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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 735-741, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375955

RESUMO

Pesticides are a well-known family of chemicals that have contaminated water systems globally. Four common subfamilies of pesticides include organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamate insecticides which have been shown to adversely affect the human nervous system. Studies have shown a link between pesticide exposure and decreased viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of murine neural stem cells. Besides human exposure directly through water systems, additional factors such as pesticide bioaccumulation, biomagnification and potential synergism due to co-exposure to other environmental contaminants must be considered. A possible avenue to investigate the molecular mechanisms and biomolecules impacted by the various classes of pesticides includes the field of -omics. Discovery of the precise molecular mechanisms behind pesticide-mediated neurodegenerative disorders may facilitate development of targeted therapeutics. Likewise, discovery of pesticide biodegradation pathways may enable novel approaches for water system bioremediation using genetically engineered microorganisms. In this mini-review, we discuss recently established harmful impacts of various categories of pesticides on the nervous system and the application of -omics field for discovery, validation, and mitigation of pesticide neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Água
2.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136719, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206917

RESUMO

The high levels of contamination in aquatic ecosystems caused by pesticides and the organisms' consequent continuous exposure to it has made them vulnerable to damage. However, mobile organisms can avoid this continued exposure to contaminants by moving to less disturbed habitats. Therefore, through the use of the Heterogenous Multi-Habitat Assay System (HeMHAS), our objective was to evaluate the ability of Daphnia magna to detect and avoid habitats contaminated by fipronil and 2,4-D, in a spatially connected landscape. Further, the role of contamination by these pesticides, isolated and in mixtures, concerning the colonization of habitats by daphnids was also evaluated. Given that not all organisms successfully escape contamination, the chronic toxicity of the same pesticides using different parameters for D. magna (maternal survival, fecundity and maternal body length) was also evaluated. When evaluating the avoidance response by D. magna exposed to pesticides, there was no preference for the less contaminated areas for both compounds. However, organisms did not move to contaminated zones in the colonization experiments, with no immigration of daphnids to the zones with intermediate and the highest levels of fipronil, nor to the highest concentration of 2,4-D. Finally, the colonization by daphnids was significantly prevented when exposed to a mixture of the pesticides, in which the areas with the highest combinations of pesticide concentrations were not colonized by D. magna. Regarding the long-term chronic effects, negative consequences were observed, particularly for maternal body length, fecundity and maternal survival, due to the exposure to fipronil. Considering that pesticides can limit the areas colonized by organisms by making them unattractive, the risk of local population extinction may be underestimated if only standard endpoints involving forced exposure are studied.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Daphnia/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMO

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Assuntos
Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Paquistão , Acetilcolinesterase , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 650-661, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375947

RESUMO

The wide use of pesticides has seriously threatened human health and the survival of beneficial organisms. The fungicide mepanipyrim is widely used in viticulture practices. Studies of mepanipyrim-induced toxicity in organisms are still scarce, especially studies on cardiotoxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate mepanipyrim-induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. We found that mepanipyrim could induce cardiotoxicity by altering the heart rate and cardiomyocyte diameter of larvae. Meanwhile, RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR data indicated that mepanipyrim exposure could dramatically alter the mRNA expression of calcium signaling pathway-, cardiac muscle contraction-, and oxidative respiratory chain-related genes. Interestingly, by the CALUX cell bioassay, we found that most cytochrome c oxidase (COX) family genes exhibited potential AhR-regulated activity, suggesting that mepanipyrim induced cardiotoxicity via a novel AhR-regulated manner in larvae. Additionally, the AhR antagonist CH223191 could effectively prevent mepanipyrim-induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, the AhR agonist mepanipyrim could induce cardiotoxicity in a novel unreported AhR-regulated manner, which could specifically affect the expression of COX family genes involved in the mitochondrial oxidative respiratory chain. Our data will help explain the toxic effects of mepanipyrim on organisms and provide new insight into the AhR agonistic activity pesticide-induced cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Larva , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158859, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126706

RESUMO

This review covers key information related to the effects of pesticides on fetal and child health. All humans are exposed to environmental toxicants, however child's health, due to their high vulnerability, should be of special concern. They are continuously exposed to environmental xenobiotics including a wide variety of pesticides, and other pollutants. These compounds can enter the child's body through various routes, both during fetal life, in the first days of life with breast milk, as well as during environmental exposure in later years of life. Consequently, in the body, some of them are metabolized and excreted with urine or faces, while others accumulate in tissues causing toxic effects. This review will provide information on the types of pesticides, their pathways of uptake and metabolism in children's bodies. Determination of the impact of them on children's organism performance is possible through effective identification of these compounds and their metabolites in children's tissues and biofluids. Therefore, the main procedures for the determination of pesticides are reviewed and future trends in this field are indicated. We believe that this comprehensive review can be a good starting place for the future readers interested in the impact of environmental xenobiotics on the health of children as well as the aspects relates with the analytical methods that can be used for analysis and monitoring of these pollutants in children's tissues and biofluids.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Leite Humano/química
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(9): 1462-1476, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319920

