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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(6): 1275-1284, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185410

RESUMO

Insect and mite pests are damaging stressors that are threatening the cultivation of tea plants, which result in enormous crop loss. Over the years, the effectiveness of synthetic pesticides has allowed for its prominent application as a control strategy. However, the adverse effects of synthetic pesticides in terms of pesticide residue, environmental contamination and insect pest resistance have necessitated the need for alternative strategies. Meanwhile, microbial pesticides have been applied to tackle the damaging activities of the insect and mite pests of tea plants, and their performances were scientifically adjudged appreciable and environmental friendly. Herein, entomopathogenic microbes that were effective against tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout), tea green leafhopper (Empoasca onukii Matsuda), paraguay tea ampul (Gyropsylla spegazziniana), tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse) and red spider mite (Oligonychus coffea Nietner) have been reviewed. The current findings revealed that microbial pesticides were effective and showed promising performances against these pests. Overall, this review has provided the basic and integrative information on the integrated pest management (IPM) tool(s) that can be utilized towards successful control of the aforementioned insect and mite pests.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/parasitologia , Insetos , Ácaros , Controle Biológico de Vetores/normas , Animais , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/virologia , Praguicidas/normas
2.
Food Chem ; 309: 125755, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704075

RESUMO

A simple, sensitive and environmentally-friendly method for determining organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables was developed to better evaluate the risk of consuming them. The pesticides in vegetables were extracted, purified and concentrated by using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method) combined DLLME-SFO (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet) techniques. The key parameters were optimized through orthogonal array experimental design and statistical analysis. The linearity of the calibration curves was satisfied in matrix-matched standard solution with R2 ≥ 0.99. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.3-1.5 and 0.9-4.7 µg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of pesticides were 61.6-119.4% with relative standard deviations <16.1%. Furthermore, the method was applied successfully to analyse the pesticides in 15 pairs of organic and conventional vegetables. These results reflect the efficiency, reliability and robustness of the developed method.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Verduras/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Compostos Organofosforados/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organofosforados/normas , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/normas , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Piretrinas/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Verduras/metabolismo
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5013-5021, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222408

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) and synthetic pyrethroids (PYRs) are active ingredients of commercial pesticides and/or insecticides with extensive indoor and outdoor applications, worldwide. Improved exposure metrics are warranted for NEOs and PYRs, if we are to better understand their human health effects. A cohort-friendly protocol for determining non-specific biomarkers of exposure to NEOs and PYRs, e.g. 6-chloronicotinic acid (6-CN) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), respectively, in human urine voids was proposed. A series of optimization experiments were conducted to validate the bioanalytical protocol using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) in MRM mode. The method reached low detection limits for both analytes (0.075 µg L-1 for 6-CN and 0.050 µg L-1 for 3-PBA) in a short preparation and analysis time. The method used small initial urine sample volume (2 mL), short extraction time (≈ 240 min for the batches of 32 samples) and instrumental analysis time (≈ 14 min) for both pesticide metabolites in a single run. This protocol could facilitate the assessment of population exposure metrics for these pesticides and their inclusion in health risk assessment. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Neonicotinoides/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Piretrinas/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Neonicotinoides/normas , Praguicidas/normas , Piretrinas/normas , Padrões de Referência
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1589: 122-133, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635172

RESUMO

In the analysis of pesticides performed with gas chromatography, the quantitative performance of measurements can be severely compromised by phenomena known as matrix effects. In seeking a solution to the problem of matrix effects, the application of a modifier gas generator (MGG) was investigated in this study, together with analyte protectants and multiple internal standards. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used as modifier gas and matrix effects in GCMS analysis were then evaluated by using the extracts of various food commodities. MGG was used in combination with other known methods of matrix effect compensation and its performance in reducing matrix effects tested. We have found that by combining MGG with conventional analyte protectants, matrix effects were substantially reduced for most of pesticides. Use of EG was especially effective for organophosphate pesticides and those with amino groups. Using this approach, the shortcomings of conventional analyte protectants were remedied. Although neither EG nor analyte protectants could sufficiently reduce the matrix effects for certain classes of pesticides, this limitation could be overcome with the use of multiple internal standards (IS) in the analysis. Finally, it was shown that the method we developed could achieve better analytical performance than the matrix-matched calibration method. Our method was robust with respect to the variation of food matrix components, so its application to real-world analyses would be practical and promising.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Calibragem , Etilenoglicol , Praguicidas/normas , Padrões de Referência
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(3): 578-582, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216628

