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1.
Water Res ; 230: 119383, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630853

RESUMO

Coliphage have been suggested as an alternative to fecal indicator bacteria for assessing recreational beach water quality, but it is unclear how frequently and at what types of beaches coliphage produces a different management outcome. Here we conducted side-by-side sampling of male-specific and somatic coliphage by the new EPA dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration (D-HFUF-SAL) method and Enterococcus at southern California beaches over two years. When samples were combined for all beach sites, somatic and male-specific coliphage both correlated with Enterococcus. When examined categorically, Enterococcus would have resulted in approximately two times the number of health advisories as somatic coliphage and four times that of male-specific coliphage,using recently proposed thresholds of 60 PFU/100 mL for somatic and 30 PFU/100 mL for male-specific coliphage. Overall, only 12% of total exceedances would have been for coliphage alone. Somatic coliphage exceedances that occurred in the absence of an Enterococcus exceedance were limited to a single site during south swell events, when this beach is known to be affected by nearby minimally treated sewage. Thus, somatic coliphage provided additional valuable health protection information, but may be more appropriate as a supplement to FIB measurements rather than as replacement because: (a) EPA-approved PCR methods for Enterococcus allow a more rapid response, (b) coliphage is more challenging owing to its greater sampling volume and laboratory time requirements, and (c) Enterococcus' long data history has yielded predictive management models that would need to be recreated for coliphage.


Assuntos
Enterococcus , Qualidade da Água , Masculino , Humanos , Praias , California , Colífagos , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 255, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592237

RESUMO

The occurrence and characterization of marine debris on beaches bring opportunities to track back the anthropogenic activities around shorelines as well as aid in waste management and control. In this study, the three largest beaches in Thanh Hoa (Vietnam) were examined for plastic waste, including macroplastics (≥ 5 mm) on sandy beaches and microplastics (MPs) (< 5 mm) in surface water. Among 3803 items collected on the beaches, plastic waste accounted for more than 98%. The majority of the plastic wastes found on these beaches were derived from fishing boats and food preservation foam packaging. The FT-IR data indicated that the macroplastics comprised 77% polystyrene, 17% polypropylene, and 6% high-density polyethylene, while MPs discovered in surface water included other forms of plastics such as polyethylene- acrylate, styrene/butadiene rubber gasket, ethylene/propylene copolymer, and zein purified. FT-IR data demonstrated that MPs might also be originated from automobile tire wear, the air, and skincare products, besides being degraded from macroplastics. The highest abundance of MPs was 44.1 items/m3 at Hai Tien beach, while the lowest was 15.5 items/m3 at Sam Son beach. The results showed that fragment form was the most frequent MP shape, accounting for 61.4 ± 14.3% of total MPs. MPs with a diameter smaller than 500 µm accounted for 70.2 ± 7.6% of all MPs. According to our research, MPs were transformed, transported, and accumulated due to anthropogenic activities and environmental processes. This study provided a comprehensive knowledge of plastic waste, essential in devising long-term development strategies in these locations.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Vietnã , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Polietileno/análise , Praias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 316: 137842, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640983

RESUMO

This study assessed the effect of tourism and other recreational activities on microplastic (MP) levels and their characteristics in the sand and surf zone of the seawater. Six sites were chosen belonging to three sandy beaches with similar geomorphologic and morphodynamic characteristics but with different tourism activities. On average, a concentration of 1133.3 ± 811.3 items/kg dry weight (d.w.) and 12.7 ± 14.9 items/m3 were found in the sand and seawater samples, respectively. Fibers and films predominated and were less than 1 mm in length. In the sand, the films mainly matched the PE polymer spectra and the fibers matched PET polymer, cotton, and indigo blue dye; in the seawater samples, PP films and PET fibers prevailed. At the Pehuén-Co - Monte Hermoso Coastal Marine MPA where the flow of tourists is low, the MP levels were the lowest and the largest particles were found, mainly blue or black fibers, with less polymer diversity, cotton and PET being the most prevalent suggesting a recent input of textile fibers to this site. Moreover, the highest concentration of MPs was found on the southern site of a beach considered to be more pristine due to negligible human activity, including the smallest size pattern, mostly composed of white films or fibers with a greater diversity of polymers, predominantly PE > PET > PP. A great occurrence of PVC white films was also found in the surf zone at this site. Proximity to the mouth of a river, littoral drift, and other point sources were identified as the main sources, indicating that, apart from the local tourism and recreational activities, other sources might play a major role in the input of MPs to sandy beaches, such as extensive/intensive agricultural land use and irrigation areas.


