Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 295
Filtrar
1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102949, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675619

RESUMO

Music generates manifold experiences in humans, some perceptual and some hedonic. Are these qualia governed by the same principles in processing? In particular, do the loudness and timbre of melodies combine to produce perception and likeability by the same rules of integration? In Experiment 1, we tested selective attention to loudness and timbre by applying Garner's speeded classification paradigm and found both to be perceptually integral dimensions. In Experiment 2, we tested liking for the same music by applying Norman Anderson's functional measurement model and found loudness and timbre to combine by an adding-type rule. In Experiment 3, we applied functional measurement for perception and found loudness and timbre to interact as in Experiment 1. These results show that people cannot or do not attend selectively or perceive separately any one music component, but that they nonetheless can isolate the components when they enjoy (or disenjoy) listening to music. We conclude that perception of the constituent components of a musical piece and the processing of the same components for liking are governed by different rules.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuropsychology ; 33(8): 1163-1173, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considerable research indicates that individuals with dementia have deficits in the ability to recognize emotion in other people. The present study examined ability to detect emotional qualities of objects. METHOD: Fifty-two patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 18 patients awaiting surgery for intractable epilepsy, and 159 healthy controls completed a newly developed test of ability to recognize emotional qualities of art (music and paintings), and pleasantness in simple sensory stimuli (tactile, olfactory, auditory), and to make aesthetic judgments (geometric shapes, room décor). A subset of participants also completed a test of ability to recognize emotions in other people. RESULTS: Patients with FTD showed a marked deficit in ability to recognize the emotions conveyed in art, compared with both healthy individuals and patients with AD (relative to controls, deficits in patients with AD only approached significance). This deficit remained robust after controlling for FTD patients' ability to recognize pleasantness in simple sensory stimuli, make aesthetic judgments, identify odors, and identify emotions in other people. Neither FTD nor AD patients showed deficits in recognizing pleasant sensory stimuli or making aesthetic judgments. Exploratory analysis of patients with epilepsy revealed no deficits in any of these domains. CONCLUSION: Patients with FTD (but not AD) showed a significant, specific deficit in ability to interpret emotional messages in art, echoing FTD-related deficits in recognizing emotions in other people. This finding adds to our understanding of the impact these diseases have on the lives of patients and their caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Beleza , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Música , Pinturas , Percepção/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 850-855, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499564