RESUMO

Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product. This reduces the development of control strategies and often has negative human health and environmental effects. Possibilities exist for improvements. They include reducing approval costs and approval time by streamlining the approval process and substituting approval requirements by strengthening ex-post liability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas/economia , Praguicidas/normas , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Controle Biológico de Vetores/economia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/legislação & jurisprudência , Plantas
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(1): 106-109, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185940

RESUMO

Ticks can spread a variety of diseases and cause serious damage to animal husbandry. However, the existing insecticide and vaccine control methods have some disadvantages. In this paper, we review the research status of tick pesticides, including the chemical pesticides and non-chemical pesticides (Chinese herbal medicine, nanometer material, virus, fungus and bacterium pesticides), and analyze the disadvantages of the existing researches on pesticides against ticks, in order to provide a theoretical reference for establishing high-efficient and safety tick control methods.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Praguicidas , Infestações por Carrapato , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Praguicidas/normas , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Carrapatos
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(22): 5481-5489, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984381

RESUMO

Matrix effects (MEs) can adversely affect quantification in pesticide residue analysis using GC. Analyte protectants (APs) can effectively interact with and mask active sites in the GC system, and are added individually or in combination to sample extracts and calibration solutions to minimize errors related to MEs. Unfortunately, APs cannot sufficiently compensate for MEs in all cases. Plant extracts, containing a broad range of natural compounds with AP properties, can also be used for this purpose. In this study, the applicability of cucumber extract as a natural AP mixture was investigated both alone and in combination with traditional APs. Extracts of two selected difficult matrices (onion and garlic) were prepared according to the citrate-buffered QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure. ME values of 40 representative GC-amenable pesticides were compared when calibrating against standards in pure solvent and in cucumber extract, with and without the addition of APs. Using a GC system with a contaminated inlet liner, the use of a cucumber-based calibration solution decreased MEs remarkably. The combination of APs with cucumber raw extract further decreased MEs, resulting in more than 85% of the tested pesticides showing ≤ 10% ME in onion and ≤ 20% ME in garlic. These results demonstrate that the preparation of calibration standards based on cucumber extracts (with or without the addition of APs) is a very useful and practical approach to compensate for MEs in pesticide residue analysis using QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS. The use of various internal standards is furthermore critically discussed.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Calibragem , Alho/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle/métodos , Cebolas/química , Praguicidas/normas , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
9.
Environ Pollut ; 242(Pt A): 198-208, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980038

RESUMO

Children can be exposed to organophosphate and carbamate mixtures, which pose additive health effects via soil exposure. However, only 23 countries have soil standard values for organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and most regulatory jurisdictions do not consider the cumulative exposure. This study derived proposed soil standards for organophosphates and carbamates by introducing the relative potency quotient approach (RPQ). The probabilistic cumulative risk assessment was also applied to evaluate current soil standards of pesticide mixtures. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have soil standards of 19 organophosphates and five carbamates. However, these standards cannot protect population health via chronic exposure in conservative and semi-conservative scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment because the U.S.EPA simplified the regulatory process for the cumulative exposure to pesticide mixtures and omitted the soil allocation factor, which should be set for aggregate exposure. The analysis of proposed soil standards developed by the RPQ approach indicates that some human behavior variables, such as soil intake rate and exposure duration, have stronger impacts on the proposed soil standards than human biometric variables like body weight. This study may be helpful to develop regulatory standards and a framework for pesticide mixtures having additive health effects.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Carbamatos , Criança , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Praguicidas/normas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência , Medição de Risco
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 644: 342-349, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981982

