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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347469

RESUMO

The aims of this review were to map and summarize data currently available about 1) key dimensions of eating pleasure; 2) associations of eating pleasure, and its key dimensions, with dietary and health outcomes and 3) the most promising intervention strategies using eating pleasure to promote healthy eating. Using the scoping review methodology, a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature (Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, Web of Science, CINAHL, ABI/Inform global and Sociology Abstract) and of the grey literature (ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Google) was carried out by two independent reviewers. We included 119 of the 28,908 studies found. In total, 89 sub-dimensions of eating pleasure were grouped into 22 key dimensions. The most frequently found related to sensory experiences (in 50.9% of the documents), social experiences (42.7%), food characteristics besides sensory attributes (27.3%), food preparation process (19.1%), novelty (16.4%), variety (14.5%), mindful eating (13.6%), visceral eating (12.7%), place where food is consumed (11.8%) and memories associated with eating (10.9%). Forty-five studies, mostly cross-sectional (62.2%), have documented links between eating pleasure and dietary and/or health outcomes. Most studies (57.1%) reported favorable associations between eating pleasure and dietary outcomes. For health outcomes, results were less consistent. The links between eating pleasure and both dietary and health outcomes varied according to the dimensions of eating pleasure studied. Finally, results from 11 independent interventions suggested that strategies focusing on sensory experiences, cooking and/or sharing activities, mindful eating, and positive memories related to healthy food may be most promising. Thus, eating pleasure may be an ally in the promotion of healthy eating. However, systematically developed, evidence-based interventions are needed to better understand how eating pleasure may be a lever for healthy eating.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos
2.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 1049-1055, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enjoyment represents children as crucial factor to maintain positive engagement in physical activity. Unfortunately, enjoyment decreases with age and undergoes the physical perceived competence that, in turn, is affected by the anthropometric characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enjoyment during physical education lessons, even though the anthropometric characteristics affects the performance and in consequence the self-perceived physical competence. METHODS: A total of 1999 children (girls =998; boys=1001) were interviewed with Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and International Fitness Scale (IFIS) questionnaires. The scores were matched with BMI to evaluate the relationships with anthropometric characteristics. No parametric analysis of variance was used to define the categorical differences within the score of the two questionnaires according to BMI and age. RESULTS: The PACES questionnaire revealed a general score of 50.96 with the highest mean value for the item n.1 ("I enjoy it"). This questionnaire confirmed a significant decrease with age (cut-off eight years) while no differences were found within sex and BMI categories. The IFIS showed a decrease from 8 to 11 years (male and female) and significant differences were found within BMI categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that attention should be paid to improve enjoyment during physical education lessons since the age of eight years in order to improve the positive perceptions of physical competence and then the reinforcement for enjoyment that in turn improve the positive attitude for physical activity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(6): 606-613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maintaining eating pleasure as long as possible is one of the determinants that contributes to and encourages good nutrition in the ageing population. Our study aimed to translate, adapt to the context of food and validate the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (which distinguishes anticipatory and consummatory experiences of pleasure) in a food dependent older French population. DESIGN: Prospective validation study. SETTING: 199 participants dependent for their meals, over 65 years old and living at home. MEASUREMENTS: A pool of 16 self-reported items constituted the initial version of the anticipatory and consummatory eating pleasure scale (ACEPS). Demographic data, nutritional status, appetite and depressive mood were also assessed. RESULTS: The exploratory factorial analysis and also the confirmatory factor analysis highlighted a two-factor model: anticipatory eating pleasure (four items) and consummatory eating pleasure (four items). The ACEPS showed good internal consistency. A higher score on the ACEPS positively correlated with appetite. Consummatory eating pleasure positively correlated with nutritional status and negatively correlated with depressive moods. The oldest-old and also those receiving a meals-on-wheels service had lower scores for anticipatory pleasure (r=-.14, p<.03). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the ACEPS is the first comprehensive measure of eating pleasure distinguishing anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. This short measure, easily applicable on older people with vulnerability, allows early identification and intervention preventing malnutrition and decline in health. Specifically, encouraging anticipatory eating pleasure may be a first step to improving food intake among older adults.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517165