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of different training loads on ratings of perceived exertion and discomfort and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (26.7±3.5 years, 85.1±17.5 kg, and 174. 9±9.9 cm) performed 3 sets of the bench press, squat on a hack machine, and lat pulldown, until volitional concentric failure in two separate conditions: a moderate load (MOD) consisting of a relative load of 8-12 repetitions maximum (RM), and a light load (LIT) consisting of a relative load of 25-30RM. The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), session rating of perceived discomfort (sRPD), and session pleasure/displeasure feelings (sPDF) were assessed after 15 min after the ending of each session. A randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study was performed with 48 h recovery afforded between sessions. Differences between conditions were observed for sRPE and sRPD, in which scores for LIT were greater than MOD (sRPE: MOD=5.5±1.0 vs. LIT=6.4±0.7; sRPD: MOD=6.7±1.7 vs. LIT=8.7±1.0). For sPDF, MOD reported feelings of pleasure (1.2), whereas the LIT presented a feeling of displeasure (-2.3). Results suggest that resistance training performed with a light load until failure induces higher degrees of effort, discomfort and displeasure compared to a moderate load.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Prazer/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Obes Facts ; 12(5): 529-542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence suggests that obesity is associated with alteration of sweet taste perception. The purpose of this study was to determine if nonsurgical cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based weight loss can cause a change in sweet taste perception. METHODS: This case-control study consisted of 51 women aged 21-64 years. Twenty-seven with obesity or overweight were assigned to an obesity (OB) group (BMI: 29.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2) and 24 to a normal control (NC) group (BMI: 20.9 ± 0.3 kg/m2). The OB group underwent a 30-week weight loss intervention using CBT-based group therapy. The results of measurement of detection threshold, suprathreshold perceived intensity, preference, and palatability, elements of sweet taste perception, were compared before and after the intervention. Psychological variables and appetite-related hormonal levels were measured. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients and 22 controls completed the study. The OB group showed a 14.6% weight loss after the intervention. At baseline, the OB group preferred significantly higher sucrose concentrations than did the NC group; however, this difference was no longer significant after intervention. In the OB group, persistent pleasure and reduced desire for other taste, measured by repeated exposure to sweetness, normalized after weight loss to levels comparable to those seen in the NC group. No significant difference in discriminative perception of the threshold concentration or the suprathreshold sensory value was found between the two groups before or after intervention. A significant correlation was found between the basal preferred sucrose concentration and the serum leptin level of the OB group after adjusting for confounding factors, such as BMI, depressive symptom score, and trait-anxiety scores. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss induced by CBT-based nonsurgical intervention resulted in the normalization of the sucrose preference and palatability of women with obesity. Leptin activity may be associated with the altered sweet taste preference of people with obesity.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Paladar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Fissura/fisiologia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 489-498, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Slot machines are a very popular form of gambling. In this study, we look at two different routes to enjoying slots play. One route involves the degree to which players react to rewards. The other route involves what we call dark flow - a pleasurable, but maladaptive state where players become completely engrossed in slots play, providing an escape from the depressing thoughts that characterize their everyday lives. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine high-frequency slots players were tested on slot-machine simulators set up in the lobby of a casino. We measured reward reactivity using post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) and the force with which players pressed the spin button following different slot-machine outcomes. For each player, we calculated the slopes of PRPs and force as a function of credit gains. We also assessed players' slots game enjoyment and their experience of dark flow, depression, and problem gambling. RESULTS: Both the PRP and the force measures of reward reactivity were significantly correlated with players' enjoyment of the slots session, but neither measure was correlated with either problem gambling or depression. Ratings of dark flow were strongly correlated with slots enjoyment (which accounted for far more positive affect variance than the reward reactivity measures) and were correlated with both problem gambling scores and depression. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that of these two routes to enjoying slot-machine play, the dark flow route is especially problematic. We contend that the dark flow state may be enjoyable because it provides escape from the negative thoughts linked to depression.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16863, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415420

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective measure of emotional regulation. This study aimed to estimate the accuracy with which an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm could classify emotions using HRV data that were obtained using wristband heart rate monitors.Four emotions were evoked during gameplay: pleasure, happiness, fear, and anger. Seven normalized HRV features (i.e., 3 time-domain features, 3 frequency-domain features, and heart rate), which yielded 29,727 segments during gameplay, were collected and analyzed first by statistics and then classified by the trained ANN model.General linear model adjusted for individual differences in HRV showed that all HRV features significantly differed across emotions, despite disparities in their magnitudes and associations. When compared to neutral status (i.e., no emotion evoked), the mean of R-R interval was significantly higher for pleasure and fear but lower for happiness and anger. In addition, pleasure evidenced the HRV features that suggested a superior parasympathetic to sympathetic activation. Happiness was associated with a prominent sympathetic activation. These statistical findings suggest that HRV features significantly differ across emotions evoked by gameplay. When further utilizing ANN-based emotion classification, the accuracy rates for prediction were above 75.0% across the 4 emotions with accuracy rates for classification of paired emotions ranging from 82.0% to 93.4%.For classifying emotion in an individual person, the trained ANN model utilizing HRV features yielded a high accuracy rate in our study. ANN is a time-efficient and accurate means to classify emotions using HRV data obtained from wristband heart rate monitors. Thus, this integrated platform can help monitor and quantify human emotions and physiological biometrics.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Felicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Humanos , Masculino , Smartphone , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
7.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(8): 1981-1991, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152188

