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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650522

RESUMO

Effective management of the global pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (also known as COVID-19), resulted in the implementation of severe restrictions in movement and enforcement of social distancing measures. This study aimed to understand and characterize the psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population and to identify risks and protective factors that predict changes in mental health status. In addition, the study investigated compliance with precautionary measures (PM) to halt the spread of the virus. The online anonymous survey collected information on sociodemographic data, compliance with PM, quality of life (QOL), and mental health via the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). A total of 1642 adult participants (71.6% women, 28.4% men) completed the survey in the European island country, Cyprus. A large percentage (48%) reported significant financial concerns and 66.7% significant changes in their QOL. About 41% reported symptoms associated with mild anxiety; 23.1% reported moderate-severe anxiety symptoms. Concerning depression, 48% reported mild and 9.2% moderate-severe depression symptoms. Women, younger age (18-29), student status, unemployment status, prior psychiatric history, and those reporting greater negative impact on their QOL, were at higher risk for increased anxiety and depression symptoms (p < 0.05). The youngest age group and males also reported lower levels of compliance with PM. Higher compliance with PM predicted lower depression scores (p < 0.001) but higher anxiety for measures related to personal hygiene. The results of this study provide important data on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and QOL and identify a variety of personal and social determinants that serve as risks and protective factors. Furthermore, it has implications for policy makers demonstrating the need for effective mental health programs and guidance for the implementation of PM as a public health strategy.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Chipre/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int Nurs Rev ; 67(2): 157-159, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578250

RESUMO

As the world tackles the largest public health event in more than a century, the COVID-19 pandemic, the true value of nursing is being seen by politicians and the public. But while nurses are being praised for the vital work they do, many are being put into high-risk situations, and some have died, because of a shortage of appropriate, high-quality personal protective equipment. The International Council of Nurses has called for governments to make the provision of such equipment their number one priority to prevent further loss of life among the nurses caring for the world's most vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Conselho Internacional de Enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Doenças Profissionais/enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(2): 73-80, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650905

RESUMO

Backround: Emergency medical services (EMS) workers are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and frequently exposed to blood and bodily fluids through percutaneous injuries. This study aimed to assess the consistency with which standard precautions (SPs) among rural and urban EMS providers were used. Methods: This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey conducted with a sample of certified EMS providers in West Virginia in which we ascertained details about sociodemographic characteristics, and the frequency of consistent SP. An email invitation was sent to a comprehensive list of agencies obtained from the Office of West Virginia EMS. Findings: A total of 248 out of 522 (47%) EMS providers completed the survey. The majority of the EMS providers (76%) consistently complied with SPs; however, more than one third (38%) of urban EMS providers indicated inconsistent use compared with 19% of rural EMS providers (p = .002). Most EMS providers reported low prevention practices to exposure of blood and body fluids in both areas. Conclusion/Application to Practice: The results emphasize the need to enhanced safe work practices among EMS providers in both rural and urban areas through education and increasing self-awareness. Occupational health professional in municipalities that serve these workers are instrumental in ensuring these workers are trained and evaluated for their compliance with SPs while in the field.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Estudos Transversais , Auxiliares de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , West Virginia
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 654, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accidental occupational injuries to health care workers (HCWs) continue to have a significant problem in the healthcare system. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of needle sticks and sharp injury and associated factors among health care workers working in Central Zone Tigray northern Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of needle stick and sharp injury in the past 12 months preceding the study and entire job were 25.9% and 38.5% respectively. Nearly one-third (31%) of the injuries occurred in emergency unit and 122 (71.3%) of the materials caused injury were used on patients. Practice of needle recap, ever used cigarette in last 12 months, training, work hours > 40 per week, job dissatisfaction and work experience less than 5 years were found factors significantly associated with needle stick and sharp injury for health care workers. The magnitude of Needle stick and sharp injury is high in the study area. Policy makers should formulate strategies to improve the working condition for healthcare workers and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Enferm. glob ; 17(49): 36-46, ene. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169831