RESUMO

Information regarding the safety and environmental risks of pesticides intended for urban use remains limited. This study aimed to assess the effects of four common pesticides on the microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata: DIAZINON® 25% C. E., Roundup®, URBACIN® 20C. E., and VAPODEL® 20% C. E., which are commercial formulations of diazinon, glyphosate, dichlorvos, and cypermethrin, respectively. According to 96-h inhibition of population growth bioassays, the four pesticide toxicities exemplified the following order: DIAZINON® (diazinon) > Roundup® (glyphosate) > VAPODEL® (dichlorvos) > URBACIN® (cypermethrin). Increasing pesticide concentrations elicited alterations in the specific growth rates (µmax). The macromolecule contents and photosynthetic pigments increased in groups exposed to the highest concentrations of DIAZINON® 25%, Roundup®, and URBACIN® 20 compared to the control group, despite these treatments inducing lower population growth rates. VAPODEL® 20% induced higher growth rates and lower macromolecule content compared to the control. Since active ingredients were not quantified, certain comparisons may prove limiting, but it is important to assess the effects of the whole mixtures in the form that they enter the environment, especially for urban-intended applications or generic formulations with higher additive contents. Finally, this study demonstrated that commercial pesticide formulations designed for urban applications might pose a threat to freshwater microalgae due to their underestimated toxic potential, but further studies are required.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Diazinon/toxicidade , Diclorvós/farmacologia , Crescimento Demográfico
7.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(9): 1450-1461, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319919

RESUMO

The use of pesticides to protect crops often affects non-target organisms vital to ecosystem functioning. A functional soil mesofauna is important for decomposition and nutrient cycling processes in agricultural soils, which generally have low biodiversity. To assess pesticide effects on natural soil communities we enclosed intact soil cores in situ in an agricultural field in 5 cm wide mesocosms. We used two types of mesh lids on the mesocosms, allowing or preventing migration of mesofauna. The mesocosms were exposed to the insecticide imidacloprid (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg dry soil) and left in the field for 20 days. Overall, regardless of lid type, mesocosm enclosure did not affect springtail or mite abundances during the experiment when compared with undisturbed soil. Imidacloprid exposure reduced the abundance of both surface- and soil-living springtails in a concentration-dependent manner, by 65-90% at the two highest concentrations, and 21-23% at 0.1 mg/kg, a concentration found in some agricultural soils after pesticide application. Surface-living springtails were more affected by imidacloprid exposure than soil-living ones. In contrast, neither predatory nor saprotrophic mites showed imidacloprid-dependent changes in abundance, concurring with previous findings indicating that mites are generally less sensitive to neonicotinoids than other soil organisms. The possibility to migrate did not affect the springtail or mite abundance responses to imidacloprid. We show that under realistic exposure concentrations in the field, soil arthropod community composition and abundance can be substantially altered in an organism-dependent manner, thus affecting the soil community diversity.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Solo
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355804

RESUMO

Recently, pesticides have been suggested to be one of the factors responsible for the large-scale decline in honey bee populations, including colony collapse disorder. The identification of the genes that respond to pesticide exposure based on their expression is essential for understanding the xenobiotic detoxification metabolism in honey bees. For the accurate determination of target gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR, the expression stability of reference genes should be validated in honey bees exposed to various pesticides. Therefore, in this study, to select the optimal reference genes, we analyzed the amplification efficiencies of five candidate reference genes (RPS5, RPS18, GAPDH, ARF1, and RAD1a) and their expression stability values using four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) across samples of five body parts (head, thorax, gut, fat body, and carcass) from honey bees exposed to seven pesticides (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, flupyradifurone, fenitrothion, carbaryl, amitraz, and bifenthrin). Among these five candidate genes, a combination of RAD1a and RPS18 was suggested for target gene normalization. Subsequently, expression levels of six genes (AChE1, CYP9Q1, CYP9Q2, CYP9Q3, CAT, and SOD1) were normalized with a combination of RAD1a and RPS18 in the different body parts from honey bees exposed to pesticides. Among the six genes in the five body parts, the expression of SOD1 in the head, fat body, and carcass was significantly induced by six pesticides. In addition, among seven pesticides, flupyradifurone statistically induced expression levels of five genes in the fat body.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Abelhas/genética , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Superóxido Dismutase-1 , Piridinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114240, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323153