Assuntos
Esportes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Turismo , Areia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Praias
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(1): e0142322, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515536

RESUMO

Escherichia coli contain a high level of genetic diversity and are generally associated with the guts of warm-blooded animals but have also been isolated from secondary habitats outside hosts. We used E. coli isolates from previous in situ microcosm experiments conducted under actual beach conditions and performed population-level genomic analysis to identify accessory genes associated with survival within the beach sand environment. E. coli strains capable of surviving had been selected for by seeding isolates originating from sand, sewage, and gull waste (n = 528; 176 from each source) into sand, which was sealed in microcosm chambers and buried for 45 days in the backshore beach of Lake Michigan. In the current work, survival-associated genes were identified by comparing the pangenome of viable E. coli populations at the end of the microcosm experiment with the original isolate collection and identifying loci enriched in the out put samples. We found that environmental survival was associated with a wide variety of genetic factors, with the majority corresponding to metabolism enzymes and transport proteins. Of the 414 unique functions identified, most were present across E. coli phylogroups, except B2 which is often associated with human pathogens. Gene modules that were enriched in surviving populations included a betaine biosynthesis pathway, which produces an osmoprotectant, and the GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate) biosynthesis pathway, which aids in pH homeostasis and nutrient use versatility. Overall, these results demonstrate that the genetic flexibility within this species allows for survival in the environment for extended periods. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is commonly used as an indicator of recent fecal pollution in recreational water despite its known ability to survive in secondary environments, such as beach sand. These long-term survivors from sand reservoirs can be introduced into the water column through wave action or runoff during precipitation events, thereby impacting the perception of local water quality. Current beach monitoring methods cannot differentiate long-term environmental survivors from E. coli derived from recent fecal input, resulting in inaccurate monitoring results and unnecessary beach closures. This work identified the genetic factors that are associated with long-term survivors, providing insight into the mechanistic basis for E. coli accumulation in beach sand. A greater understanding of the intrinsic ability of E. coli to survive long-term and conditions that promote such survival will provide evidence of the limitations of beach water quality assessments using this indicator.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Areia , Animais , Humanos , Escherichia coli , Lagos , Michigan , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes , Praias , Microbiologia da Água
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114502, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563602

RESUMO

Fishing lines, hooks and nets represent a sub-category of macro-litter potentially entrapping plover birds nesting on sandy beaches. Here, during a winter period, the accumulation pattern of both general beach litter and fishing lines, hooks and nets was analysed on four central Italy beaches. Despite the active monthly litter removal by clean-ups, there was not a decrease in its density during the winter period, due to the continuous accumulation by frequent winter storms. However, the entrapping litter was very low (<2.5 % of the general litter) and appeared directly correlated to the general litter density. Following a DPSIR approach, the general litter can act as an indirect pressure indicator (proxy) of the amount of entrapping litter. Therefore, an increase in general macro-litter should alarm those involved in the conservation of entanglement-sensitive bird species, such as plovers, suggesting that they should implement high-frequency clean-up activities aimed at removing it.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Caça , Animais , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aves , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114405, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493514

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the Pan-India beach litter density (items/m2), weight (kg/m2), composition (%), and probable sources based on the citizen science approach. A total of 33 beaches in 2019 and 30 beaches in 2021 were studied. Based on density, the national beach litter average was 0.475± 0.51 and 0.3 ± 0.4 items/m2 in 2019 and 2021, respectively. Plastic was the dominant litter type (65 % in 2019; 74 % in 2021) and Single-Use Plastics (SUPs) were predominant. Based on Clean-Coast Index, six beaches in 2019 and three beaches in 2021 are classified as "extremely dirty". The principal (∼60 %) sources of litter were tourism and public littering. Improving solid waste management, stringent implementation of environmental legislation, leveraging the polluter pays principle, monitoring the effectiveness of SUPs ban, generating awareness, and beach clean-up at regular intervals by engaging the public, educational, and non-governmental organizations will improve and sustain the cleanliness of beaches.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Praias , Resíduos Sólidos , Plásticos
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114394, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493520

RESUMO

Viet Nam is challenged by extensive marine plastic pollution, however, remediation efforts are hampered by undefined sources to the coastal environment. This study surveyed the abundance, type, and source of beached plastic litter at seven beaches along the coast of Nha Trang, Viet Nam. A total of 4754 beached plastic litter items (>2 cm) yielded a mean abundance of 19.8 ± 19.5 items m-2 corresponding to 116 ± 226 g DW m-2. Our results demonstrate that plastic litter related to fishing and aquaculture constituted at least 62 % of the total by weight and 38 % by number, showing that these two sectors are responsible for a significant part of the plastic pollution along the coast. Hence, we argue that improved management of the fishing and aquaculture sectors could substantially reduce marine plastic pollution along Viet Nam's coast.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Vietnã , Poluição Ambiental , Meio Ambiente , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114443, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495610

RESUMO

The problem of marine litter is increasing along the Indian coast. For conducting a baseline study to identify and assess the abundance, clean-coast index (CCI), and plastics abundance index (PAI) of marine litter were calculated on the beaches of Kanyakumari, Southern India. A total of 11,439 marine litter items were collected and classified into 33 groups along the 7 beaches of Kanyakumari. From the results, plastics were the most abundant items (65.08 %) followed by foam (21.93 %), along with cloths (4.59 %), rubber (3.09 %), papers (2.26 %), glass (2.16 %), metal (0.38 %), wood (0.26 %), and others (0.26 %). The average CCI value (27.24) indicates that all beaches are 'extremely dirty'; however, the PAI average value (4.37) indicates 'high abundance'. About 96.87 % of the marine litter originates from the land-based sources. This study provides an interpretive framework for further plastic pollution assessment, which could lead to a better marine litter management on Indian beaches.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos , Índia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 250, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585506

RESUMO

Microbial pollution at ocean beaches is a global public health problem that can be exacerbated by excessive rainfall, particularly at beaches adjacent to urban areas. Rain is acknowledged as a predictive factor of Enterococcus levels at NJ beaches, but to date no study has explicitly examined the link. Here, five beaches (156 observations) in Monmouth County, NJ, with storm drain outflows present were sampled for Enterococcus and water quality during dry and wet periods. Hypotheses included (1) beaches differ in Enterococcus levels, (2) Enterococcus is present year-round, and (3) Enterococcus exceedances could be modeled based on environmental parameters. Beaches showed significantly different median Enterococcus levels, with site SEA2 (Neptune Blvd. in Deal, NJ) lower than others and site SEA4 (South Bath Ave. in Long Branch, NJ) higher than the other sites. Elevated Enterococcus levels were detected at water temperatures from 6.5 to 22.2 °C. Multiple linear regression models identified rainfall (+), water temperature (+), and water level (-) as related to Enterococcus concentrations levels at these beaches. For the purpose of simulating the efficacy of different monitoring strategies, a hindcast model of Enterococcus abundance based on historic rainfall, water temperature, and water level data was produced. Results indicated that once-per-week sampling detected ~14% (e.g., 1/7) exceedance events, while sampling during summer alone detected ~ 50% of annual exceedance events. Models of Enterococcus exceedance based on readily available environmental time series have the potential to supplement and improve Enterococcus monitoring at NJ beaches.


Assuntos
Enterococcus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , New Jersey , Praias , Microbiologia da Água , Oceanos e Mares , Fezes
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114325, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347194

RESUMO

Microplastics, including plastic pellets, get stranded on sandy beaches. They persist in the oceans for long periods and frequently carry contaminants. Acute and chronic toxicity has been observed when marine organisms are exposed to high densities of plastic pellets in laboratory assays. We investigated the toxicity of beach-stranded plastic pellets on macrobenthic populations (Excirolana armata; Crustacea; Isopoda) under natural conditions (in situ). We simulated different pellets densities on a beach not contaminated by pellets, exposing isopods for 6 h and testing possible behavioral responses (i.e., vertical displacement) and mortality effects. No effect was observed on vertical displacement, but higher mortality was reported for organisms exposed to plastic pellets. The lowest pellet density tested commonly found in coastal areas was sufficient to trigger mortality. We also observed that lethargic individuals (near-death) were preyed on by the healthy individuals remaining in the test chambers.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Plásticos , Humanos , Animais , Plásticos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecotoxicologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Praias
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114258, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330934

RESUMO

This study represents the first assessment of beach litter on an island of the west African archipelagic state of Cape Verde. On five beaches of São Vicente, litter was collected along transects and classified according to the OSPAR protocol, with the Matrix Scoring Technique used to allocate it to four sources. Beach litter on São Vicente is highly variable in both amount and composition, while land- and sea-based sources contribute to litter loads to different extents depending on the use and geographic orientation of the beach. Four of the five surveyed beaches exhibited litter loads that were similar to pollution levels previously described for other oceanic islands, while a north-eastern-facing beach featured exceptionally high loads. This was presumably because it receives litter from distant sources due to its exposure to a major ocean surface current.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Plásticos
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114259, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279727

RESUMO

The restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to a global hiatus in anthropogenic activities; several scientists have utilized this unique opportunity to assess the human impact on biological systems. In this study, the study describes for a period of five years (2018-2022) how the faunal community have been affected by human disturbances, as well as the effect of the "anthropause" period driven by the COVID-19 lockdown. The results confirmed human disturbances on faunal communities related to coastal urbanization. It was found that the "anthropause" period showed the highest values of abundance and biomass, hence the "COVID-19 lockdown" allowed recovery of faunal communities. The findings highlight the impact of human disturbances and that the community showed resilience. Overall, the authorities must perform restrictive measures aiming to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic activities in the study area including the banning of off-road and recreational vehicles, carrying out efficient cleaning and grooming operations, monitoring the severe harvesting of edible species, as well as penalizing the disposal of anthropogenic waste and sewage discharge from the touristic facilities. Likewise, management actions such as the temporal beach closures and the regular surveillance could be advantageous to provide a more sustainable exploitation of sandy beaches.


Assuntos
Praias , COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Marrocos , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 4, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266377

RESUMO

The amount of human-origin litter in sea surface water, sediment, and beaches has been increasing for decades. Initially described in marine coastal systems in the 1960s, marine litter (ML) is nowadays commonly observed in all marine systems. There is even a gigantic island consisting of garbage in the gyre area of the Atlantic Ocean. In relation to this significant problem, ML was collected from seven stations on beaches along the Dardanelles for the first time in the period May 2017-May 2018 and was seasonally and regionally analyzed in terms of densities and weights. ML was categorized by material type (plastic, rubber, paper, etc.) and field of use (mixed packaging wastes, personal use products, fishing wastes, etc.). Total numbers and weights of ML during the study were 5751 items and 115.7 kg in an area of 15,980 m2, respectively. Density and weight of ML ranged from 0.050 to 1.182 items/m2 and from 0.446 to 78.46 g/m2, respectively. The main ML component was plastic items in terms of both density (90.95%) and weight (53.76%) according to material type. Additionally, mixed packaging wastes (MPW) were the most common ML items in terms of density (82.14%) and weight (49.38%) according to usage. According to the clean-coast index, while Kilya (St.2) and Kepez (St.5) beaches were dirty, Seddulbahir (St.1) beach was clean. The beaches in other stations were neither dirty nor clean (medium) according to the index. At the end of the study, suggestions for a regional strategy were made.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Humanos , Resíduos/análise , Borracha , Turquia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Água
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114250, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274560

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in certain types of litter, many of which are expected to end up in the marine environment. The present study aimed to monitor the pandemic-related litter pollution along the Greek coastal environment. Overall, 59 beach and 83 underwater clean-ups were conducted. Litter was categorized as: PPE (face masks and gloves), COVID-19-related, single-use plastic (SUP) and takeaway items. PPE, dominated by face masks (86.21 %), accounted for 0.29 % of all litter. The average PPE density was 3.1 × 10-3 items m-2 and 2.59 items/ 100 m. COVID-19-related items represented 1.04 % of the total. Wet wipes showed higher densities (0.67 % of all litter) than in the pre-COVID era, while no increase in SUP and takeaway items was observed. Benthic PPE, dominated by gloves (83.95 %), represented 0.26 % of the total. The mean PPE density was 2.5 × 10-3 items m-2.


Assuntos
Praias , COVID-19 , Humanos , Resíduos/análise , Pandemias , Grécia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Água
15.
Water Res ; 226: 119235, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257159

RESUMO

Michigan's water-quality standards specify that E. coli concentrations at bathing beaches must not exceed 300 E. coli per 100 mL, as determined by the geometric mean of culture-based concentrations in three or more representative samples from a given beach on a given day. Culture-based analysis requires 18⁠-⁠24 h to complete, so results are not available on the day of sampling. This one-day delay is problematic because results cannot be used to prevent recreation at beaches that are unsafe on the sampling day, nor do they reliably indicate whether recreation should be prevented the next day, due to high between-day variability in E. coli concentrations demonstrated by previous studies. By contrast, qPCR-based E. coli concentrations can be obtained in 3-4 h, making same-day beach notification decisions possible. Michigan has proposed a qPCR threshold value (qTV) for E. coli of 1.863 log10 gene copies per reaction as a potential equivalent value to the state standard, based on statistical analysis of a set of state-wide training data from 2016 to 2018. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the validity of the proposed qTV by determining whether the implied qPCR-based beach notification decisions agree well with culture-based decisions on two sets of test data from 2016⁠-⁠2018 (6,564 samples) and 2019-2020 (3,205 samples), and whether performance of the proposed qTV is similar on the test and training data. The results show that performance of Michigan's proposed qTV on both sets of test data was consistently good (e.g., 95% agreement with culture-based beach notification decisions during 2019⁠-⁠2020) and was as good as or better than its performance on the training data set. The false-negative rate for the proposed qTV was 25-29%, meaning that beach notification decisions based on the qTV would be expected to permit recreation on the day of sampling in 25-29% of cases where the beach exceeds the state standard for FIB contamination. This false-negative rate is higher than one would hope to see but is well below the corresponding error rate for culture-based decisions, which permit recreation at beaches that exceed the state standard on the day of sampling in 100% of cases because of the one-day delay in obtaining results. The key advantage of qPCR-based analysis is that it permits a large percentage (71-75%) of unsafe beaches to be identified in time to prevent recreation on the day of sampling.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Água , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Michigan , Fezes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Praias
16.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120370, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216177

RESUMO

The abundance of beach litter has been increasing globally during the last decades, and it is an issue of global concern. A new survey strategy, based on uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAV, aka drones), has been recently adopted to improve the monitoring of beach macro-litter items abundance and distribution. This work identified and analysed the 15 studies that used drone for beach litter surveys on an operational basis. The analysis of technical parameters for drone flight deployment revealed that flight altitude varied between 5 and 40 m. The analysis of final assessments showed that, through manual and/or automated items detection on images, most of studies provided litter bulk characteristics (type, material and size), along with litter distribution maps. The potential standardization of drone-based litter survey would allow a comparison among surveys, however it seems difficult to propose a standard set of flight parameters, given the wide variety of coastal environments, the different devices available, and the diverse objectives of drone-based litter surveys. On the other hand, in our view, a set of common outcomes can be proposed, based on the grid mapping process, which can be easily generated following the procedure indicated in the paper. This work sets the ground for the development of a standardized protocol for drone litter data collection, analysis and assessments. This would allow the provision of broad scale comparative studies to support coastal management at both national and international scales.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Padrões de Referência , Plásticos/análise
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(21): e0104322, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218359

RESUMO

Previous research has identified E. coli populations that persist in freshwater beach sand distinct from fecal pollution events. This work identifies factors that influence the survival of E. coli in sand using laboratory microcosms to replicate beach conditions. Microcosms were deployed to examine the effect of genetic background, competition with native microbial community, and increased nutrient concentrations on E. coli survival. Survival was comparable between the phylotypes B1 and B2, however, deficiency of stress response greatly reduced survival. In the absence of the native community under nutrient conditions comparable to those observed in sand, E. coli cell densities remained within an order of magnitude of initial concentrations after 5 weeks of incubation. Increased nitrogen was associated with decreased decay rates in the first 2 weeks, and increased carbon appeared to provide an advantage at later time points. However, the highest survival was found with the addition of both carbon and nitrogen. Native sand seeded with fresh Cladophora maintained higher concentrations of E. coli, compared to sand containing decayed Cladophora or no Cladophora. Our findings demonstrate persistent E. coli populations in sand can be affected by the availability of carbon and nitrogen, the ability to regulate stress, and the presence of algal mats (i.e., Cladophora). Further, this work suggests that the native microbial communities may modulate survival by outcompeting E. coli for nutrients. IMPORTANCE Current monitoring for fecal pollution does not account for persistent E. coli populations in freshwater sand, which can result in higher concentrations in water when no threat to human health is present. This work examined the drivers for persistent E. coli populations in sand to aid beach management techniques. We examined the influence of nutrients, including localized sources such as stranded Cladophora, on E. coli populations. We found the major determinant of E. coli survival in freshwater beach sand was the addition of nutrients, specifically carbon and nitrogen concentrations 10-fold higher than baseline concentrations on beaches. This work provides the framework for identifying pollution sources that can promote E. coli survival in sand through the characterization of carbon and nitrogen content, which can be incorporated into beach management techniques. Through this improved knowledge, we can begin to understand E. coli fluctuations in water due to resuspension from sand into water.


Assuntos
Praias , Clorófitas , Humanos , Escherichia coli , Areia , Microbiologia da Água , Fezes , Água , Carbono , Nutrientes , Nitrogênio , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 4): e20211265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228205

RESUMO

Sandy beaches are the main recreational ecosystems of the world, enabling high ecological impacts, especially on the benthic macrofauna, which inhabit the sandy matrix and have a low capacity of locomotion. Cassino Beach, located in southern Brazil, has intense vehicle traffic during the summer, so the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of vehicles on the key species Amarilladesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus. For this purpose, samplings were performed in three sectors of this beach (High Impact, Moderate Impact and Control) during six periods of the year. The results showed lower densities of both bivalves in the High Impact sector than in to the other sectors in all periods, except in first summer sampling, and a predominance of recruits throughout the study. Thus, it suggests that the two species were influenced by the intense vehicle traffic, especially in the most impacted sector. In this way, we conclude that these bivalves could be used as good indicators of pulse disturbance by vehicle traffic on this beach and the results can support in management plans regarding the use of Cassino Beach, considering ecological aspects of this ecosystem in addition to economic and cultural demands.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Praias , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientais
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114220, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302309

RESUMO

At the global level, the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goal 14 calls for action to significantly reduce marine litter pollution by 2025. To understand the non-market benefits of removing marine litter, researchers have conducted numerous studies on Willingness to Pay (WTP) for reductions in beach litter. This paper estimates the overall effect size of WTP for a worldwide dataset of 63 primary studies over 22 years by applying a meta-regression technique to assess the variability in WTP estimates. The results show an annual mean effect size of $US0.71 (or $US35.29) per person for a 1 % (for a corresponding 50 %) reduction in all types of beach litter. The observed heterogeneity is associated with WTP elicitation methods, beach attributes, geographic locations, and per-capita income. This study yields valuable information for policy makers to develop cost-effective policies and recommends standardised measurements to benchmark changes in marine litter pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Humanos , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Análise de Regressão , Análise Custo-Benefício , Praias , Plásticos/análise
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114248, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306711

RESUMO

Marine litter is one of the biggest environmental problems nowadays. Sinop, is located in the heart of Türkiye's Black Sea coast, has a small population, and is a popular fishing and tourist destination. In this study, marine litter amount, composition, and possible sources were investigated, and seasonal comparisons were made between in Sinop beaches. Marine litter amount was found as 0.29-7.67 items·m-2 and 3.46-49.09 g·m-2 and beaches were classified as moderate to extremely dirty. Plastics were the highest ratio (88.14-98.46 %) and "plastic pieces 2.5> <50 cm" were the major litter type. The major possible litter source was improper waste disposal (33.36 %) and litter items originated from mainly land-based sources (74.13 %). The result of this study shows that there is a significant litter problem on the coasts. The solution of this problem can be possible to take rational measures against marine litter pollution with education and management policies.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Mar Negro , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos
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