RESUMO

Engaging in prosocial behavior is considered an effective way to increase happiness in a sustainable manner. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the conditions under which such a happiness effect occurs. From a person-activity congruence perspective, we proposed that an individual's eudaimonic orientation moderates the effect of prosocial behavior on happiness, whereas hedonic orientation does not. For this purpose, 128 participants were assigned to play a game in which half of them were explained the benevolence impact of playing the game (the benevolence condition), and the other half played the same game without this knowledge (the control condition). Participants' eudaimonic and hedonic orientations were assessed before the game, and their post-task happiness were measured after the game. The results showed that participants in the benevolence condition reported higher post-task positive affect than those in the control condition. Furthermore, this happiness effect was moderated by participants' eudaimonic orientation-participants with high eudaimonic orientation reaped greater benefits from benevolence, and their hedonic orientation did not moderate the relationship between benevolence and happiness. The importance of the effect of person-activity congruence on happiness is discussed, along with the implications of these findings for sustainably pursuing happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Orientação , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Filosofia , Teoria Psicológica , Virtudes
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 70, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large portion sizes encourage overconsumption. Prior studies suggest that this may be due to errors in anticipating the effects of portion size, although the studies were limited to adults and energy-dense foods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate potential anticipation errors related to the effects of portion size on hunger, eating enjoyment, and healthiness ratings among 8-to-11-year-old children, for snacks differing in energy density and healthiness perception, and as a function of initial hunger. METHODS: In a within-subject design, 83 children aged 8 to 11 years old were first asked to anticipate how much they would enjoy, how hungry they would feel after eating, and how healthy it would be to eat a recommended serving size, a 50% larger portion, and a 125% larger portion of brownie or applesauce. Over six subsequent sessions, the children were asked to eat all of each of these portions and then rate their post-intake enjoyment, residual hunger, and healthiness perceptions. We also measured hunger at the beginning of each session. RESULTS: For both snacks, larger portions reduced anticipated and experienced residual hunger similarly. In contrast, larger portions increased anticipated but not experienced eating enjoyment for both snacks; although larger portions increased anticipated and experienced enjoyment ratings among extremely hungry children. All children under-anticipated how much they would enjoy the smaller portion sizes. Healthiness ratings were unaffected by portion size for both snacks but differed across foods (applesauce vs. brownie). CONCLUSIONS: Children anticipate the effects of portion size on hunger change accurately, overestimate the effects of portion size on eating enjoyment, and rate food healthiness on food type and not portion size. Helping children better anticipate the enjoyment from smaller (recommended) portion sizes and understand that food quantity, not just quality, matters for healthy eating may be a solution to improve portion control.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Lanches , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Lanches/fisiologia , Lanches/psicologia
6.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(4): 742-765, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323607