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos de las recomendaciones de bioseguridad en profesionales de enfermería en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Método: Cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se utilizó un cuestionario adaptado para evaluar el seguimiento a las normas de bioseguridad. Resultados: De 145 profesionales de enfermería 88,3%(128) mencionaron que recibieron capacitación sobre bioseguridad. Respecto de la higiene de las manos con agua y jabón, 97,9%(142) informó hacerlo antes/después del contacto con el paciente y antes/después de quitarse los guantes estériles y/o de procedimientos. La mayoría afirmó tener conocimiento sobre el uso de PPE. Destácanse fragilidades en cuanto al conocimiento de las propiedades del alcohol y los riesgos laborales. La principal dificultad señalada para utilización de los PPE fue la falta de disponibilidad de estos equipos en las unidades. Conclusión: La mayoría demostró tener conocimiento sobre bioseguridad. Sin embargo este conocimiento no asegura el cumplimiento de las normas por parte de los profesionales (AU)


Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento as recomendações de biossegurança junto aos profissionais de enfermagem em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. Método: Quantitativo, descritivo e de corte transversal. Utilizou-se questionário adaptado para avaliar a adesão às recomendações de biossegurança. Resultados: Dos 145 profissionais da enfermagem entrevistados, 88,3%(128) afirmaram terem recebido capacitação acerca de biossegurança. Quanto a higienização das mãos (HM) com água e sabão, 97,9%(142) mencionaram realizar este procedimento antes/após o contato com o paciente e antes/após remoção das luvas estéreis ou de procedimentos. Por outro lado, a maioria afirmou ter conhecimento quanto ao uso de EPI. Destaca-se fragilidades ainda nos quesitos conhecimento quanto as propriedades do álcool e riscos ocupacionais. A principal dificuldade apontada para o uso desses equipamentos foi a indisponibilidade na unidade. Conclusão: A maioria dos profissionais de enfermagem demonstrou ter conhecimento sobre biossegurança. No entanto este conhecimento não garante o cumprimento das normas pelos profissionais (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the knowledge on biosafety recommendations among nursing professionals working in Intensive Care Units. Method: This was a quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. An adapted questionnaire was used to evaluate adherence to biosafety recommendations. Results: Out of the 145 nursing professionals interviewed, 88.3% (128) reported having received training on biosafety. Regarding hand hygiene (HH) with soap and water, 97.9% (142) mentioned performing this procedure before and after contact with patients and before and after removing sterile gloves or executing procedures. The majority claimed to be aware of the use of PPE. Emphasis is given to weaknesses in the knowledge about the properties of alcohol and occupational risks. The main difficulty related to the use of PPE was its unavailability in the unit. Conclusion: The majority of nursing professionals demonstrated having knowledge about biosafety. However, this knowledge does not guarantee compliance to guidelines by professionals (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção
7.
Farm. hosp ; 40(6): 496-503, nov.-dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158017

RESUMO

Objectives: The level of environmental contamination generated during preparation and administration of hazardous drugs using different valve closed-systems and their combinations was compared. The actual impact on the overall time of preparation of cytostatics and the economic cost of the different modalities were also compared. Methods: Comparative study of the preparation of fluorescein mixtures with different modalities of valve closed-system combinations. Environmental contamination was detected in critical points of connection, and in splashes produced at any other points. The main variable was qualitative detection of contamination by splashes through ultraviolet light when modalities with or without a connector were compared. A final number of 160 mixtures were prepared to detect differences of at least 5%. Results: Splashes were produced in 7 preparations without a connector (p = 0.015). No significant differences (p = 0.445) were detected either in the use of a supporting vial spike vs an anchoring spike, or in the ChemoCLAVE® system vs valve systems with Fleboflex® solutions. Contamination at any critical point was produced in all preparations. The use of a supporting vial spike, syringe connector and bag solution with Luer connection was the most efficient modality. Conclusions: A syringe connector is needed to guarantee a closed system. Anchoring spikes do not show higher advantages as compared with supporting vial spikes. Fleboflex® solutions with Luer bags are more efficient than ChemoCLAVE® and show similar safety. However, connections of these closed systems are not leak-tight, and it is therefore important to continue studies of contamination of the different closed system transfer devices (AU)