RESUMO

Both movement and neural activity in humans can be entrained by the regularities of an external stimulus, such as the beat of musical rhythms. Neural entrainment to auditory rhythms supports temporal perception, and is enhanced by selective attention and by hierarchical temporal structure imposed on rhythms. However, it is not known how neural entrainment to rhythms is related to the subjective experience of groove (the desire to move along with music or rhythm), the perception of a regular beat, the perception of complexity, and the experience of pleasure. In two experiments, we used musical rhythms (from Steve Reich's Clapping Music) to investigate whether rhythms that are performed by humans (with naturally variable timing) and rhythms that are mechanical (with precise timing), elicit differences in (1) neural entrainment, as measured by inter-trial phase coherence, and (2) subjective ratings of the complexity, preference, groove, and beat strength of rhythms. We also combined results from the two experiments to investigate relationships between neural entrainment and subjective perception of musical rhythms. We found that mechanical rhythms elicited a greater degree of neural entrainment than performed rhythms, likely due to the greater temporal precision in the stimulus, and the two types only elicited different ratings for some individual rhythms. Neural entrainment to performed rhythms, but not to mechanical ones, correlated with subjective desire to move and subjective complexity. These data, therefore, suggest multiple interacting influences on neural entrainment to rhythms, from low-level stimulus properties to high-level cognition and perception.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música , Periodicidade , Prazer/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música/psicologia
9.
Neuroimage ; 193: 115-125, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831312

RESUMO

Blunted activation in the reward circuitry has been associated with anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure in previously rewarding activities. In healthy individuals, reward-related activation has been found to be modulated by acute contextual factors such as induced positive mood. Accordingly, blunted reward response in anhedonia might involve a failure to appropriately modulate reward-related activation as a function of context. To test this hypothesis, 29 participants (19 females, mean age of 24.14 ±â€¯4.61, age range 18-34), with a wide range of anhedonic symptoms, underwent functional MRI while anticipating and receiving monetary rewards, before and after a positive mood induction. Change in neural activation from before to after mood induction was quantified, and effects of anhedonia were investigated through whole-brain, ROI, and functional connectivity analyses. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that during reward anticipation (but not receipt), nucleus accumbens activation decreased while its connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increased, following positive mood induction. Critically, anhedonia modulated both effects. The unexpected finding of decreased activation to reward cues following positive mood induction is compelling as it aligns with a prominent behavioral model of the effect of positive mood on exploration of rewarding and neutral stimuli. Furthermore, the modulation of this effect by anhedonia suggests that it may be a key process altered in anhedonia.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 58(4): 357-383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deficits in anticipating pleasure may be an important dimension of anhedonia and functioning in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia and depression; however, inconsistent findings have limited the conclusions that can be drawn. We conducted the first systemic review and meta-analysis of the extant literature for research comparing psychiatric groups to healthy control groups on anticipatory pleasure. METHODS: Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases were systematically searched up to 9 June 2018 for relevant peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and dissertations. Reference lists were also hand searched. A total of 36 studies were included in the review. RESULTS: A moderate-sized deficit was observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (k = 32, 1,851 patients and 1,449 controls, g = -0.42 [95% CI = -0.53 to -0.31], p < .001), and a large deficit in major depression (k = 415 patients and 506 controls, g = -0.87 [95% CI = -1.23 to -0.51], p < .001), with this effect being significantly larger for depression (p < .05). Meta-regression showed that heterogeneity was partially explained in schizophrenia spectrum by longer duration of illness and lower cognitive functioning predicting larger deficits. In depression, some evidence was found that ruling out a history of psychiatric illness in controls may be related to larger effects. There was evidence for small study bias inflating estimates in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in anticipatory pleasure are manifest in these disorders, and significantly more so in major depression. These findings indicate a possible therapeutic target to link cognitive, affective, and behavioural factors that precipitate and maintain disorder. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Anticipatory pleasure is impaired in schizophrenia spectrum and major depression. A particular focus on enhancing anticipatory pleasure may improve motivation for rewarding behaviour and psychosocial functioning. The review contained only a small number of studies for major depression. Given the heterogeneity in effects, there are likely to be more moderators of anticipatory pleasure that require examination.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(1): 1-12, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787646

