of any potential negative impacts, especially sub-lethal, of these pesticides on bees. This study reports novel findings regarding physiological stress experienced by bees exposed to field application rates of these two insecticides via a Potter Tower sprayer. Two contact exposure experiments were conducted-a shorter 6-hour study and a longer 10-day study. Honey bee mortality, sugar syrup and water consumption, and physiological responses (oxidative stress and apoptotic protein assays) were assessed in bees exposed to Sivanto™ and Transform®, and compared to bees in control group. For the longer, 10-day contact exposure experiment, only the Sivanto™ group was compared to the control group, as high mortality recorded in the sulfoxaflor treatment group during the shorter contact exposure experiment, made the latter group unfeasible to test in the longer 10-days experiment. In both the studies, sugar syrup and water consumptions were significantly different between treatment groups and controls. The highest mortality was observed in Transform® exposed bees, followed by the Sivanto™ exposed bees. Estimates of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species indicated significantly elevated oxidative stress in both pesticide treatment groups, when compared to controls. Caspase-3 protein assays, an indicator of onset of apoptosis, was also significantly higher in the pesticide treatment groups. These differences were largely driven by post exposure duration, indicating sub-lethal impacts. Further, our findings also emphasize the need to revisit contact exposure impacts of Sivanto™, given the sub-lethal impacts and mortality observed in our long-term (10-day) contact exposure experiment.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , 4-Butirolactona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polinização , Fatores de Tempo
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