RESUMO

Several variables can be manipulated to compose high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols, and these different combinations may evoke different psychological responses (affect, enjoyment, mood, and perceived exertion). This study investigated psychological responses during four HIIE protocols. Following anthropometric measurements and two maximal exercise tests, 23 physically inactive adults (11 males [Mage = 25.6, SD = 4.8 years; Mbody mass = 68.5, SD = 12.2 kg; Mheight = 1.72, SD = 0.08 m] and 12 females [Mage = 25.0, SD = 3.5 years; Mbody mass = 57.2, SD = 8.7 kg; Mheight = 1.59, SD = 0.06 m]) performed four different types of HIIE on different days: (a) Long-interval HIIE (HIIEL-10 × 60 seconds:60 seconds), (b) Short-interval HIIE (HIIES-2 blocks of 10 × 30 seconds:30 seconds with 120 seconds between blocks), (c) Repeated Sprint Training (19 × 6 seconds all out:40 seconds), and (d) Sprint Interval Training (4 × 30 seconds all-out efforts: 240 seconds). We used a final session to assess participants' HIIE preference. We recorded participant reports of affect, mood, and perceived exertion throughout protocols, and we recorded enjoyment after exercise session. Perceived exertion significantly increased across all HIIE protocols (p < .001), with higher values in the first quartile during Sprint Interval Training versus HIIEL (p = .033). Affective response presented higher values pre-exercise and at the first quartile compared with all other moments (p < .001). Tension (p < .001) and depression (p = .013) decreased from pre- to post-exercise in all experimental conditions. At pre-exercise, female participants were tenser than males (p = .018), though males presented higher pre-exercise vigor scores than females (p = .023). Vigor increased over time for females (p = .022). Enjoyment did not vary between sexes or protocols. Participants expressed a higher preference for Repeated Sprint Training. HIIE protocols promoted positive psychological responses for physically inactive young adults, and exercise designs may modulate psychological responses.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 112-120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132834

RESUMO

Recent research has shown multiple motives for high-risk sport participation derived from research on adult participants. The aim of this study was to provide insights into motives and risk-related aspects in adolescent high-risk sport participants and to compare those findings with adults performing the same activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 adolescent (14-20 years) freeriders (skiers/snowboarders who ski outside the protected areas of a ski resort) and 24 adult freeriders (26-41 years). A content analyses was done using MAXQDA software. Both cohorts reported the motives Challenge (adolescents: 92%, adults: 88%), Freedom/Pleasure (adolescents: 88%, adults: 75%), Friends (adolescents: 88%, adults: 79%) and Balance (adolescents: 63%, adults: 63%). However, the description of friends differed between adults and adolescents. Whereas adolescents mostly referred to a community and shared interests, adults described the importance of trust and the development of deep friendships through the activity more often. Nature was a major motive in adults (83%) but not in adolescents (29%). Most of the adults have already experienced a major accident or close call (n = 19; 79%), contrary to adolescents (n = 7; 29%). Adolescents learned about the risks in freeriding primarily through their families (n = 10) and the ski club (n = 9). Some adults reported to have realized the risks involved in freeriding after starting with the activity due to experienced negative outcomes. Both cohorts were largely motivated by the same motives. As the new generation of freeriders seems to receive more instructions about risk reduction, it might be interesting to see if this educational approach results into less accidents or close calls in this group.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Esqui/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Conscientização/fisiologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Prazer/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Esqui/lesões , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3813, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123246

RESUMO

Cardiac synchrony is a crucial component of shared experiences, considered as an objective measure of emotional processes accompanying empathic interactions. No study has investigated whether cardiac synchrony among people engaged in collective situations links to the individual emotional evaluation of the shared experience. We investigated theatrical live performances as collective experiences evoking strong emotional engagement in the audience. Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis was applied to obtain the cardiac synchrony of twelve spectators' quartets attending to two live acting performances. This physiological measure was then correlated with spectators' emotional intensity ratings. Results showed an expected increment in synchrony among people belonging to the same quartet during both performances attendance and rest periods. Furthermore, participants' cardiac synchrony was found to be correlated with audience's convergence in the explicit emotional evaluation of the performances they attended to. These findings demonstrate that the mere co-presence of other people sharing a common experience is enough for cardiac synchrony to occur spontaneously and that it increases in function of a shared and coherent explicit emotional experience.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Arte , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 119(1): 23-39, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039616

