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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117874, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766361

RESUMO

Despite the well-known health benefits of aloe polysaccharide (APs), little is known about how APs modulate the gut microbiota and the relationship between microbiota and SCFAs. Here, APs was extracted by ultrasound extraction. FT-IR and glycosidic linkage type analysis showed that a major part of APs consisted of → 4)-ß-Manp-(1 → residues with acetyl groups. APs supplementation to mice prominently boosted SCFAs-producing Bacteroides and Parabacteria in the feces. On the other hand, it decreased the abundance of Firmicutes and Clostridium. A positive correlation between microbiota and SCFAs was revealed, with Parabacteria and Clostridium being the key microbiota to significantly promote SCFAs. APs promoted the fructose and mannose metabolism by upregulating the gene expression of 17 enzymes, containing fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.13]. Our findings highlight SCFAs-producing Parabacteria were primary degrader of APs, and APs may have prebiotic effects on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polissacarídeos/análise , Prebióticos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671813

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in identifying and applying new, naturally occurring molecules that promote health. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host". Quite a few fermented products serve as the source of probiotic strains, with many factors influencing the effectiveness of probiotics, including interactions of probiotic bacteria with the host's microbiome. Prebiotics contain no microorganisms, only substances which stimulate their growth. Prebiotics can be obtained from various sources, including breast milk, soybeans, and raw oats, however, the most popular prebiotics are the oligosaccharides contained in plants. Recent research increasingly claims that probiotics and prebiotics alleviate many disorders related to the immune system, cancer metastasis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. However, little is known about the role of these supplements as important dietary components in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. Still, some reports and clinical studies were conducted, offering new ways of treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the roles of gut microbiota, probiotics, and prebiotics interventions in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
3.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669157

RESUMO

α-Galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOSs) have great functions as prebiotics and therapeutics. This work established the method of batch synthesis of α-GOSs by immobilized α-galactosidase for the first time, laying a foundation for industrial applications in the future. The α-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger L63 was immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) nano-biocatalyst through enzyme precipitating and cross-linking steps without using carriers. Among the tested agents, the ammonium sulfate showed high precipitation efficacy and induced regular structures of α-galactosidase CLEAs (Aga-CLEAs) that had been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Through optimization by response surface methodology, the ammonium sulfate-induced Aga-CLEAs achieved a high activity recovery of around 90% at 0.55 U/mL of enzymes and 36.43 mM glutaraldehyde with cross-linking for 1.71 h. Aga-CLEAs showed increased thermal stability and organic solvent tolerance. The storage ability was also improved since it maintained 74.5% activity after storing at 4 °C for three months, significantly higher than that of the free enzyme (21.6%). Moreover, Aga-CLEAs exhibited excellent reusability in the α-GOSs synthesis from galactose, retaining above 66% of enzyme activity after 10 batch reactions, with product yields all above 30%.


Assuntos
Galactose/biossíntese , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Prebióticos/análise , alfa-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Galactose/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , alfa-Galactosidase/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567710

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant clinical and epidemiological problem that affects around 25% of the adult global population. A large body of clinical evidence highlights that NAFLD is associated with increased liver-related morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, extrahepatic cancers, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Recently, a series of studies revealed the pivotal role of gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis in NAFLD's pathogenesis. The GM plays an essential role in different metabolic pathways, including the fermentation of diet polysaccharides, energy harvest, choline regulation, and bile acid metabolism. One of the most critical factors in GM stabilization is the diet; therefore, nutritional therapyappearsto be a promising tool in NAFLD therapy. This paper aims to review the current knowledge regardingthe nutritional approach and its implications with GM and NAFLD treatment. We discuss the positive impact of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics in a reverse dysbiosis state in NAFLD and show the potential beneficial effects of bioactive substances from the diet. The full description of the mechanism of action and comprehensive examination of the impact of nutritional interventions on GM modulation may, in the future, be a simple but essential tool supporting NAFLD therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Probióticos , Disbiose , Humanos , Prebióticos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
5.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 74(1): 157-170, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199447

RESUMO

El desarrollo del conocimiento del microbioma humano y su relación con la salud ha representado una revolución en el ámbito biomédico, gracias a la eclosión de nuevas técnicas de microbiología molecular. La patología litiásica no ha sido ajena a esta nueva aproximación al conocimiento etiológico. Fruto de esta actividad investigadora se ha podido elucidar la importancia del eje intestino-riñón, entendido como el impacto de la microbiota intestinal sobre la salud nefrourinaria. En este sentido, la capacidad de utilizar oxalato como fuente de energía por parte de determinados microorganismos intestinales, ha sido utilizado como diana de actuación de moduladores de la microbiota intestinal con el fin de corregir hiperoxalurias, tanto primarias como secundarias. No obstante, la importancia de la configuración del microbioma, y su rol en la litiasis oxalocálcica, transciende la existencia de determinadas redes tróficas. Particularmente, estado disbióticos de la microbiota tienen la capacidad de promover lesiones tubulares fruto del estrés oxidativo originado por la inflamación crónica de bajo grado, íntimamente ligada con la composición de la microbiota y el diálogo establecido con el sistema inmunitario a nivel intestinal. La descripción del urobioma, entendido como la estructura ecológica microbiana estable que reside en las vías urinarias, además de romper con el paradigma de la esterilidad de la orina en ausencia de infección, ha permitido calibrar la importancia real de los microorganismos que lo componen en la patología urolitiásica. Así, existen trabajos que apuntan a que composición y estructura del urobioma impactará de forma crucial en la litiasis infecciosa pero también en la no infecciosa, en tanto determinados microorganismos tienen la capacidad de actuar como nucleantes y promotores del proceso litogénico. Asociado al ingente desarrollo del conocimiento en el binomio microbiota y patología litiásica se abren nuevas vías para el manejo del paciente, tanto en términos de prevención como de tratamiento, basados en la intervención sobre el microbioma. Entre el arsenal terapéutico futuro, además de los probióticos y prebióticos, con total seguridad se encontraran los consorcios de diferentes grupos microbianos, así como el trasplante de microbiota, tanto intestinal como urinaria


Human microbiome understanding and its relationship with health has represented a revolution in biomedicine, facilitated by the emergence of new molecular microbiology techniques. Lithiasic pathology has not been alien to this new approach to etiological knowledge. As a result of this research activity, it has been possible to elucidate the importance of the intestine- kidney axis, understood as the impact of the intestinal microbiota on nephrourinary health. In this regard, the ability to use oxalate as an energy source by certain intestinal microorganisms has been used as a target for modulators of the intestinal microbiota in order to correct hyperoxaluria, both primary and secondary. However, the importance of the microbiome configuration, and its role in oxalocalcic lithiasis, transcends the existence of certain trophic networks. In particular, intestinal microbiome has the ability to promote tubular lesions resulting from oxidative stress caused by chronic low-grade inflammation, closely linked to the composition of the microbiota and the dialogue established with the immune system at the intestinal level. The importance of the urobiome, a stable microbial structure residing in the urinary tract, allowed to calibrate the importance of urinary microorganisms in lithiasic pathology, breaking with the paradigm of urine sterility in healthy conditions. Thus, recent studies suggest that the composition and structure of the urobiome have a crucial impact on infectious but also non-infectious lithiasis, since certain microorganisms can act as nucleants and promoters of the lithogenic process. Associated with the advances in the study of binomial microbiota and lithiasic pathology, new ways are opened for patient management, in terms of prevention and treatment, based on intervention on the microbiome. Future therapeutic arsenal, in addition to probiotics and prebiotics, will integrate consortia of different microbial groups and microbiota transplantation, both urinary and intestinal


Assuntos
Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Litíase , Probióticos , Sistema Urinário , Prebióticos , Bexiga Urinária
6.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(3): 196-208, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398112

RESUMO

An expert panel was convened in September 2019 by The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to develop a definition for fermented foods and to describe their role in the human diet. Although these foods have been consumed for thousands of years, they are receiving increased attention among biologists, nutritionists, technologists, clinicians and consumers. Despite this interest, inconsistencies related to the use of the term 'fermented' led the panel to define fermented foods and beverages as "foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components". This definition, encompassing the many varieties of fermented foods, is intended to clarify what is (and is not) a fermented food. The distinction between fermented foods and probiotics is further clarified. The panel also addressed the current state of knowledge on the safety, risks and health benefits, including an assessment of the nutritional attributes and a mechanistic rationale for how fermented foods could improve gastrointestinal and general health. The latest advancements in our understanding of the microbial ecology and systems biology of these foods were discussed. Finally, the panel reviewed how fermented foods are regulated and discussed efforts to include them as a separate category in national dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Política Nutricional , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Consenso , Humanos
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(3): 2773-2786, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455783

RESUMO

In this study, we explored the effects of combining goat milk and oligosaccharides on the large intestine environment of mice. A combination of goat milk with each of 3 oligosaccharides-stachyose, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and a prebiotics mix-were independently fed to mice. We investigated composition changes in the microbiota of the large intestine using 16S rRNA gene sequencing; measured short-chain fatty acid content using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and performed a Spearman correlation analysis between microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids. Our results showed that microbial diversity in the large intestine decreased significantly in the FOS group. In terms of α diversity, microbial richness significantly declined in all 3 treatment groups; in terms of ß diversity, the intestinal microbial structures clearly changed in the FOS group. The abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus increased markedly in the FOS group compared with the other groups. Functional predictions showed that FOS reduced intestinal bacterial infections and improved the endocrine and immune systems. Spearman correlation analysis showed that propionic, isobutyric, and valeric acids were all positively correlated with certain microbiota. Our findings suggest that FOS-enriched goat milk is beneficial for improving the large intestine environment in the host.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Leite , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Cabras , Intestino Grosso , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos , Prebióticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429965

RESUMO

The steep increase in asthma prevalence, observed worldwide in recent decades, has created an urgent need to search for effective methods of its prevention. Among other environmental factors, changes in diet habits and the potential influence of individual food components on immunological processes have been extensively studied as a potential method of intervention in primary prevention of asthma. The preventive role of some nutrients has been confirmed: unpasteurized milk reduced the risk of asthma in epidemiological studies, vitamin D supplementation was effective in preventing the transient forms of wheezing in small children and high maternal intake of fish oil reduced the risk of persistent wheeze and asthma in children. However, not all studies provided consistent results, and many food ingredients are still pending for defining their role in asthma development. Moreover, a novel approach looking not only at single food ingredients, but the whole dietary patterns and diversity has recently been proposed. In this paper, we discuss the current role of nutrients in asthma primary prevention and the reasons for inconsistencies in the study results. We look at single diet components, but also the whole dietary patterns. We describe the proposed mechanisms of action at different stages of life, identify the role of modifiers and delineate future perspectives on the application of nutrients in targeting strategies for asthma primary prevention.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Dietoterapia , Dieta , Prevenção Primária , Alérgenos , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435231

RESUMO

Proper nutrition is crucial for normal brain and neurocognitive development. Failure to optimize neurodevelopment early in life can have profound long-term implications for both mental health and quality of life. Although the first 1000 days of life represent the most critical period of neurodevelopment, the central and peripheral nervous systems continue to develop and change throughout life. All this time, development and functioning depend on many factors, including adequate nutrition. In this review, we outline the role of nutrients in cognitive, emotional, and neural development in infants and young children with special attention to the emerging roles of polar lipids and high quality (available) protein. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamic nature of the gut-brain axis and the importance of microbial diversity in relation to a variety of outcomes, including brain maturation/function and behavior are discussed. Finally, the promising therapeutic potential of psychobiotics to modify gut microbial ecology in order to improve mental well-being is presented. Here, we show that the individual contribution of nutrients, their interaction with other micro- and macronutrients and the way in which they are organized in the food matrix are of crucial importance for normal neurocognitive development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição , Apoio Nutricional , Pré-Escolar , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Emoções , Ácidos Graxos , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Cinurenina , Minerais , Nutrientes , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117367, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436200

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop a comprehensive workflow to elucidate molecular features of artichoke pectic oligosaccharides (POS) contributing to high potential prebiotic activity. First, obtainment of artichoke POS by Pectinex® Ultra-Olio was optimised using an artificial neural network. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.86; 1.5 h; enzyme dose 520.5 U/g pectin) POS yield was 624 mg/g pectin. Oligosaccharide structures (Mw < 1.3 kDa) were characterised by MALDI-TOF-MS. Then, conformational analysis of glycosidic bonds was performed by replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and interaction mechanisms between POS and several microbial glycosidases were proposed by molecular modelling. Chemical information was integrated in virtual simulations of colonic fermentation. Highest hydrolysis rate was obtained for GalA-Rha-GalA trisaccharide, while the presence of partial negative charges and high radius of gyration enhance short chain fatty acid formation in distal colon. Established structure-activity relationships could help the rational design of prebiotics and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Cynara scolymus/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise , Análise Fatorial , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Redes Neurais de Computação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Interface Usuário-Computador
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117384, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436213

RESUMO

Prebiotics are known for their ability to modulate the composition of the human microbiome and mediate health-promoting benefits. Endo-levanases, which hydrolyze levan into short-chain FOS, could be used for the production of levan-based prebiotics. The novel endo-levanase (LevB2286) from Azotobacter chroococcum DSM 2286, combines an exceptionally high specific activity with advantageous hydrolytic properties. Starting from levan isolated from Timothy grass, LevB2286 produced FOS ranging from DP 2 - 8. In contrast to endo-levanases described in the literature, LevB2286 formed minor amounts of fructose and levanbiose, even with greatly extended incubation. The combined activity of LevB2286 and the levansucrase LevS1417 from Gluconobacter japonicus LMG 1417 led to a one-step synthesis of levan-type FOS from sucrose. 387.4 ± 17.3 g L-1 FOS were produced within 48 h by the production strategy based on crude cell extract of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing levS1417 and levB2286 simultaneously.


Assuntos
Azotobacter/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Gluconobacter/enzimologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hexosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Prebióticos/análise , Azotobacter/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dissacarídeos/química , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Frutanos/química , Frutanos/metabolismo , Frutose/química , Frutose/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Gluconobacter/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Hidrólise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Phleum/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sacarose/química , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117388, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436217

RESUMO

Pectins are a part of daily diet as well as food additives that are indigestible polysaccharides by human enzymes, however, they can be easily degraded by gut bacteria with the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Knowledge of pectin gut homeostasis and further how pectin affect gut bacterial communities is insufficient and limited. This review focuses on providing the whole story of how pectin functions as prebiotics in the gut. Understanding the interplay between functional and immunological responses inside animal or human gut as influenced by pectin in diets is provided. The interaction between pectin and gut microbiota is presented from both sides, in terms of how pectin affects gut microbiome and or the fermentation products produced in response by gut bacteria. This knowledge can be used to define preferred dietary pectins, targeting beneficial bacteria, and favoring balanced microbiota communities in the gut to maximize pectins' health benefits.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/imunologia , Biotransformação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fermentação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/imunologia , Humanos , Pectinas/imunologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/análise , Prebióticos/análise
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117389, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436218

RESUMO

A homogeneous polysaccharide named SHNP with apparent molecular weight of 8.4 kDa was purified from brown algae Sargassum henslowianum using ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel-filtration column chromatography. Structural analyses reveal that SHNP is completely composed of glucose, and its backbone consists of ß-D-(1→3)-Glcp with side chains comprising t-ß-D-Glcp attached at the O-6 position. Thus, SHNP is a laminarin-type polysaccharide. In vitro fermentation test results showed that SHNP was digested by gut microbiota; the pH value in the fecal culture of SHNP was significantly decreased; and total short-chain fatty acids, acetic, propionic and n-butyric acids were significantly increased. Furthermore, SHNP regulated the intestinal microbiota composition by stimulating the growth of species belonging to Enterobacteriaceae while depleting Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Gemmiger formicilis. Taken together, these results indicate that SHNP has the potential for regulating gut microbiota, but its specific role in the regulation requires to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucanos/farmacologia , Prebióticos/análise , Sargassum/química , Biotransformação , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/patogenicidade , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/química , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117395, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436223

RESUMO

Yogurt drinks can potentially be an appropriate medium for delivering probiotics to consumers. This study investigated the influences of the water-soluble fraction of bitter almond gum (SBAG) and its conjugate with sodium caseinate (SBAG-SC) compared to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and inulin, respectively, on the physical stability of casein micelles and the viability of the probiotic culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5) in probiotic yogurt drink during cold storage. The addition of SBAG-SC conjugate to the drinks successfully prevented phase separation for a longer time than CMC. CMC-based drinks exhibited a strong shear-thinning response. Adding SBAG helped keep Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 viable above the recommended level for probiotic products. However, the SBAG showed relatively less prebiotic property than inulin. This study demonstrated that SBAG-SC conjugate has a high potential for stabilizing applications in yogurt and yogurt products.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gomas Vegetais/química , Prebióticos/análise , Probióticos/análise , Prunus dulcis/química , Iogurte/análise , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Caseínas/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Glicoconjugados/química , Humanos , Inulina/química , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Micelas , Iogurte/microbiologia
15.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 31, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have an extensively demonstrated beneficial impact on intestinal health. In this study, we determined the impact of GOS diets on hallmarks of gut aging: microbiome dysbiosis, inflammation, and intestinal barrier defects ("leaky gut"). We also evaluated if short-term GOS feeding influenced how the aging gut responded to antibiotic challenges in a mouse model of Clostridioides difficile infection. Finally, we assessed if colonic organoids could reproduce the GOS responder-non-responder phenotypes observed in vivo. RESULTS: Old animals had a distinct microbiome characterized by increased ratios of non-saccharolytic versus saccharolytic bacteria and, correspondingly, a lower abundance of ß-galactosidases compared to young animals. GOS reduced the overall diversity, increased the abundance of specific saccharolytic bacteria (species of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus), increased the abundance of ß-galactosidases in young and old animals, and increased the non-saccharolytic organisms; however, a robust, homogeneous bifidogenic effect was not observed. GOS reduced age-associated increased intestinal permeability and increased MUC2 expression and mucus thickness in old mice. Clyndamicin reduced the abundance Bifidobacterium while increasing Akkermansia, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus in old mice. The antibiotics were more impactful than GOS on modulating serum markers of inflammation. Higher serum levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were observed in control and GOS diets in the antibiotic groups, and within those groups, levels of IL-6 were higher in the GOS groups, regardless of age, and higher in the old compared to young animals in the control diet groups. RTqPCR revealed significantly increased gene expression of TNFα in distal colon tissue of old mice, which was decreased by the GOS diet. Colon transcriptomics analysis of mice fed GOS showed increased expression of genes involved in small-molecule metabolic processes and specifically the respirasome in old animals, which could indicate an increased oxidative metabolism and energetic efficiency. In young mice, GOS induced the expression of binding-related genes. The galectin gene Lgals1, a ß-galactosyl-binding lectin that bridges molecules by their sugar moieties and is an important modulator of the immune response, and the PI3K-Akt and ECM-receptor interaction pathways were also induced in young mice. Stools from mice exhibiting variable bifidogenic response to GOS injected into colon organoids in the presence of prebiotics reproduced the response and non-response phenotypes observed in vivo suggesting that the composition and functionality of the microbiota are the main contributors to the phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary GOS modulated homeostasis of the aging gut by promoting changes in microbiome composition and host gene expression, which was translated into decreased intestinal permeability and increased mucus production. Age was a determining factor on how prebiotics impacted the microbiome and expression of intestinal epithelial cells, especially apparent from the induction of galectin-1 in young but not old mice. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(5): 1524-1535, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497213

RESUMO

Mushrooms are a rich source of dietary fiber. This study aimed to characterize the modulation of colonic microbiota in Zucker rats after supplementing their diet with a biotechnologically produced oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Microbiota composition and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon and bile acids in the plasma of the rats were analyzed to assess the effects of P. sajor-caju supplementation on the microbiota in the colon and its interplay with the host in the event of hepatic steatosis. Microbiota profiles were distinctly modulated by P. sajor-caju supplementation between the obese control rats and the obese rats fed the 5% P. sajor-caju-supplemented diet. P. sajor-caju enhanced the growth of SCFAs-producing bacterial genera, including Faecalibaculum, Bifidobacterium, Roseburia, and Blautia, and decreased the relative abundance of the pathogenic genus Escherichia-Shigella. This was also accompanied by distinct changes in the concentrations of bile acids in the plasma and concentrations of SCFAs in the colon, supporting the initial potentiality of P. sajor-caju as a prebiotic in cases of hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Masculino , Prebióticos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
17.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(1): 157-170, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459632

RESUMO

Human microbiome understanding and its relationship with health has represented a revolution in biomedicine, facilitated by the emergence of new molecular microbiology techniques. Lithiasic pathology has not been alien to this new approach to etiological knowledge. As a result of this research activity, it has been possible to elucidate the importance of the intestine-kidney axis, understood as the impact of the intestinal microbiota on nephrourinary health. In this regard the ability to use oxalate as an energy source by certain intestinal microorganisms has been used as a target form odulators of the intestinal microbiota in order to correcthyperoxaluria, both primary and secondary. However,the importance of the microbiome configuration, and its role in oxalocalcic lithiasis, transcends the existence of certain trophic networks. In particular, intestinal microbiome has the ability to promote tubular lesions resulting from oxidative stress caused by chronic low-grade inflammation, closely linked to the composition of the microbiota and the dialogue established with the immune system at the intestinal level. The importance of the urobiome, a stable microbia lstructure residing in the urinary tract, allowed to calibrate the importance of urinary microorganisms in lithiasic pathology, breaking with the paradigm of urine sterility in healthy conditions. Thus, recent studies suggest that the composition and structure of the urobiome have a crucial impact on infectious but also non-infectious lithiasis, since certain microorganisms can act as nucleants and promoters of the lithogenic process. Associated with the advances in the study of binomial microbiota and lithiasic pathology, new ways are opened for patient management, in terms of prevention and treatment, based on intervention on the microbiome. Future therapeutic arsenal, in addition to probiotics and prebiotics, will integrate consortia of different microbial groups and microbiota transplantation, both urinary and intestinal.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Litíase , Probióticos , Sistema Urinário , Humanos , Prebióticos
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1518-1523, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358168

RESUMO

The oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) in human breast milk selectively promotes the proliferation of bifidobacteria. One hundred fifty-one Bifidobacterium strains were evaluated for their capacity to utilize 2'FL based on the combination of phenotype and genotype association analysis. Through genotype analysis, 37 strains were predicted to have the ability to use 2'FL, including Bifidobacteriumbifidum, Bifidobacteriumbreve, Bifidobacteriumlongum ssp. longum, Bifidobacteriumlongum ssp. infantis, and Bifidobacteriumdentium, whereas Bifidobacteriumadolescentis, Bifidobacteriumanimalis, Bifidobacteriumpseudocatenulatum, and Bifidobacteriumangulatum could not use 2'FL. For in vitro utilization, there were noteworthy differences for 2'FL usage among different species, which were 100% consistent with genotype prediction. The results indicated that 2'FL utilization ability differed even within the same species, and Bifidobacterium followed the currently well-known pathway to utilize 2'FL, which could provide guidance to develop personalized prebiotics for different bifidobacteria via gene-trait matching analysis.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117241, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278997

RESUMO

Konjac glucomannan (KGM) hydrolysate is a potentially valuable prebiotic that could improve gastrointestinal health by modulating the growth of probiotic bacteria and by promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In this study, we used lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) to produce oligosaccharides from KGM and studied their prebiotic functions. The LPMO from Pleurotus ostreatus (PoLPMO9D) was shown to efficiently depolymerize KGM and produce a broad range of small oligomers. PoLPMO9D showed maximal activities at 50-60 °C and pH 4.0. When KGM-depolymerizing products produced by PoLPMO9D were employed as the carbon source instead of untreated KGM polymers, the growth of faecal microbiota was 2.76 times higher, a significant increase in the genus Lactococcus was observed, and the production of SCFAs increased by 14.6-fold with a significant pH decrease. This study shows that LPMOs may be a promising alternative enzyme for depolymerizing polysaccharide to prepare prebiotics from KGM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Mananas/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/síntese química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Pleurotus/enzimologia , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 170-182, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382612

RESUMO

Prebiotic human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are found in human milk, which are not digested by infants but are metabolized by beneficial gut bacteria. We determined the ability of 57 bacterial strains within the Family Lactobacillaceae and genera Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and potentially pathogenic bacteria to ferment the HMOs 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, and difucosyllactose. In addition, prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactose, fucose, and glucose were evaluated as carbon sources for these bacterial strains. Bacterial growth was monitored using the automatic Bioscreen C system. Only certain bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum, as well as Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron utilized the studied HMOs as their sole carbon source, whereas almost all studied bacterial strains were able to utilize GOS, lactose, and glucose. The selectivity in utilization of HMOs by only certain bacteria can be advantageous by promoting beneficial microbes but not supporting the harmful pathogens in contrast to other less selective prebiotics.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Prebióticos/análise
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