RESUMO

High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may not elicit prominent unpleasant feelings even with elevated perceived exertion and physiological stress in adolescents. However, the influence of different HIIE work intensities on the affective experience and cardiorespiratory responses is unknown. This study examined the acute affective, enjoyment, perceived exertion and cardiorespiratory responses to HIIE with different work intensities in adolescents. Participants (n = 16; 8 boys; age 12.0 ± 0.3 years) performed, on separate days, HIIE conditions consisting of 8 x 1-minute work-intervals at 70%, 85%, or 100% peak power separated by 75 seconds recovery at 20 W. Affect, enjoyment and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded before, during, and after HIIE. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were collected during HIIE. Affect declined in all conditions (p < 0.01) but 100%HIIE elicited significantly lower affect than 70%HIIE and 85%HIIE at work-interval 8 (all p < 0.02, ES > 1.74; 70%HIIE = 2.5 ± 0.8; 85%HIIE = 1.1 ± 1.5; 100%HIIE = -1.5 ± 1.4 on feeling scale). Similar enjoyment was evident during and after all conditions (all p > 0.44). RPE was significantly higher during 100%HIIE than 70%HIIE and 85%HIIE across all work-intervals (all p < 0.01, ES > 1.56). The majority of the participants attained ≥90%HRmax during 85%HIIE (87%) and 100%HIIE (100%), but not during 70%HIIE (6%). Affect responses during HIIE are dependent on the intensity of the work-interval and are not entirely negative (unpleasant feelings). Despite similar enjoyment, positive affect experienced during 70%HIIE and 85%HIIE could serve as a strategy to encourage exercise adoption and adherence in adolescents, but only 85%HIIE elicits sufficient HR stimulus to facilitate potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
12.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(1): 181-190, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787666

RESUMO

We compared physiological and psychological responses between low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) sessions with different work-recovery durations. Ten adult males performed two LV-HIIT sessions in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Specifically, 60/60 s LV-HIIT and 30/30 s LV-HIIT. Oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), perceived exertion (RPE), and affect were assessed. During intervals, the VO2 (3.25 ± 0.57 vs. 2.83 ± 0.50 L/min), VCO2 (3.15 ± 0.61 vs. 2.93 ± 0.58 L/min), VE (108.59 ± 27.39 vs. 94.28 ± 24.98 L/min), and RPE (15.9 ± 1.5 vs. 13.9 ± 1.5) were higher (ps ≤ 0.01), while RER (0.98 ± 0.05 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03) and affect (-0.8 ± 1.4 vs. 1.1 ± 2.0) were lower (ps ≤ 0.007) in the 60/60 s LV-HIIT. During recovery periods, VO2 (1.85 ± 0.27 vs. 2.38 ± 0.46 L/min), VCO2 (2.15 ± 0.35 vs. 2.44 ± 0.45 L/min), and affect (0.6 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8) were lower (ps ≤ 0.02), while RER (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.03 ± 0.05; p < 0.001) was higher in the 60/60 s LV-HIIT. Shorter LV-HIIT (30 s) elicits lower physiological response and attenuated negative affect than longer LV-HIIT (60 s).


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Dióxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 693-701, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791343

RESUMO

Negative symptoms are an important predictor of course of illness as well as social and occupational functioning. Clinically effective interventions are scarce. For negative symptoms to become a reliable primary endpoint in treatment studies, clear operationalization and construct validation is needed. Recent factor analyses mostly find two main factors for negative symptoms: diminished expression und amotivation/anhedonia. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) consists of the subscales "motivation and pleasure" and "expression". We assessed three samples of subjects with schizophrenia (n = 105) for different aspects of the scale's reliability and validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the CAINS confirmed its two-factorial structure. The subscales had distinct correlational profiles: "Motivation and pleasure" was strongly associated with functional outcome and depression and further with neurocognition, positive symptoms and social cognition. "Expression" seems independent of sources of secondary negative symptoms and neurocognition. We found good internal consistency and interrater agreement. Test-retest reliability (two-week interval) was moderate for the CAINS and its "expression" subscale and low for the "motivation and pleasure" subscale. Our findings indicate that the CAINS differentiates reliably between the two main domains of negative symptoms with some questions remaining concerning the validity of the "motivation and pleasure" subscale.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Anedonia/fisiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social
14.
Behav Res Ther ; 114: 51-59, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797989