RESUMO

Engaging in an enjoyable activity is often effective in reducing or eliminating a negative mood. However, imagining this activity before deciding whether to perform it can decrease unhappy people's willingness to engage in it. The facial expression that accompanies a negative mood (and the muscles activated by the expression) can conflict with the expression that is elicited by imagining the performance of an enjoyable activity, evoking subjective feelings of difficulty of imagining it. Unhappy people misattribute these feelings of difficulty to the enjoyable activity itself, decreasing their desire to engage in the activity. The effects of metacognitive difficulty are eliminated when (a) unhappy people attribute difficulty to something other than the enjoyable activity and (b) focus their attention on the outcome of the activity rather than the process of engaging in it. Moreover, when an irrelevant factor activates smile-related features while performing the activity, the experience of difficulty is attenuated and its effect on aversion to the activity is not apparent. In contrast, unhappy people also find it easy to imagine an unenjoyable activity and consequently evaluate it more favorably after imagining it. Seven studies demonstrated the role of these metacognitive experiences and their implications for research on affect regulation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Imaginação , Metacognição , Prazer , Sorriso , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Sorriso/fisiologia
11.
J Sex Med ; 17(4): 784-792, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BDSM is an abbreviation used to reference the concepts of bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism, and masochism, enacted by power exchanges between consensual partners. AIM: To shed light upon the rewarding biological mechanisms associated with BDSM interactions. METHODS: A group of 35 BDSM couples (dominant and submissive counterparts) were recruited and tested during a BDSM interaction, with an additional control group of 27 non-BDSM interested people tested in a normal social interaction. OUTCOMES: We compared the evolution of the stress and reward hormone levels of cortisol, beta-endorphins, and endocannabinoids (2AG and anandamide) in a group of BDSM practitioners before and after an active BDSM interaction with the levels in control individuals. RESULTS: We showed that submissives showed increases in cortisol and endocannabinoid levels due to the BDSM interaction, with dominants only showing increased endocannabinoid levels when the BDSM interaction was associated with power play. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study effectively provides a link between behavior that many think of as aberrant on one hand, and biological pleasure experience on the other, in the hope that it may relieve some of the stigma these practitioners still endure. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: It is one of the first and largest studies of its kind, but is still limited in sample size and only represents a specific population of Flemish BDSM practitioners. CONCLUSION: Even though this is one of the first studies of its kind, we can conclude that there is a clear indication for increased pleasure in submissives when looking at biological effects of a BDSM interaction, which was related to the increases in experienced stress. Wuyts E, De Neef N, Coppens V, et al. Between Pleasure and Pain: A Pilot Study on the Biological Mechanisms Associated With BDSM Interactions in Dominants and Submissives. J Sex Med 2020;17:784-792.


Assuntos
Masoquismo/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(3): 1029-1038, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897825

RESUMO

Young women's understanding of their own sexuality has increasingly been acknowledged as an important component of their sexual health. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI) was developed to measure five distinct factors of young women's experiences of sexual pleasure and empowerment. No studies have explicitly evaluated the association between FSSI scores and clinical sexual health outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of women to assess the association between FSSI factors and the occurrence of three clinical sexual health outcomes in the prior 12 months: acquisition of an STI, unwanted pregnancy, or taking emergency contraception (Plan B). We also assessed the association between FSSI scores and self-reported orgasm frequency during partnered sexual activity. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate associations. Finally, we used the FSSI scale in a novel way to identify a population of women who are discordant on their levels of entitlement to pleasure from a partner and self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. We did not find any statistically significant associations between mean score on any of the FSSI factors and clinical sexual health outcomes of interest in the prior year. We found that all FSSI factors except Sexual Self-Reflection were positively associated with increased orgasm frequency. Our study underscores the validity of the FSSI as a measure to assess psychosocial constructs relevant to young women's ability to experience sexual pleasure with a partner and introduces a novel way to use the scale to assess the development of women's sexual subjectivity.