RESUMO

The paper discusses the types of fibers contained in the museum textile artifacts and the types of pests and pesticides. Also, the main health problems associated with pesticide exposure are presented. Textile fibers represent an excellent source of food for microbes and insects. The key to the long-term preservation of textiles is by implementing an integrated management program for pest and environmental conditions control. The main types of pesticides are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides, and fumigants and a way for classification can be made according to the LD50 (lethal dose) value which evaluates the toxicity of a pesticide. Depending on the LD50 values, pesticides can be very toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic, and relatively non-toxic. Exposure to pesticides can occur through 4 four routes: oral, dermal, respiratory, and eye exposure. The main diseases that can be associated with exposure to pesticides are discussed in the paper. In the end, a basic set of precautionary recommendations when handling museum objects that may contain hazardous materials was presented.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Museus , Artefatos , Têxteis
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114246, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332405

RESUMO

Several pesticides widely used in agriculture have been considered to be endocrine disrupting chemicals through their binding affinities to estrogen or androgen receptors. This study was conducted to clarify the human androgen receptor (hAR)-mediated genomic endocrine disrupting mechanism of eight selected pesticide products by in vitro assay providing the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 458, 22Rv1/MMTV_GR-KO AR transcriptional activation assay and a homo-dimerization confirmation assay. None of the tested pesticide products showed an AR agonistic effect, whereas they were all determined to be AR antagonists at non-toxic concentrations. Also, the eight pesticide products were verified as true AR antagonists through a specificity control test. In the Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based AR homo-dimerization confirmation assay, the eight pesticide products did not induce AR homo-dimerization. Additionally, western blotting revealed that none of the eight pesticide products induced AR translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In conclusion, we found for the first-time evidence to understand the AR-mediated endocrine disrupting mechanisms induced by selected azole and organophosphorus pesticide products.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Receptores Androgênicos , Humanos , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Dimerização , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Azóis , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Genômica
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293259

RESUMO

The environmental and occupational risk we confront from agricultural chemicals increases as their presence in natural habitats rises to hazardous levels, building a major part of the exposome. This is of particular concern in low- and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, known as a leading producer of agricultural commodities and consumer of pesticides. As long as public policies continue to encourage the indiscriminate use of pesticides and governments continue to support this strategy instead of endorsing sustainable agricultural alternatives, the environmental burden that damages epithelial barriers will continue to grow. Chronic exposure to environmental contaminants in early life can affect crucial barrier tissue, such as skin epithelium, airways, and intestine, causing increased permeability, leaking, dysbiosis, and inflammation, with serious implications for metabolism and homeostasis. This vicious cycle of exposure to environmental factors and the consequent damage to the epithelial barrier has been associated with an increase in immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Understanding how the harmful effects of pesticides on the epithelial barrier impact cellular interactions mediated by endogenous sensors that coordinate a successful immune system represents a crucial challenge. In line with the epithelial barrier hypothesis, this narrative review reports the available evidence on the effects of pesticides on epithelial barrier integrity, dysbiosis, AhR signaling, and the consequent development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Praguicidas , Humanos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Epitélio , Intestinos , Transdução de Sinais , Mucosa Intestinal
13.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(9): 1441-1449, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301371

RESUMO

Impacts to honey bees due to exposure to agricultural pesticides is one of the most serious threats to the beekeeping industry. Our research evaluated toxicity of the formulated insecticides Lufenuron+Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim Fit®) on the European honey bee Apis mellifera L. at field-realistic concentration (worst-case scenario). Newly emerged (≤24-h old) and forager (unknown age) worker bees were treated with the field recommended concentration of Proclaim Fit® using three routes of exposure including residual contact, oral, and spray within the laboratory. We also assessed the effects of Proclaim Fit® on the specific activity of some well-known detoxifying enzymes including α-esterase, ß-esterase, and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the honey bees. In addition, toxicity of the formulation was tested on 4th instar larvae within the hive. Based on estimated median survival times (MSTs), Proclaim Fit® was highly toxic to the bees, especially when applied as spray. According to our estimated relative median potency (RMP) values, newly emerged bees were 1.72× more susceptible than foragers to Proclaim Fit® applied orally. Enzyme assays revealed the considerable involvement of the enzymes, especially GST and α-esterase, in detoxification of the Proclaim Fit®, but their activities were significantly influenced by route of exposure and age of bee. Notably, Proclaim Fit® was highly toxic to 4th instar honey bee larvae. Our results generally indicate a potent toxicity of Proclaim Fit® toward honey bees. Therefore, its application requires serious consideration and adherence to strict guidelines, especially during the flowering time of crops.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Larva , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase , Esterases/farmacologia
14.
GM Crops Food ; 13(1): 262-289, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226624