Objetivo: Comparar la contaminación generada durante la elaboración y administración de fármacos peligrosos con diferentes componentes de sistemas cerrados y de manera secundaria, seleccionar el sistema más eficiente. Material y métodos: Estudio comparativo de elaboración de mezclas de fluoresceína con diferentes combinaciones de sistemas cerrados de tipo valvular. Se consideró contaminación ambiental la detectada en los puntos críticos de conexión y las salpicaduras generadas en cualquier otro punto distinto. La variable principal fue la detección cualitativa mediante luz ultravioleta de contaminación por salpicaduras al comparar las modalidades con y sin conector. Se calculó un tamaño muestral de 160 preparaciones por modalidad, para detectar diferencias de al menos un 5%. Resultados: Se produjeron salpicaduras en 7 preparaciones, todas sin conector (p = 0,015). No se encontraron diferencias entre utilizar punzón de apoyo o de anclaje (p = 0,445), ni entre el sistema ChemoCLAVE® vs sistema valvular con sueros Fleboflex®. En todas las preparaciones se produjo contaminación en algún punto crítico. La utilización de punzones de apoyo, conectores y sueros luer se ha identificado como la modalidad más eficiente. Conclusiones: Es importante utilizar el conector de jeringa para que el sistema sea completamente cerrado. El uso de punzones de anclaje no parece presentar ventajas frente a los de apoyo y la combinación con los sueros Fleboflex® presenta una seguridad similar al sistema ChemoCLAVE®. Sin embargo, las conexiones de estos sistemas no son secas y, por tanto, es importante continuar con estudios de contaminación que comparen diferentes sistema (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fluoresceína , Simulação/métodos , Capacitação em Serviço , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Metas enferm ; 19(10): 15-20, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158203

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: conocer el nivel de conocimiento y cumplimiento de las medidas de bioseguridad del personal de Enfermería de los servicios especiales del Hospital San Agustín (HSA) de Avilés (Asturias) y su influencia sobre los accidentes con riesgo biológico. MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en abril de 2015 a todas las enfermeras de servicios especiales del HSA. Se registraron variables sociodemográficas, experiencia profesional, formación, actuación en riesgo biológico, bioseguridad y antecedentes de accidentes laborales a través de un cuestionario de elaboración propia autoadministrado. Las variables cuantitativas se describieron con media y desviación estándar y mediana y rango intercuartílico, si la distribución era asimétrica. Las variables cualitativas se describieron con frecuencias y porcentajes. También se analizaron asociaciones entre variables mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado, el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson y la prueba de Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTADOS: se cumplimentaron 70 cuestionarios de 78 repartidos. El 90% fue mujer, con edad media de 41 (DE:9,7) años y experiencia laboral media de 18,4 años (DE:9,8). El 61% recibió información sobre bioseguridad; la puntuación media de conocimiento fue de 86,2 puntos sobre 100 (DE:13,9), la aplicación de medidas fue del 60,8 (DE:19,6) puntos. El 67,1% sufrió al menos un accidente con riesgo biológico, siendo por pinchazo el 61,4%. El 34,3% atribuyó la causa del accidente al exceso de trabajo. El valor de correlación de Pearson entre la experiencia profesional y la aplicación de las medidas de bioseguridad fue de 0,14 y de 0,19 en relación al conocimiento y de 0,42 entre conocimiento y aplicación. CONCLUSIONES: las enfermeras del hospital objeto de estudio tienen un buen conocimiento sobre bioseguridad; esto supone una mayor aplicación de las medidas, pero no por ello disminuyen los accidentes con riesgo biológico, aun con más experiencia laboral. La mayoría lo atribuye al exceso de trabajo


OBJECTIVE: to understand the level of awareness and compliance of biosafety measures by the Nursing Staff in the special units from the Hospital San Agustín (HSA) Avilés (Asturias), and their impact on accidents with biologic risk. METHOD: a transversal descriptive study conducted on April, 2015 with all the nurses from special units at the HAS. The following variables were recorded: sociodemographic data, professional experience, training, action in biologic risk, biosafety, and history of occupational accidents, through a self-completed questionnaire prepared by the authors. Quantitative variables were described with mean and standard deviation, and median and interquartile range, for asymmetrical distribution. Qualitative variables were described with frequencies and percentages. Associations between variables were also analyzed through Chi-square Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Kruskall-Wallis Test. RESULTS: seventy (70) questionnaires were completed out of the 78 distributed. Of these, 90% were women, with a mean 41-year-old age (SD:9.7) and mean working experience of 18.4 years (SD:9.8). Sixty-one per cent (61%) had received information about biosafety; the mean score of knowledge was 86.2 points over 100 (SD:13.9), and measure implementation was 60.8 (SD:19.6) points. 67.1% had suffered at least one accident with biologic risk, by needle stick on 61.4% of cases; from these, 34.3% attributed the cause of accident to excess workload. The Pearson Correlation value between professional experience and the implementation of biosafety measures was 0.14 and 0.19 regarding knowledge, and 0.42 between knowledge and implementation. CONCLUSIONS: the hospital nurses included in the study had a good knowledge of biosafety; this represented a higher implementation of measures, but not a reduction in accidents with biologic risk, even with higher working experience. The majority of nurses attributed this to an excess in workload