Assuntos
Orgasmo/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Autoeficácia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(2): 330-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898260

RESUMO

Can people track several pleasures? In everyday life, pleasing stimuli rarely appear in isolation. Yet, experiments on aesthetic pleasure usually present only one image at a time. Here, we ask whether people can reliably report the pleasure of either of two images seen in a single glimpse. Participants (N = 13 in the original; +25 in the preregistered replication) viewed 36 Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS) images that span the entire range of pleasure and beauty. On each trial, the observer saw two images, side by side, for 200 ms. An arrow cue pointed, randomly, left, right, or bidirectionally. Left or right indicated which image (the target) to rate while ignoring the other (the distractor); bidirectional requested rating the combined pleasure of both images. In half the blocks, the cue came before the images (precuing). Otherwise, it came after (postcuing). Precuing allowed the observer to ignore the distractor, while postcuing demanded tracking both images. Finally, we obtained single-pleasure ratings for each image shown alone. Our replication confirms the original study. People have unbiased access to their felt pleasure from each image and the average of both. Furthermore, the variance of the observer's report is similar whether reporting the pleasure of one image or the average pleasure of two. The undiminished variance for reports of the average pleasure of two images indicates either that the underlying pleasure variances are highly correlated, or, more likely, that the variance arises in the common reporting process. In brief, observers can faithfully track at least two visual pleasures.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Beleza , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 46(2): 155-171, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714105

RESUMO

This study explored whether a human-like feel of touch biases perceived pleasantness and whether such a bias depends on top-down cognitive and/or bottom-up sensory processes. In 2 experiments, 11 materials were stroked across the forearm at different velocities (bottom-up) and participants rated tactile pleasantness and humanness. Additionally, in Experiment 1, participants identified the materials (top-down), whereas in Experiment 2, they rated each material with respect to its somatosensory properties (bottom-up). Stroking felt most pleasant at velocities optimal for the stimulation of CT-afferents, a mechanosensory nerve hypothesized to underpin affective touch. A corresponding effect on perceived humanness was significant in Experiment 1 and marginal in Experiment 2. Whereas material identification was unrelated to both pleasantness and humanness, we observed a robust relation with the somatosensory properties. Materials perceived as smooth, slippery, and soft were also pleasant. A corresponding effect on perceived humanness was significant for the first somatosensory property only. Humanness positively predicted pleasantness and neither top-down nor bottom-up factors altered this relationship. Thus, perceiving gentle touch as human appears to promote pleasure possibly because this serves to reinforce interpersonal contact as a means for creating and maintaining social bonds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Prazer/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Emotion ; 20(5): 842-853, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869946

RESUMO

Sleep quality is a critical component of successful human functioning. Poor sleep quality is associated with aggressive behavior, yet the psychological mechanisms that drive this effect are incompletely understood. We tested the prediction that the association between poor sleep quality and aggression would be explained, in part, by a magnified experience of positive affect during aggression. We conducted 2 cross-sectional studies (Study 1, N = 388; Study 2, N = 317) and a third preregistered study (N = 379), which tested for mediation across 2 waves that were separated by 14-42 days. Across all 3 studies, we replicated the positive association between poor sleep quality and aggression. However, we did not observe compelling or consistent evidence that poor sleep quality is linked to greater positive affect during aggression. Such aggressive pleasure was temporally stable and predicted subsequent increases in aggressive behavior. These findings support a reinforcement model of aggressive affect, in which the pleasure of aggression promotes greater aggression over time-perhaps explaining why some individuals are more dispositionally aggressive than others. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(4): 489-499, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270605

RESUMO

Anhedonia (or loss of interest and pleasure) is a core symptom of depression and may predict poor treatment outcome. However, little is known about the subjective experience of anhedonia, and it is rarely targeted in psychological treatment for depression. The aim of this study is to examine how young people experience anhedonia in the context of depression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents with a primary diagnosis of depression (N = 12) or elevated depressive symptoms (N = 22). Thematic analysis was used to identify important aspects of adolescents' experiences. Four main themes were identified: (1) experiencing a loss of joy and a flattening of emotion; (2) struggling with motivation and active engagement; (3) losing a sense of connection and belonging; and (4) questioning sense of self, purpose, and the bigger picture. The results challenge the framing of anhedonia as simply the loss of interest and pleasure. Adolescents reported a range of experiences that mapped closely onto the cluster of negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia and were similar to the sense of 'apathy' characteristic in Parkinson's disease. This highlights the potential benefit of taking a trans-diagnostic approach to understanding and treating reward deficits associated with mental health problems.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1464(1): 99-114, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549425

RESUMO

Music frequently elicits intense emotional responses, a phenomenon that has been scrutinized from multiple disciplines that span the sciences and arts. While most people enjoy music and find it rewarding, there is substantial individual variability in the experience and degree of music-induced reward. Here, we review current work on the neural substrates of hedonic responses to music. In particular, we focus the present review on specific musical anhedonia, a selective lack of pleasure from music. Based on evidence from neuroimaging, neuropsychology, and brain stimulation studies, we derive a neuroanatomical model of the experience of pleasure during music listening. Our model posits that hedonic responses to music are the result of connectivity between structures involved in auditory perception as a predictive process, and those involved in the brain's dopaminergic reward system. We conclude with open questions and implications of this model for future research on why humans appreciate music.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Emoções/fisiologia , Musicoterapia , Prazer/fisiologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Neuroimagem/tendências , Recompensa
18.
Elife ; 82019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872799

RESUMO

C-tactile afferents form a distinct channel that encodes pleasant tactile stimulation. Prevailing views indicate they project, as with other unmyelinated afferents, in lamina I-spinothalamic pathways. However, we found that spinothalamic ablation in humans, whilst profoundly impairing pain, temperature and itch, had no effect on pleasant touch perception. Only discriminative touch deficits were seen. These findings preclude privileged C-tactile-lamina I-spinothalamic projections and imply integrated hedonic and discriminative spinal processing from the body.


Assuntos
Princípio do Prazer-Desprazer , Prazer/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Idoso , Cordotomia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mecanorreceptores/metabolismo , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/fisiologia , Estimulação Física , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Pele/fisiopatologia , Tratos Espinotalâmicos/metabolismo , Tratos Espinotalâmicos/fisiologia
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102949, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675619

RESUMO

Music generates manifold experiences in humans, some perceptual and some hedonic. Are these qualia governed by the same principles in processing? In particular, do the loudness and timbre of melodies combine to produce perception and likeability by the same rules of integration? In Experiment 1, we tested selective attention to loudness and timbre by applying Garner's speeded classification paradigm and found both to be perceptually integral dimensions. In Experiment 2, we tested liking for the same music by applying Norman Anderson's functional measurement model and found loudness and timbre to combine by an adding-type rule. In Experiment 3, we applied functional measurement for perception and found loudness and timbre to interact as in Experiment 1. These results show that people cannot or do not attend selectively or perceive separately any one music component, but that they nonetheless can isolate the components when they enjoy (or disenjoy) listening to music. We conclude that perception of the constituent components of a musical piece and the processing of the same components for liking are governed by different rules.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17060, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745159

RESUMO

Humans can anticipate music and derive pleasure from it. Expectations facilitate the learning of movements associated with anticipated events, and they are also linked with reward, which may further facilitate learning of the anticipated rewarding events. The present study investigates the synergistic effects of predictability and hedonic responses to music on arousal and motor-learning in a naïve population. Novel melodies were manipulated in their overall predictability (predictable/unpredictable) as objectively defined by a model of music expectation, and ranked as high/medium/low liked based on participants' self-reports collected during an initial listening session. During this session, we also recorded ocular pupil size as an implicit measure of listeners' arousal. During the following motor task, participants learned to play target notes of the melodies on a keyboard (notes were of similar motor and musical complexity across melodies). Pupil dilation was greater for liked melodies, particularly when predictable. Motor performance was facilitated in predictable rather than unpredictable melodies, but liked melodies were learned even in the unpredictable condition. Low-liked melodies also showed learning but mostly in participants with higher scores of task perceived competence. Taken together, these results highlight  the effects of stimuli predictability on learning, which can be however overshadowed by the effects of stimulus liking or task-related intrinsic motivation.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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