RESUMO

This paper assesses the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use with GM crops at a global level. The main technologies impacting on pesticide use have been crops modified to be tolerant to specific herbicides so as to facilitate improved weed control and crops resistant to a range of crop insect pests that otherwise damage crops or typically require the application of insecticides to control them. Over the 24 year period examined to 2020, the widespread use of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant seed technology has reduced pesticide application by 748.6 million kg (-7.2%) of active ingredient and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with insecticide and herbicide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by a larger 17.3% between 1996 and 2020. The technology that has delivered the largest change in pesticide use has been insect resistant cotton, where a 339 million kg of active ingredient saving has occurred and the associated environmental impact (as measured by the EIQ indicator) has fallen by about a third.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Meio Ambiente , Efeito Estufa , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232869

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid pesticides (NPs) are neurotoxic substances. They are highly effective as insecticides owing to their water solubility, permeability, and long-lasting activity. These molecules are structurally similar to nicotine and act as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. The administration of NPs to experimental animals reportedly causes neuromuscular and reproductive disorders. Moreover, recently reported problems caused by NPs include damage to land-dwelling creatures (such as mammals and birds), hydrobiology, and ecosystems. This review summarizes the recent reports on NP concentrations detected in river systems in several Japanese regions. These values were lower than the environmental standard values; however, seasonal variations were observed. Furthermore, reports on NP-induced testicular and ovarian toxicity were examined, revealing that the mechanism of injury is mainly driven by oxidative stress. The use of NPs is declining worldwide, except in Japan; therefore, continuous monitoring remains necessary.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Japão , Mamíferos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nicotina , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 41: 9603271221136211, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are hereditary types of nephroblastoma or Wilms' tumor associated with exposure of the germ cells of either parent to harmful environmental factors. Some studies have examined the exposure of compounds used pesticides and herbicides as a risk factor for Wilms' tumor. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on case-control studies to establish the potential link between exposure to these organic molecules and Wilms' tumor occurrence in children rigorously. We examined the monographs on some organo-phosphate insecticides and herbicides issued by the International Association for the Research on Cancer (IARC) under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO). PUBMED, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar studies (1960-2021) were identified and systematically reviewed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Subgroup analyses were conducted after stratification for occupational versus residential exposure and before birth (prenatal) vs. after birth (postnatal) exposure. In addition, we revised the monographs on chemical compounds issued recently by the IARC/WHO. RESULTS: Our findings seem to consolidate that parental pesticide exposure during the preconception or pregnancy period is correlated with an increased occurrence risk for Wilms' tumor. We confirm the validity of the WHO essays on certain organophosphate herbicides and insecticides, which support these compounds, may be highly relevant in future cancer prevention policies. CONCLUSION: Parental exposure to pesticides, particularly in household settings, is poorly emphasized in our society. There is a strong association between these organophosphate compounds and pediatric cancer. Public health agencies may need to take stronger action than in the past.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Inseticidas , Neoplasias Renais , Praguicidas , Tumor de Wilms , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Neoplasias Renais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Tumor de Wilms/induzido quimicamente , Tumor de Wilms/epidemiologia , Tumor de Wilms/complicações , Pais , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Organofosfatos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120308, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181938

RESUMO

Aquatic organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in the environment, but traditional risk assessment approaches typically only consider individual compounds. In conjunction with exposure to pesticide mixtures, global climate change is anticipated to alter thermal regimes of waterways, leading to potential co-exposure of biota to elevated temperatures and contaminants. Furthermore, most studies utilize aqueous exposures, whereas the dietary route of exposure may be more important for fish owing to the hydrophobicity of many pesticides. Consequently, the current study aimed to determine the effects of elevated temperatures and dietary pesticide mixtures on swimming performance and lipid metabolism of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Fish were fed pesticide-dosed pellets at three concentrations and three temperatures (11, 14 and 17 °C) for 14 days and swimming performance (Umax) and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energetics were assessed (ATP citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, farnesoid x receptor and liver x receptor). The low-pesticide pellet treatment contained five pesticides, p,p'-DDE, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos and fipronil at concentrations based on prey items collected from the Sacramento River (CA, USA) watershed, with the high-pesticide pellet treatment containing a six times higher dose. Temperature exacerbated effects of pesticide exposure on swimming performance, with significant reductions in Umax of 31 and 23% in the low and high-pesticide pellet groups relative to controls at 17 °C, but no significant differences in Umax among pesticide concentrations at 11 or 14 °C. At 14 °C there was a significant positive relationship between juvenile Chinook salmon pesticide body residues and expression of ATP citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase, but an inverse relationship and significant downregulation at 17 °C. These findings suggest that temperature may modulate effects of environmentally relevant pesticide exposure on salmon, and that pesticide-induced impairment of swimming performance may be exacerbated under future climate scenarios.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Animais , Salmão/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Temperatura , Água/metabolismo , Natação , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Peixes , Misturas Complexas , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Lipídeos
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(4): 349-360, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264308

RESUMO

In chemical risk assessment, extrapolations from laboratory tests to more realistic conditions are essential to address the toxic effects of pesticides on individuals and populations under field conditions. To transfer toxicological laboratory tests to differing temperature conditions, or outdoor field scenarios, the consideration of temperature dependence is essential and increases realism. Special consideration is given to the impact of temperature on direct sensitivity of organisms to pesticides, for which there are only few modelling approaches available so far. We present a concept for applying physiological temperature dependencies to toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) parameters in the General Uniformed Threshold model of Survival (GUTS). To test this approach in an exemplary study, temperature dependencies from studies on the developmental rate of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum were applied to the parameters of a previously parameterised TKTD model of this species after exposure to imidacloprid. Using a physiologically derived temperature correction for the TKTD rate constants, model predictions for independently conducted toxicology experiments with temperature ranges between 7.8 and 26.4 °C were performed for validation. Our approach demonstrates the successful transfer of a physiological observed temperature dependency on toxicity parameters and survival patterns for Cloeon dipterum and imidacloprid as a case study.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Praguicidas , Humanos , Animais , Temperatura , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 456: 116280, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pesticides are toxic and biological substances used for mitigating harmful pests. Their application in agricultural fields and homes increased environmental pollution. Studies showed their harmful effects on human health, specifically children, who are more vulnerable than adults. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has introduced several pesticides as carcinogens. This study aims to systematically summarize and review all studies related to pesticides and cancer. METHODOLOGY: This systematic review is based on PRISMA rules. Three central databases were employed to find studies on pesticide exposure and cancer correlation published from 2017 to September 2022. RESULTS: After reviewing several studies, we found that most studies revealed a significant relationship between pesticide exposure and an increased cancer incidence rate. Among the most studied group of pesticides is organochlorine (OC) pesticides. OC pesticides and their residues could significantly increase cancer in children and adults. Mechanistic studies revealed that pesticides could increase the risk of different cancers by genetics, like an increased expression of some genes like p21, p53 or epigenetic impairments. Cell cycle impairments like expanding the G1 to S phase transition are another mechanism of causing cancer. DNA methylation and histone modifications increase the risk of numerous cancers. CONCLUSION: Based on epidemiological studies, pesticides are a significant concern to human health, specifically cancer development, and should be more restrained. Their most reported mechanism of action were genetic and epigenetic impairments which cause cancers.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Neoplasias , Praguicidas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120378, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220575

RESUMO

The environmental pollution caused by toxic chemicals such as pesticides has become a global problem. The mixture of dichlorvos (DIC), dimethoate (DIM), aldicarb (ALD) poses potential risks to the environment and human health. To fully explore the interaction of complex mixtures on Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral toxicity endpoint. This study created a synergistic-antagonistic heatmap (SAHmap) based on the combination index to systematically describe the toxicological interaction prospect of the mixture system. It was shown that the three pesticides and their binary as well as ternary mixture rays have significant concentration-response relationship on three behavioral endpoints of nematodes, From the perspective of synergistic-antagonistic heatmaps, all the mixture rays in the DIC-DIM mixture system showed strong synergism on the three behavioral and lethal endpoints. In the ternary mixture system, the five mixture rays showed different interaction between the behavioral endpoint and the lethal endpoint, and showed slight synergism to two behavioral endpoints as a whole. The emergence of synergism should arouse our attention to these hazardous chemicals. In addition, the use of SAHmap and the significant linear correlation among three behavioral endpoints further improved the efficiency of the study on the behavioral toxicity of pesticide mixtures to Caenorhabditis elegans.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Animais , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Caenorhabditis elegans , Diclorvós/toxicidade , Dimetoato/toxicidade , Dacarbazina/farmacologia
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