RESUMO

The environmental risk assessment of pesticides is mainly performed on individual active ingredients. In surface waters within the agricultural landscape, however, contamination is usually characterized by complex pesticide mixtures. To estimate the joint effects caused by these complex mixtures, mathematical models have been proposed. Among these, the model of concentration addition (CA) is suggested as default model for the risk assessment of chemical mixtures as it is considered protective for mixtures composed of similar and dissimilar acting substances. Here we assessed the suitability of CA predictions for seven field relevant pesticide mixtures using acute (immobility) and chronic (reproduction) responses of the standard test species Daphnia magna. Pesticide mixtures indicated largely additive or less than additive effects when using CA model predictions as a reference. Moreover, we revealed that deviations from CA predictions are lower for chronic (up to 3.2-fold) relative to acute (up to 7.2-fold) response variables. Additionally, CA predictions were in general more accurate for complex mixtures relative to those composed of only a few pesticides. Thus, this study suggests CA models as largely protective for the risk assessment of pesticide mixtures justifying its use as default model. At the same time, extrapolating conclusions about the joint effects of pesticides from acute to chronic responses is uncertain, due to partly large discrepancies with regards to the deviation of model prediction and observed effects between exposure scenarios.


Assuntos
Daphnia/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Agricultura , Animais , Misturas Complexas , Praguicidas/normas , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água
11.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 5(3): 387-395, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003510

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approval of genetically engineered (GE) crops in the late 1990s triggered dramatic changes in corn, soybean, and cotton pest management systems, as well as complex, novel regulatory challenges. Lessons learned are reviewed and solutions described. RECENT FINDINGS: Government-imposed resistance management provisions can work and adapt to changing circumstances, but within the private sector, pressures to gain and hold market share have thus far trumped the widely recognized need for resistance management. Risks arising from the use of formulated pesticides often exceed by a wide margin those in regulatory risk assessments based on data derived from studies on nearly 100% pure active ingredients. Innovative policy changes are needed in four problem areas: excessive faith in the accuracy of pre-market risk assessments and regulatory thresholds; post-approval monitoring of actual impacts; risk arising from formulated pesticides, rather than just pure active ingredient; challenges inherent in assessing and mitigating the combined impacts of all GE traits and associated pesticides on agroecosystems, as opposed to each trait or pesticide alone; and, tools to deal with failing pest management systems.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/normas , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/normas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Produtos Agrícolas , Glicina/normas , Glicina/toxicidade , Guias como Assunto , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(8): 7699-7708, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288298

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment; they can have adverse effects in humans and animals. This study examined residual concentrations in water, sediments, and fishes as well as the association between the health risks of OCPs and fish consumption in the Taiwanese population. Various water and sediment samples from Taiwanese aquaculture and fish samples from different sources were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 20 OCPs, namely, aldrin; cis-chlordane; trans-chlordane; dieldrin; endrin; alpha-endosulfan; beta-endosulfan; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; lindane; mirex; pentachlorobenzene; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); p,p'-DDT; and DDT metabolites (o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]; p,p'-DDD; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]; and p,p'-DDE). None of the analyzed samples was positive for OCP contamination, suggesting no new input pollution from the land through washing into Taiwanese aquaculture environments. However, OCP residues were detected in fishes caught along the coast, namely, skipjack tuna and bigeye barracuda, and in imported fishes, such as codfish and salmon. DDT was the predominant pesticide. The contamination pattern of persistent organic pollutants was as follows: dieldrin > cis-chlordane > hexachlorobenzene, with average concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 2.74 ng/g. The risk was assessed in terms of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for potential adverse indices; the EDI of OCP residues was lower than 1% of the acceptable daily intake established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization. The assessed risk was negligible and considered to be at a safe level, suggesting no association between fish consumption and risks to human health in Taiwan. However, a continuous monitoring program for OCP residues in fishes is necessary to further assess the possible effects on human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura/organização & administração , Agricultura/normas , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/normas , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/normas , Medição de Risco , Taiwan , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(7): e00181016, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767963

RESUMO

This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.


Assuntos
Legislação de Medicamentos/normas , Praguicidas/normas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Brasil , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Environ Pollut ; 224: 384-391, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222980

RESUMO

Probabilistic environmental quality criteria for Naphthalene (Nap), Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), Triclosan (TCS), Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorpyrifos (CPY), Diuron (DUR), γ-Hexaclorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) were derived from acute toxicity data using saltwater species representative of marine ecosystems, including algae, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and chordates. Preferably, data concerns sublethal endpoints and early life stages from bioassays conducted in our laboratory, but the data set was completed with a broad literature survey. The Water Quality Criteria (WQC) obtained for TBT (7.1·10-3 µg L-1) and CPY (6.6· 10-3 µg L-1) were orders of magnitude lower than those obtained for PAHs (ranging from 3.75 to 45.2 µg L-1), BPA (27.7 µg L-1), TCS (8.66 µg L-1) and 4-NP (1.52 µg L-1). Critical values for DUR and HCH were 0.1 and 0.057 µg L-1 respectively. Within this context, non-selective toxicants could be quantitatively defined as those showing a maximum variability in toxicity thresholds (TT) of 3 orders of magnitude across the whole range of marine diversity, and a cumulative distribution of the TT fitting to a single log-logistic curve, while for selective toxicants variability was consistently found to span 5 orders of magnitude and the TT distribution showed a bimodal pattern. For the latter, protective WQC must be derived taking into account the SSD of the sensitive taxa only.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/normas , Praguicidas/normas , Plásticos/normas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/normas , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Estados Unidos
15.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 36(6): 1473-1482, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27808432

RESUMO

Urban pest control insecticides-specifically fipronil and its 4 major degradates (fipronil sulfone, sulfide, desulfinyl, and amide), as well as imidacloprid-were monitored during drought conditions in 8 San Francisco Bay (San Francisco, CA, USA) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In influent and effluent, ubiquitous detections were obtained in units of ng/L for fipronil (13-88 ng/L), fipronil sulfone (1-28 ng/L), fipronil sulfide (1-5 ng/L), and imidacloprid (58-306 ng/L). Partitioning was also investigated; in influent, 100% of imidacloprid and 62 ± 9% of total fiproles (fipronil and degradates) were present in the dissolved state, with the balance being bound to filter-removable particulates. Targeted insecticides persisted during wastewater treatment, regardless of treatment technology utilized (imidacloprid: 93 ± 17%; total fiproles: 65 ± 11% remaining), with partitioning into sludge (3.7-151.1 µg/kg dry wt as fipronil) accounting for minor losses of total fiproles entering WWTPs. The load of total fiproles was fairly consistent across the facilities but fiprole speciation varied. This first regional study on fiprole and imidacloprid occurrences in raw and treated California sewage revealed ubiquity and marked persistence to conventional treatment of both phenylpyrazole and neonicotinoid compounds. Flea and tick control agents for pets are identified as potential sources of pesticides in sewage meriting further investigation and inclusion in chemical-specific risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1473-1482. © 2016 SETAC.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Pirazóis/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , California , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Imidazóis/normas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/normas , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/normas , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Estados Unidos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 580: 136-146, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012656

RESUMO

Organisms are frequently exposed to mixtures of chemical contaminants in the environment, causing a potential "cocktail effect", or combined effect. The joint action of different molecules with similar or different modes of action could result in a potentially unlimited number of additives, synergistic or antagonistic combinations. Since the large number of contaminants makes it impossible to perform ecotoxicity tests for each potential mixture, a robust approach for prospective environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures is needed. A number of recent publications by the European Commission and the authorities in charge prove the increasing interest that is spreading in the European community towards the topic of the assessment of chemical mixtures. The current EU regulation for Plant Protection Products authorization (Reg. 1107/2009 EC) explicitly requires the evaluation of the potential combined effects of active substances. We reviewed current methods and limitations of mixture assessment of pesticides (7 fungicides and 4 herbicides) through the analysis of the approaches adopted to investigate possible risks for different non-target organisms. The Concentration Addition (CA) approach was the most used approach to predict multiple toxicity to non-target organisms. The guidance for birds and mammals first introduced standard procedures to assess the multiple toxicity based on on CA concept. The recent aquatic EFSA guidance introduced some requirements to evaluate potential mixture toxicity, while the current guidance requirements for terrestrial organisms still lack clear indications on how to conduct the assessment. Moreover, new indications come from the draft guidance for the assessment of terrestrial plants and in-soil organisms. However, the approval and implementation of these new guidelines are still at a developmental stage. Some final considerations are drawn on the future possibilities to improve risk assessment procedures so as to identify harmful effects of pesticides mixtures on non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Praguicidas/normas , Medição de Risco , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Estudos Prospectivos , Solo
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(7): e00181016, 2017. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-889709

RESUMO

Resumo: O presente artigo busca contribuir para uma reflexão sobre a temática dos agrotóxicos, à luz do arcabouço legal brasileiro, na perspectiva da proteção à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. Tal iniciativa deve-se a sucessivas tentativas de flexibilização das normas de regulação de agrotóxicos no Brasil, por meio de projetos de lei em curso no Congresso Nacional. Para tanto, fez-se uma análise do Projeto de Lei nº 3.200/2015, que representa um dos maiores retrocessos às conquistas legislativas para a regulamentação dos agrotóxicos, de modo a alertar para os riscos à saúde humana frente à exposição a esses produtos e ao agravamento por outras propostas similares.


Abstract: This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.


Resumen: El presente artículo busca contribuir a una reflexión sobre la temática de los agrotóxicos, a la luz del marco legal brasileño, desde la perspectiva de proteger la salud humana y el medio ambiente. Esta iniciativa se debe a sucesivos intentos de flexibilización de las normas de regulación de agrotóxicos en Brasil, a través de proyectos de ley en curso en el Congreso Nacional. Se llevó a cabo un análisis del Proyecto de Ley 3.200/2015, que representa uno de los mayores retrocesos a las conquistas legislativas para la normativa de los agrotóxicos, para alertar sobre los riesgos a la salud humana frente a la exposición a esos productos y al agravamiento por otras propuestas similares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas/normas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Legislação de Medicamentos/normas , Brasil , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Ocupacional , Regulamentação Governamental
19.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 51(8): 571-7, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166991

RESUMO

Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated.


Assuntos
Agricultura/normas , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/normas , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/normas , Solo/química , Modelos Teóricos , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
J Food Prot ; 79(3): 512-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26939665

RESUMO

National and industrial standards used for the certification and inspection of eggs and egg products in the People's Republic of China were reviewed. Although egg production is very high, specific egg and egg product standards are insufficient. Currently, 11 recommended standards and 6 compulsory standards are used to inspect eggs and egg products. Among the related 17 standards, only 6 recommended standards were promulgated for specific egg products even though there are more than 12 kinds of egg products. Egg and egg product standards were formulated and promulgated by six government agencies alone or in cooperation. Communications among agencies should be improved because some of the maximum levels and maximum residue limits for heavy metals, veterinary drugs, and microorganisms are inconsistent among standards, which may confuse producers and customers. The standard for the maximum residue limits of veterinary drugs in eggs and other foods of animal origin need to be revised and updated immediately, which will require the efforts and cooperation of policymakers, researchers, producers, and customers.


Assuntos
Ovos/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/normas , China , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Metais Pesados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/normas
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