RESUMO

Facilitating engagement in rewarding activities is a key treatment target in depression. Mental imagery can increase engagement in planned behaviours, potentially due to its special role in representing emotionally salient experiences. The present study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery promotes motivation and engagement when planning pleasant and rewarding activities. Participants were recruited from a community volunteer panel (N = 72). They self-nominated six activities to complete over the following week, and were randomized to either: a) a single-session Motivational Imagery condition (N = 24); b) an Activity Reminder control condition (N = 24); or c) a No-Reminder control condition (N = 24). As predicted, relative to control groups, the Motivational Imagery group reported higher levels of motivation, anticipated pleasure, and anticipated reward for the planned activities. The Motivational Imagery group also completed significantly more activities than the Activity Reminder group, but not more than the No-Reminder group. Relevance of results to behavioural activation approaches for depression are discussed.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prazer/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(6): 1186-1194, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although resistance training (RT) can lead to acute improvements in psychological, physiological and psychosocial outcomes, prevalence rates remain low in college-age females likely due to perceived barriers. This study compared the effects of an acute bout of both a functional RT (FRT) and traditional RT (TRT) session on affect, state anxiety enjoyment and physiological measures. METHODS: Females (n = 34, mean age = 27 ± 4.5 yr) not currently meeting American College of Sports Medicine RT guidelines completed four sessions (2 FRT, 2 TRT) within 4 wk in a randomized crossover design. Session 1 familiarized participants to the RT exercises. Session 2 consisted of 2 × 10 moderate intensity repetitions. Outcome measures included affect and state anxiety (preexercise, postexercise, and 15 min postexercise); enjoyment (post), and manipulation measures of session RPE and HR). RESULTS: Between-condition comparisons indicate change scores in state anxiety pre- to post-15 (P = 0.028) and enjoyment levels post- (P = 0.02) were significantly greater in FRT than TRT. Within-condition analyses revealed pre- to post-15 changes in affect were positive and greater in FRT (d = 0.79) than TRT (d = 0.53, P = 0.47), and greater in decreases in state anxiety (FRT, d = -0.58; TRT, d = -0.37, P = 0.028). Mean session RPE was not significantly different between conditions (FRT 6 ± 1.2 units; TRT 6.3 ± 1.1 units; P = 0.11), though average percent of age-predicted maximum HR (FRT 68.7 ± 7.6; TRT 57.1 ± 8.4) was significantly different (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that compared with TRT, FRT is associated with higher acute positive psychological states, higher levels of enjoyment, and greater energy expenditure. Future studies are recommended to examine additional measures of affect and in-task timepoints to determine how these responses relate to maintenance and adherence, thereby potentially increasing the proportion of college females meeting American College of Sports Medicine RT and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(9): 3793-3798, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670642

RESUMO

Understanding how the brain translates a structured sequence of sounds, such as music, into a pleasant and rewarding experience is a fascinating question which may be crucial to better understand the processing of abstract rewards in humans. Previous neuroimaging findings point to a challenging role of the dopaminergic system in music-evoked pleasure. However, there is a lack of direct evidence showing that dopamine function is causally related to the pleasure we experience from music. We addressed this problem through a double blind within-subject pharmacological design in which we directly manipulated dopaminergic synaptic availability while healthy participants (n = 27) were engaged in music listening. We orally administrated to each participant a dopamine precursor (levodopa), a dopamine antagonist (risperidone), and a placebo (lactose) in three different sessions. We demonstrate that levodopa and risperidone led to opposite effects in measures of musical pleasure and motivation: while the dopamine precursor levodopa, compared with placebo, increased the hedonic experience and music-related motivational responses, risperidone led to a reduction of both. This study shows a causal role of dopamine in musical pleasure and indicates that dopaminergic transmission might play different or additive roles than the ones postulated in affective processing so far, particularly in abstract cognitive activities.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Música , Prazer/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Efeito Placebo , Recompensa , Risperidona/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0204539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629596

RESUMO

The pleasurable desire to move to music, also known as groove, is modulated by rhythmic complexity. How the sensation of groove is influenced by other musical features, such as the harmonic complexity of individual chords, is less clear. To address this, we asked people with a range of musical experience to rate stimuli that varied in both rhythmic and harmonic complexity. Rhythm showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with ratings of pleasure and wanting to move, whereas medium and low complexity chords were rated similarly. Pleasure mediated the effect of harmony on wanting to move and high complexity chords attenuated the effect of rhythm on pleasure. We suggest that while rhythmic complexity is the primary driver, harmony, by altering emotional valence, modulates the attentional and temporal prediction processes that underlie rhythm perception. Investigation of the effects of musical training with both regression and group comparison showed that training increased the inverted U effect for harmony and rhythm, respectively. Taken together, this work provides important new information about how the prediction and entrainment processes involved in rhythm perception interact with musical pleasure.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 43(1): 4-24, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998384