Assuntos
Humanos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/prevenção & controle , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle
9.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 37(2): e57395, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27253597

RESUMO

Standard precautions (SP) are recommendations to prevent infection and protect health care workers during the provision of care, however, still exists low adherence to these recommendations. Objective To analyze the reasons and consequences of low adherence to standard precautions by the nursing staff. Method integrative literature review, search in seven databases, from 2005 to 2014. Results 30 articles were selected for analysis. The reasons for low adherence evidenced relate to deficient practices of lifelong learning, risk behaviors of workers, inadequate provision of equipment and protective equipment and inadequate working conditions. The consequences are accidents and occupational diseases. There are few intervention studies, which merely provide guidance to professionals. Conclusions The low adhesion to standard precautions is linked to individual aspects of workers, employers and educational institutions. Intervention strategies carried out have shown little efficient by only focusing on the worker.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Equipe de Enfermagem , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 37(2): e57395, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-782963

RESUMO

RESUMO As precauções padrão (PP) são recomendações para prevenir infecções e proteger os trabalhadores de saúde durante a prestação de cuidados. Porém, constata-se baixa adesão a estas recomendações. Objetivo Analisar os motivos e as consequências da baixa adesão às PP pela equipe de enfermagem. Método Revisão integrativa da literatura, busca em sete bases de dados, período de 2005 a 2014. Resultados 30 artigos foram selecionados para análise. Os motivos da baixa adesão evidenciados relacionam-se a práticas deficitárias de educação permanente, comportamentos de risco de trabalhadores, provisão de material e equipamentos de proteção inadequados e condições de trabalho inadequadas. As consequências são os acidentes e as doenças do trabalho. Os estudos de intervenção são escassos e limitam-se à educação dos profissionais. Conclusões A baixa adesão às PP está vinculada a aspectos individuais dos trabalhadores e às instituições empregadoras e formadoras. As estratégias de intervenção realizadas mostram-se pouco eficientes por focar apenas o trabalhador.


RESUMEN Las precauciones estándares (PE) son recomendaciones para prevenir infecciones y proteger a los trabajadores de la salud durante la prestación de cuidados, pero, se constata baja adhesión a estas recomendaciones. Objetivo analizar los motivos y consecuencias de la baja adhesión a las PE por el equipo de enfermería. Método revisión integradora de la literatura, busca en siete bases de datos, periodo de 2005 a 2014. Resultados 30 artículos fueron seleccionados para análisis. Los motivos de la baja adhesión evidenciados se relacionan a precarias prácticas de educación permanente, comportamientos de riesgo de trabajadores, inadecuada provisión de material y equipos de protección e inadecuadas condiciones de trabajo. Las consecuencias son los accidentes y las enfermedades del trabajo. Son escasos los estudios de intervención y se limitan a la educación de los profesionales. Conclusiones la baja adhesión a las PE se vincula a los aspectos individuales de los trabajadores, las instituciones empleadoras y formadoras. Las estrategias de intervención realizadas se muestran poco eficientes por enfocar solo al trabajador.


ABSTRACT Standard precautions (SP) are recommendations to prevent infection and protect health care workers during the provision of care, however, still exists low adherence to these recommendations. Objective To analyze the reasons and consequences of low adherence to standard precautions by the nursing staff. Method integrative literature review, search in seven databases, from 2005 to 2014. Results 30 articles were selected for analysis. The reasons for low adherence evidenced relate to deficient practices of lifelong learning, risk behaviors of workers, inadequate provision of equipment and protective equipment and inadequate working conditions. The consequences are accidents and occupational diseases. There are few intervention studies, which merely provide guidance to professionals. Conclusions The low adhesion to standard precautions is linked to individual aspects of workers, employers and educational institutions. Intervention strategies carried out have shown little efficient by only focusing on the worker.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Equipe de Enfermagem , Assunção de Riscos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle
11.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 25(3): 386-92, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26526817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and compliance to the code of conduct (rules defined in institutional, governmental and professional guidelines) among laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories. In addition, we explored the differences in compliance between participants of different age groups, laboratory ownership and accreditation status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous and voluntary survey with 15 questions was conducted among Croatian medical laboratory technicians (N=217). The questions were divided into two groups: demographic characteristics and the use of PPE. The questions of the second part were graded according to the Likert scale (1-4) and an overall score, shown as median and range (min-max), was calculated for each participant. Differences between the overall scores were tested for each group of participants. RESULTS: The majority of participants always wear protective clothes at work, 38.7% of them always wear gloves in daily routine, more than 30.0% consume food and almost half of them drink beverages at workplace. A significantly lower overall score was found for participants working in public compared to private laboratories (36 (16-40) vs. 40 (31-40), P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall scores for participants of different age groups (P=0.456) and laboratory accreditation status (P=0.081). CONCLUSION: A considerable percentage of laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories do not comply with safety measures. Lack of compliance is observed in all personnel regardless laboratory accreditation and participants' age. However, those working in private laboratories adhere more to the code of conduct.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Acreditação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Projetos Piloto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Precauções Universais/legislação & jurisprudência , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 43(2): 127-34, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health personnel especially nurses are at high risk of various occupational acquisition of infections such as blood-borne infections, body fluids and contaminated medical equipment. Health personnel may transmit the acquired infections to clients, colleagues and other people they come in contact with. Infection control reduces the risk of transmission of infections among clients, clients to nurses or other health personnel and vice versa. Literature reveals that nurses' knowledge and attention to infection control in Primary Health Centres (PHC) in Nigeria is very limited. This study was therefore designed to assess the nurses' knowledge and practice of infection control in PHC in Delta State, Nigeria. METHOD: Cross-sectional design was utilised and target population were the nurses working in PHC in Delta State. Using Slovan's sampling formula; a sample size of 231 nurses was obtained from the randomly selected 17 out of the 25 local government areas in Delta State. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Items on knowledge have Yes/No responses while items on practice have Always, Sometimes, Not at all and not applicable responses. Data were analysed and hypothesis tested with Chi square test at significant level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Findings revealed that nurses in the study setting had good knowledge of infection control, but not fully reflected in the level of their practice of infection control. Majority of them knew that the following precautions could prevent infection: cleaning/covering of sores with waterproof plaster (96.1%), washing of hands with soap and water (97.8%), wearing of gloves (99.1) and disinfecting re-usable instruments (95.2%). In practice, the percentage was below average in the use of hand gloves (47.6%), disinfection of re-usable instrument (45.9%), use of face mask (17.7%), use of eyeshield (7.0%). There was relationship between the years of working experience and practice of infection control (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the practice of universal precaution is not given much attention in the PHC and this may constitute health risk to the nurses and the patients in the study setting. It is essential that activities that will encourage the practice of infection control should be put in place in PHC to prevent transmission of infection.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Precauções Universais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Enferm. glob ; 13(35): 136-147, jul. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-123968

RESUMO

Las manos de los estudiantes de enfermería pueden ser el vector de la infección nosocomial. La mejora en el conocimiento sobre la higiene de manos (HM) reduce la infección nosocomial. Para ello debemos conocer el grado de adherencia al protocolo de lavado de manos (LM) por parte de los alumnos de enfermería Para ello se pasó un cuestionario estructurado de la OMS para profesionales de salud, antes y después de llevar a cabo un taller formativo. Han participado en el Estudio un total de 63 alumnos de dos cursos de grado en enfermería de la Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), con una predominancia del sector femenino en 76,2 % (48) y 23,8 % (15) para el masculino.Se obtuvo datos muy significativos (p<0,015) en el cuestionario en P9a (0,012), P9b (0,000), P10 (0,000), P11 e (0,005), P11f (0,002). Los estudiantes tienen un conocimiento moderado sobre HM. El estudio muestra la necesidad de seguir mejorando los programas de formación de HM existentes, para hacer frente a las lagunas en los conocimientos y obtener unos enfermeros altamente cualificados en el futuro (AU)


Nursing students’ hands can be the vector of nosocomial infection. Improving knowledge about hand hygiene (HM) reduces nosocomial infection. This is the reason we must know the degree of adherence to hand washing protocol (LM) by nursing students For this purpose, a WHO structured questionnaire for health professionals was done before and after putting a training workshop into practice. A total of 63 students from two nursing degree courses of UEX have participated in the study, with female sector predominance 76.2% (48) and 23.8% (15) for the male. Very significant data were obtained (p <0.015) in the questionnaire P9a (0.012), P9B (0,000) P10 (0,000) P11 and (0.005), P11f (0.002). Students have a moderate knowledge about HM. The study shows the need to improve existing HM training programs, to address gaps in knowledge and to obtain highly qualified nurses in the future (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 35(5): 547-55, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24709724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform detailed psychometric testing of the compliance with standard precautions scale (CSPS) in measuring compliance with standard precautions of clinical nurses and to conduct cross-cultural pilot testing and assess the relevance of the CSPS on an international platform. DESIGN: A cross-sectional and correlational design with repeated measures. SETTING: Nursing students from a local registered nurse training university, nurses from different hospitals in Hong Kong, and experts in an international conference. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the CSPS were evaluated via internal consistency, 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability, concurrent validation, and construct validation. The cross-cultural pilot testing and relevance check was examined by experts on infection control from various developed and developing regions. RESULTS: Among 453 participants, 193 were nursing students, 165 were enrolled nurses, and 95 were registered nurses. The results showed that the CSPS had satisfactory reliability (Cronbach α = 0.73; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.79 for 2-week test-retest and 0.74 for 3-month test-retest) and validity (optimum correlation with criterion measure; r = 0.76, P < .001; satisfactory results on known-group method and hypothesis testing). A total of 19 experts from 16 countries assured that most of the CSPS findings were relevant and globally applicable. CONCLUSIONS: The CSPS demonstrated satisfactory results on the basis of the standard international criteria on psychometric testing, which ascertained the reliability and validity of this instrument in measuring the compliance of clinical nurses with standard precautions. The cross-cultural pilot testing further reinforced the instrument's relevance and applicability in most developed and developing regions.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 8(4): 535-42, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24727521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of health care workers (HCWs) towards universal precautions (UPs) and to look into any associations between knowledge and practice. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between August and October 2012, involving 300 HCWs from four national public hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan. A self-administered questionnaire assessing the knowledge and practice of UPs was used. RESULTS: Among the 300 respondents, the mean knowledge score was 5.2 with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.5. On the practice score, the mean was 8.7 (SD = 2.2). A total of 90.6% and 70.8% of HCWs believed that UPs were necessary in contact with urine/feces and tears, respectively, although UPs are not necessary in these cases. On the other hand, 57.8% reported that they always recapped the needle after giving an injection, and 31.8% did not always change gloves in between patients. There were no associations between the knowledge and self-reported practice of UPs. CONCLUSIONS: The HCWs in Kabul had inadequate knowledge and poor practice of UPs. Training for HCWs is needed to encourage them to adhere to practice based on improved knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afeganistão , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 18(2): 290-4, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24401023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Standard precautions are disease transmission prevention strategies recommended by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are expected to utilize standard precautions. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of the use of standard precautions by EMS providers arriving at a large urban emergency department (ED). Research assistants (RAs) observed EMS crews throughout their arrival and delivery of patients and recorded data related to the use of gloves, hand hygiene, and equipment disinfection. RESULTS: A total of 423 EMS deliveries were observed, allowing for observation of 899 EMS providers. Only 512 (56.9%) EMS providers arrived wearing gloves. Hand washing was observed in 250 (27.8%) of providers. Reusable equipment disinfection was noted in only 31.6% of opportunities. The most commonly disinfected item was the stretcher (55%). CONCLUSION: EMS provider compliance with standard precautions and equipment disinfection recommendations is suboptimal. Strategies must be developed to improve EMS provider compliance with internationally recognized infection control guidelines. Key words: Emergency medical services, hand washing, hygiene, disinfection, disease prevention.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Desinfecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Nevada , Estudos Prospectivos , Precauções Universais/métodos , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde
17.
Presse Med ; 42(11): e385-92, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24134813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During their practice, liberal physicians might have a risk of viral exposure to biological fluids. That risk is well-known in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to measure those occupational risks into their own private practice. METHODS: This observational descriptive transversal multicentral, epidemiological study is based on the information collected from 400 physicians (general practitioners, ENT specialists, dermatologists, pediatricians, rheumatologists and gynecologists), working in own private practice in Lorraine. They received by post a confidential survey consisting of multiple-choice and open questions, asking for their activity, their risks of being exposed to biological fluids, their vaccine coverage and their potentially infectious medical waste (PIMW) management. RESULTS: Among 175 physicians who replied to the survey, 153 did invasive procedures and 58 encountered an accidental blood exposure (ABE). The execution of invasive procedures was the main factor in having an ABE (P=0.0023). Around 89.5 % of the complications were due to percutaneous injuries. Still 30.9 % of the physicians always recapped needles and 40 % hadn't a complementary health cover. More than 82 % were up-to-date on mandatory vaccinations (hepatitis B and diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis). In private practice, 97.6 % of physicians sort out blunt objects (prickly or sharp), which is quite satisfactory in comparison with only 60.5 % of them who sort out soft wastes and 44.6 % of blunt objects at patient's home. CONCLUSION: Even if physician's blunt objects disposal in private practice and their mandatory vaccination are satisfactory, "standard" precautions, safety equipment use and soft wastes disposal can be improved.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Privada/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Padrões de Prática Médica , Punções/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/virologia
18.
Int Dent J ; 63(4): 196-201, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23879255

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of dental students in a Saudi dental school with recommended infection control protocols. A pilot-tested questionnaire concerning various aspects of infection control practices was distributed to 330 dental students. The response rate was 93.9% (n = 311). About 99% of students recorded the medical history of their patients and 80% were vaccinated against hepatitis B. The highest compliance (100%) with recommended guidelines was reported for wearing gloves and use of a new saliva ejector for each patient. Over 90% of the respondents changed gloves between patients, wore face masks, changed hand instruments, burs and handpieces between patients, used a rubber dam in restorative procedures and discarded sharp objects in special containers. A lower usage rate was reported for changing face masks between patients (81%), disinfecting impression materials (87%) and dental prosthesis (74%) and wearing gowns (57%). Eye glasses and face shield were used by less than one-third of the sample. The majority of students were found to be in compliance with most of the investigated infection control measures. Nevertheless, further education is needed to improve some infection control measures including vaccination for Hepatitis B virus (HBV), wearing eye glasses, gowns and face shields and disinfecting impression materials and dental prostheses.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Resíduos Odontológicos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Masculino , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita , Esterilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 5: 276, 2012 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22676775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSSIs) are one of the major risk factors for blood-borne infections (BBPs) at healthcare facilities. This study examines the current prevalence of NSSIs among housekeeping workers engaged in the handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) at government and private hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, and furthermore, explores strategies for preventing these injuries. FINDINGS: Using a cross-sectional study design, NSSI's and associated protective measures for housekeeping workers throughout hospitals in Shiraz were evaluated from 2009 onwards. Using a questionnaire, data was collected for 92 workers who had engaged directly with BMW. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, student t-test and where appropriate, SPSS version 12. 90.2 % of housekeeping workers were warned of the dangers associated with waste, 87.5 % in government and 93.2 % in private hospitals (P = 0.0444). 83.7 % had attended educational programs on biomedical waste (BMW) management and injury prevention at their hospital in the preceding year. 16.3 % had not been trained in biomedical waste management (P = 0.0379) and 88.9 % had a sufficient supply of safety wear. CONCLUSIONS: NSSIs are a common risk factor for infection among health care workers within hospitals in Iran. For the effective prevention of these injuries, health boards and hospital trusts need to formulate strategies to improve the working conditions of health care workers, discourage the excessive use of injections, and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 77(6): 1079-82, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21963357

RESUMO

Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) represent remarkable occupational risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). Avoiding occupational blood exposure is a basis of prevention of the blood-borne pathogens (BBP). The effectiveness of the prevention strategies depends on the compliance and adherence to the program by healthcare-facility personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate Turkish HCWs' compliance with Universal Precautions (UP). An analytic, cross-sectional, countrywide survey study was performed in hospital settings, (n = 5145) in 30 hospitals in 19 cities. In total, 1726 of the 5143 (33.6%) participants' behaviors were accepted as satisfactory for compliance with UP. The hepatitis knowledge levels of 2,650 (51.5%) participants were found to be satisfactory. In the multivariate analysis, working at a surgical site (P = 0.004), living in a rich region (P = .007) and the existence of a health office for HCWs (p = .000) were found to be contributor factors for HCWs' compliance with UP. Conversely, being a nurse (P = .000) and HBV/HCV carrier status (P = .039) were significant preventing predictors for HCWs' compliance with UP. Along with the other well-known predictive factors, regional economic status and a health office for HCWs are contributors for compliance with UP.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
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