RESUMO

We provide an experimental evaluation of the impact of aesthetic experiences in terms of stress reduction (cortisol levels) and wellbeing increase. The test experience is a visit to the vault of the Sanctuary of Vicoforte, Italy. Data have been collected using a double step method. A structured interview in relation to the individual subjective well-being has been administered to a sample of 100 subjects. In addition, a sample of their saliva has been taken, and its cortisol level measured, before and after the experience, and likewise for momentary wellbeing measured on a Visual Analogous Scale. Subjects reported an average increase of 40% in wellbeing and a decrease of the 60% in the cortisol level. The recorded cortisol level values dropped on average well beyond the decrease normally associated to its circadian cycle. The modulating role of various variables has been appreciated, and profiling of the typical subjects who are wellbeing respondents/non-respondents and cortisol respondents/non-respondents has been carried out. We conclude that aesthetic experience seems to have a noticeable impact on individual physical and mental health. In both dominions, cultural participation intensity is significantly correlated to the response. The study underlines the potential of the arts and culture as a new platform for public health practices and new approaches to welfare policy design.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Saúde Mental , Prazer/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Escala Visual Analógica
19.
Emotion ; 19(3): 377-401, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975076

RESUMO

Do cultural differences in emotion play a role in employment settings? We predicted that cultural differences in ideal affect-the states that people value and ideally want to feel-are reflected in: (a) how individuals present themselves when applying for a job, and (b) what individuals look for when hiring someone for a job. In Studies 1-2 (NS1 = 236, NS2 = 174), European Americans wanted to convey high arousal positive states (HAP; excitement) more and low arousal positive states (LAP; calm) less than did Hong Kong Chinese when applying for a job. European Americans also used more HAP words in their applications and showed more "high intensity" smiles in their video introductions than did Hong Kong Chinese. In Study 3 (N = 185), European American working adults rated their ideal job applicant as being more HAP and less LAP than did Hong Kong Chinese, and in Study 4a (N = 125), European American Masters of Business Administration (MBAs) were more likely to hire an excited (vs. calm) applicant for a hypothetical internship than were Hong Kong Chinese MBAs. Finally, in Study 4b (N = 300), employees in a U.S. company were more likely to hire an excited (vs. calm) applicant for a hypothetical internship. In Studies 1-4a, observed differences were partly related to European Americans valuing HAP more than Hong Kong Chinese. These findings support our predictions that culture and ideal affect shape behavior in employment settings, and have important implications for promoting cultural diversity in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Emotion ; 19(8): 1377-1395, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335405

RESUMO

People often experience self-control conflicts (i.e., feel tempted to indulge while motivated to resist). But, how do people feel after making such conflicted self-control choices? Whereas previous research has focused almost exclusively on the influence of choice outcomes (healthy vs. unhealthy) on emotional reactions (e.g., pride vs. guilt), we propose that the experience of conflict during decision making could have a unique influence, possibly fueling negative emotions (i.e., regret) regardless of people's choice outcomes. To test this, we studied immediate consequences of people's experience of conflict during self-control decision making (healthy vs. unhealthy food choice) on self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, regret, or pride), choice satisfaction and future behavior. Across 5 studies (vignette, field, and experience sampling), we found a link between self-control conflict and negativity: the more difficulty (proxy of conflict, Studies 1 and 2) or conflict (Studies 3 and 5) participants experienced during self-control decision making, the more negative they felt about their choice afterward. This was the case for unhealthy as well as healthy choices. Specifically, self-control conflict strength was associated with increased levels of guilt and regret (but not pride), with lower satisfaction and with lowered odds of making a similar choice in the future (Studies 1 to 3). Studies 4 and 5 suggested that conflict strength can boost pride after healthy choices, but only if participants first appraised their choice as acts of self-control. Our findings, therefore, highlight the costs as well as the potential benefits of experiencing conflict during self-control decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA