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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1257-1278, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995086

RESUMO

Discute-se, aqui, as contribuições da Psicologia, elaborada por Dante Moreira Leite, importante intelectual e psicólogo brasileiro, para a educação. O objetivo é analisar a crítica social realizada pelo pesquisador, quanto aos seus potenciais e limites, relacionando-a com as principais conclusões da teoria crítica da sociedade, conforme os autores da primeira geração. Constata-se que Dante debate problemas fundamentais da educação nacional, com destaque para seus estudos acerca dos conceitos de ideologia e preconceito, evidenciando que as manifestações de tais conceitos são psicológicas, mas as origens são sociais. Dante elaborou, então, proposições com o intuito de motivar o aluno, mantendo-o na escola e promovendo o seu aprendizado, de melhor preparar o professor, bem como para propugnar medidas pedagógicas, até hoje em discussão. No entanto, nota-se que suas proposições se voltam mais para a adaptação à ordem social vigente do que à crítica dessa ordem.(AU)


Here we discuss the contributions of Psychology to education, as formulated by Dante Moreira Leite, an important Brazilian intellectual and psychologist. Our objective is to analyse the social critique elaborated by this researcher, regarding its potentials and limits, relating it to the main conclusions of critical theory of society, as stablished by the authors of the first generation. Although Dante discusses fundamental problems of national education, here we highlight his studies regarding ideology and prejudice, whose manifestations are psychological, but origins are social. The author makes propositions with the intention of motivating the students, keeping them in school and promoting their apprenticeship, preparing the teacher, also advocating pedagogical measures that are until this day under discussion. However, it is noted that his propositions relate more to adaptation to the current social order than to the criticism of that order.(AU)


Se discute, aquí, las contribuciones de la Psicología para la educación, conforme elaborada por Dante Moreira Leite, importante intelectual y psicólogo brasileño. El objetivo es analizar la crítica social elaborada por el investigador, en cuanto a sus potenciales y límites, relacionándola con las principales conclusiones de la teoría crítica de la sociedad, consonante con los autores de la primera generación. Se constata que Dante debate problemas fundamentales de la educación nacional, con destaque para sus estudios acerca de la ideología y el prejuicio, siendo que sus manifestaciones son psicológicas, pero sus orígenes son sociales. Elabora, entonces, proposiciones con el propósito de motivar al alumno, manteniéndolo en la escuela y promoviendo su aprendizaje, la preparación del profesor, así como propugnar medidas pedagógicas, hasta hoy en discusión. Sin embargo, se nota que sus proposiciones se vuelven más a la adaptación al orden social vigente que a la crítica de ese orden.(AU)


Assuntos
Preconceito/psicologia , Educação , Psicologia
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 7-27, jan.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-999091

RESUMO

A homofobia é um fenômeno relevante que está presente nas relações sociais, por meio de crenças, emoções, ideologias e posicionamentos. Este artigo analisou as diferentes formas de expressões da homofobia a partir de uma postagem no Facebook da página "Quebrando o Tabu" à luz da teoria das representações sociais. As relações intergrupais, presentes no coração da teoria, se constituíram como processos norteadores das discussões. A partir de um vídeo a respeito da homossexualidade foram selecionados 1.592 comentários. Os dados foram analisados pelo software IRAMUTEQ por meio de uma classificação hierárquica descendente que resultou em quatro classes de discursos. A Classe 1 (40%), denominada, "Respeito"; a Classe 2 (22.1%), "Debate político-ideológico"; a Classe 3 (12.9%), "Influência da homossexualidade para as crianças" e; por fim, a Classe 4 (25%), denominada de "Acusação aos homossexuais de deturpação da igreja". Os resultados evidenciaram em todas as classes a existência de conflitos entre grupos; diferenças entre as expressões homofóbicas; um discurso que justificava os posicionamentos por meio dos valores igualitário, além de evidenciar que as expressões contra homossexuais estavam ancoradas em três explicações, a saber, bio-religiosas, ético-morais e psicossociais.(AU)


Homophobia is a relevant phenomenon that is present in social relations, through beliefs, emotions, ideologies, and opinions. This article has analyzed the different forms of homophobic expressions from a post on a fanpage called "Quebrando o tabu" (Breaking taboos) in the light of the Social Representation Theory. The intergroup relations, present in the heart of the theory, guided the discussions. From a video about homosexuality we selected 1.592 comments. The data were analyzed by the software IRAMUTEQ by means of a downward hierarchical classification that resulted in four classes of discourses. Class 1 (40%), named, "Respect"; the Class 2 (22.1%), "the political-ideological debate"; the Class 3 (12.9%), "the Influence of homosexuality on children and; finally, Class 4 (25%), called "Accusing homosexuals of misrepresenting the church." The results evidenced in all the classes the existence of conflicts between groups; differences among the expressions of homofobia; a discourse that justified their opinions by means of equal rights, in addition to showing that the expressions against homosexuals were anchored in three explanations, namely, the bio-religious, ethical-moral and psychosocial.(AU)


La homofobia es un fenómeno relevante que está presente en las relaciones sociales, por medio de creencias, emociones, ideologías y posicionamientos. Este artículo analizó las diferentes formas de expresiones de la homofobia a partir de una entrada en Facebook de la página "Rompiendo el Tabú" a la luz de la teoría de las representaciones sociales. Las relaciones intergrupales, presentes en el corazón de la teoría, se constituyeron como procesos orientadores de las discusiones. A partir de un vídeo acerca de la homosexualidad se seleccionaron 1.592 comentarios. Los datos fueron analizados por el software IRAMUTEQ por medio de una clasificación jerárquica descendente que resultó en cuotro clases de discursos. La Clase 1 (40%), denominada, "Respeto"; la Clase 2 (22.1%), "Debate político-ideológico"; la Clase 3 (12.9%), "Influencia de la homosexualidad para los niños y; por último, la Clase 4 (25%), denominada "Acusación a los homosexuales de tergiversación de la iglesia". Los resultados evidenciaron en todas las clases la existencia de conflictos entre grupos; diferencias entre las expresiones homofóbicas; un discurso que justificaba los posicionamientos por medio de los valores igualitarios, además de evidenciar que las expresiones contra homosexuales estaban ancladas en tres explicaciones, a saber, bio-religiosas, ético-morales y psicosociales.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Psicologia Social , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Rede Social , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897849

RESUMO

Using data from a representative sample of Chinese adults who were surveyed in the Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD), we estimate the effects of neighborhood discrimination towards immigrants from Mainland China on the mental health of Chinese residents in Hong Kong. Contrary to our expectations, discrimination towards immigrants from Mainland China measured at the neighborhood level is not associated with the poor mental health of post-1997 immigrants; instead, a higher level of immigrant discrimination is associated with a lower level of psychological distress for both post-1997 Mainland immigrants and other Chinese residents in Hong Kong. A functional family also appears to be a consistent predictor of better mental health for both groups. Our findings, therefore, suggest that immigrant discrimination can signify a prejudice that leads to social distance or avoidance and that the post-1997 Mainland immigrants do not have extensive contact with other local residents in Hong Kong. Although local residents' discriminatory attitudes may not result in aggressive behaviors that have a negative impact on newcomers' mental health, the social distance between the immigrants and the local residents is still an issue that requires further research and practical attention.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Evol Psychol ; 17(1): 1474704919826851, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739486

RESUMO

Researchers have proposed that intergroup prejudice is partially caused by behavioral immune system mechanisms. Across four studies (total N = 1,849), we used both experimental (pathogen priming) and individual differences (pathogen disgust sensitivity [PDS]) approaches to test whether the behavioral immune system influences prejudice toward immigrants indiscriminately (the generalized out-group prejudice hypothesis) or specifically toward immigrants from a pathogen-rich ecology (the origin-specific out-group prejudice hypothesis). Internal meta-analyses lend some support to both hypotheses. At the experimental level, pathogen primes had no effect on attitudes toward origin-unspecified immigrants or immigrants from a pathogen-rich ecology. At the individual differences level, PDS has a unique negative effect on comfort with immigrants from pathogen-rich ecologies but not on comfort with immigrants from unspecified ecologies. However, pathogen disgust sensitivity was negatively related to the decision to allow entry to both origin-unspecified immigrants and immigrants from a pathogen-rich ecology.


Assuntos
Atitude , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Preconceito/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(1): 80-86, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Implicit prejudice and stereotyping may exist in health care providers automatically without their awareness. These biases can correlate with outcomes that are consequential for the patient. This study examined gynecologic oncology care providers' implicit prejudice and stereotyping toward cervical cancer. METHODS: Members of professional gynecologic oncology organizations were asked to complete two Implicit Association Tests to determine if they implicitly associate cervical cancer with feelings of anger (prejudice) and beliefs about culpability for the disease (stereotypes), compared to ovarian cancer. Linear models and Student t-tests examined average levels of implicit bias and moderators of the implicit bias effects. RESULTS: One-hundred seventy-six (132 female, 43 male, 1 nonresponse; X¯age = 39.18 years, SDage = 10.58 years) providers were recruited and the final sample included 151 participants (93 physicians and 58 nurses, X¯age = 38.93, SDage = 10.59). Gynecologic oncology providers showed significant levels of implicit prejudice, X¯â€¯= 0.17, SD = 0.47, 95% CI: (0.10, 0.25), toward cervical cancer patients. They also showed significant levels of implicit stereotyping of cervical cancer patients, X¯â€¯= 0.15, SD = 0.42, 95% CI: (0.08, 0.21). Whereas physicians did not demonstrate significant levels of implicit bias, nurses demonstrated greater levels of implicit prejudice and implicit stereotyping. Providers without cultural competency/implicit bias training demonstrated greater bias than those who had completed such training (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that gynecologic oncology providers hold implicit biases related to cervical cancer. Interventions may be designed to target specific groups in gynecologic oncology to improve interactions with patients.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Oncologistas/psicologia , Enfermagem Oncológica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
6.
J Gen Psychol ; 146(1): 93-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663512

RESUMO

Fear can be acquired for objects not inherently associated with threat (e.g. birds), and this threat may generalize from prototypical to peripheral category members (e.g. crows vs. penguins). When categorizing people, pervasive stereotypes link Black men to assumed violence and criminality. Faces with Afrocentric features (prototypical) are more often associated with threat and criminality than non-Afrocentric (peripheral) faces regardless of whether the individual is Black or White. In this study, using a priming paradigm, threat associations related to negative racial stereotypes were tested as a vehicle for spreading fear across face-type categories. Results showed more negative than positive judgments for White face targets but only when the prime was primarily non-Afrocentric (i.e. Eurocentric). Black face targets were judged more negatively than positively regardless of prime. This suggests some cognitive processes related to threat generalizations of objects extend to complex social categories.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Generalização (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Percepção Social , Estereotipagem , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Distância Social
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 108, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intersectionality theory focuses on how one's human experiences are constituted by mutually reinforcing interactions between different aspects of one's identities, such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. In this study, we asked: 1) Do associations between intersecting identities (race and sexual orientation) and mental health (depressive symptoms) and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) differ between men and women? and 2) How do single or intersecting self-reports of perceived racial and/or sexual orientation discrimination influence mental health and substance use outcomes for men and women? We compared results of assessing identities versus experiences of discrimination. METHODS: Multivariable regressions were conducted on cross-sectional data from 2315 Black and White college students. Predictors included measures of sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of discrimination. Outcomes included past 2-week depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), past 30-day alcohol use, past 30-day tobacco use, and past 30-day marijuana use. RESULTS: Intersecting identities and experience of discrimination had different associations with outcomes. Among women, self-reporting both forms of discrimination was associated with higher depressive symptoms and substance use. For example, compared to women experiencing no discrimination, women experiencing both forms of discrimination had higher depressive symptoms (B = 3.63, CI = [2.22-5.03]), alcohol use (B = 1.65, CI = [0.56-2.73]), tobacco use (OR = 3.45, CI = [1.97-6.05]), and marijuana use (OR = 3.38, CI = [1.80-6.31]). However, compared to White heterosexual women, White sexual minority women had higher risks for all outcomes (B = 3.16 and CI = [2.03-4.29] for depressive symptoms, B = 1.45 and CI = [0.58-2.32] for alcohol use, OR = 2.21 and CI = [1.32-3.70] for tobacco use, and OR = 3.01 and CI = [1.77-5.12] for marijuana use); while Black sexual minority women had higher tobacco (OR = 2.64, CI = [1.39-5.02]) and marijuana use (OR = 2.81, CI = [1.33-5.92]) only. Compared to White heterosexual men, White sexual minority men had higher depressive symptoms (B = 1.90, CI = [0.52-3.28]) and marijuana use (OR = 2.37, CI = [1.24-4.49]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the deleterious impacts of racial discrimination and sexual orientation discrimination on health, in particular for women. Future studies should distinguish between and jointly assess intersecting social positions (e.g., identities) and processes (e.g., interpersonal experience of discrimination or forms of structural oppression).


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 75-83, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181026

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate stereotypes and prejudices among children and schoolteachers toward overweight/obesity. Two thousand fifty-five 8- to 12-year-olds and their teachers took part in the study. Children’s body mass index, children’s perceptions of overweight/obesity and teachers’ assessment of school adjustment were measured. Students, particularly younger children, ascribed less positive attributes and more negative attributes to fat figures. Furthermore, in a task to assess their behavioral intentions to participate in social and recreational activities according to target’s body size, the fat figure was the least frequently chosen. Teachers reported lower overall school adjustment for overweight/obese students. Both children and teachers showed anti-fat bias. Future research should examine cost-effective interventions to prevent anti-fat bias and to promote healthy school climate


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los estereotipos y prejuicios de los niños y maestros hacia el sobrepeso/obesidad. Dos mil cincuenta y cinco niños de 8 a 12 años y sus profesores participaron en el estudio. Se midió el Índice de Masa Corporal y la percepción hacia el sobrepeso/obesidad en los niños, y la evaluación de ajuste escolar por parte de los profesores. Los escolares, particularmente los más jóvenes, eligieron menos atributos positivos y más negativos para las figuras gruesas. Además, en una tarea para evaluar su disposición a participar en actividades sociales y recreativas en función del tamaño corporal, la figura gruesa fue la elegida con menos frecuencia. Los profesores puntuaron con un menor ajuste escolar a los estudiantes con sobrepeso/obesidad. Futuras investigaciones deberían centrarse en intervenciones de prevención eficaces y en promover un clima escolar saludable


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estereotipagem , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Antropometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Dados
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 18, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing a diagnosis is a complex, iterative process involving patient data gathering, integration and interpretation. Premature closure is a fallacious cognitive tendency of closing the diagnostic process before sufficient data have been gathered. A proposed strategy to minimize premature closure is the use of a checklist to trigger metacognition (the process of monitoring one's own thinking). A number of studies have suggested the effectiveness of this strategy in classroom settings. This qualitative study examined the perception of usability of a metacognitive mnemonic checklist called TWED checklist (where the letter "T = Threat", "W = What if I am wrong? What else?", "E = Evidence" and "D = Dispositional influence") in a real clinical setting. METHOD: Two categories of participants, i.e., medical doctors (n = 11) and final year medical students (Group 1, n = 5; Group 2, n = 10) participated in four separate focus group discussions. Nielsen's 5 dimensions of usability (i.e. learnability, effectiveness, memorability, errors, and satisfaction) and Pentland's narrative network were adapted as the framework to study the usability and the implementation of the checklist in a real clinical setting respectively. RESULTS: Both categories (medical doctors and medical students) of participants found that the TWED checklist was easy to learn and effective in promoting metacognition. For medical student participants, items "T" and "W" were believed to be the two most useful aspects of the checklist, whereas for the doctor participants, it was item "D". Regarding its implementation, item "T" was applied iteratively, items "W" and "E" were applied when the outcomes did not turn out as expected, and item "D" was applied infrequently. The one checkpoint where all four items were applied was after the initial history taking and physical examination had been performed to generate the initial clinical impression. CONCLUSION: A metacognitive checklist aimed to check cognitive errors may be a useful tool that can be implemented in the real clinical setting.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Metacognição , Preconceito/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
10.
Psico USF ; 24(1): 97-108, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-997038

RESUMO

Esta pesquisa objetivou conhecer em que medida os valores humanos se relacionam com as motivações para responder sem preconceito frente à homoparentalidade, tomando como base a Teoria Funcionalista dos Valores Humanos. Contou-se com a participação de 235 estudantes universitários, com idades variando de 18 a 55 anos (M = 24,0, DP = 6,82), a maioria do sexo feminino (57%). Estes responderam à Escala de Motivações para Responder sem Preconceito frente à Homoparentalidade, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos e perguntas demográficas, sendo os dados coletados on-line. Realizaram-se regressões múltiplas, tendo os resultados indicado que as motivações internas para responder sem preconceito foram explicadas pelas subfunções experimentação, suprapessoal, interativa e normativa, enquanto que os valores normativos e de experimentação explicaram as motivações externas. Concluiu-se que os valores podem ser bons preditores das motivações para responder sem preconceito frente à homoparentalidade, principalmente os idealistas, reforçando que pessoas que se pautam por tais valores costumam ser menos preconceituosas. (AU)


This study aimed to know the value correlates of motivations to respond without prejudice to homoparenthood, taking into accounts the Functional Theory of Human Values. Participants were 235 undergraduate students with age ranging from 18 to 55 years old (M = 24.0, SD = 6.82), mostly female (57%). They answered the Motivation to Respond without Prejudice to Homoparenthood Scale, the Basic Values Survey and demographic questions, being the data collected online. Multiple regressions revealed that the internal motivations to respond without prejudice were predicted by excitement, suprapersonal, interactive and normative subfunctions. On other hand, normative and excitement values explained the external motivations. In conclusion, human values can be accurate predictors for motivations to respond without prejudice toward homoparenthood, mainly those idealists, reinforcing that people who are guided by these values tend to be less prejudiced. (AU)


Esta investigación ha tenido como objetivo conocer en qué medida los valores humanos se correlacionan con motivaciones para responder sin prejuicio hacia la homoparentalidad, teniendo en cuenta la Teoría Funcionalista de los Valores Humanos. Los participantes han sido 235 estudiantes universitarios, con edad variando de 18 a 55 años (M = 24.0, DT = 6.82), la mayoría mujeres (57%). Estos contestaron a la Escala de Motivaciones para Responder sin Prejuicio hacia Homoparentalidad, el Cuestionario de los Valores Básicos y preguntas demográficas, siendo el estudio realizado online. Por medio de regresiones múltiples, se ha observado que las motivaciones internas para responder sin prejuicio fueron explicadas por las subfunciones experimentación, suprapersonal, interactiva y normativa, mientras que los valores normativos y de experimentación explicaron las motivaciones externas. Se concluyó que los valores humanos pueden ser buenos predictores de motivaciones para responder sin prejuicio hacia la homoparentalidad, principalmente aquellos idealistas, reforzando que las personas que priorizan estos valores suelen ser menos prejuiciosas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Adoção/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sch Psychol ; 34(2): 233-243, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589311

RESUMO

Bullying victimization related to race or religion is a problem that permeates schools in the United States for minority students. One group of students that are at higher risk for victimization is Sikh American adolescents, which may result from them being stereotyped as foreigners. We used path analysis to examine the relationships among self-reports of (a) wearing religious head coverings, (b) being perceived as a foreigner, (c) victimization (i.e., physical, verbal, and relational), and (d) adjustment outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anxiety related to perceptions of school safety) by Sikh American adolescents. Survey data were collected from 199 Sikh American adolescents from 120 schools in 61 cities in California (54% male, mean age = 14.19 years, SD = 1.86). Results indicated that a large percentage (76.4%) of Sikh American adolescents reported at least one type of victimization during the school year, and victimization appeared to relate to race and religion for many students. Wearing a religious head covering related to Sikh American adolescents' perceptions that they were stereotyped as foreigners, which, in turn, related to verbal and relational victimization (indirect effect = 0.05 and 0.06) but not physical victimization. Being a male predicted more verbal victimization (ß = 0.38). In addition, being perceived as a foreigner was related to higher victimization, which was also related to lower self-esteem and higher depressive and anxious symptoms (indirect effect = -0.05, 0.08, and 0.06, respectively). Implications for school psychologists to reduce victimization and improve school climate for Sikh American students are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vestuário/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Religião , Ajustamento Social , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , California/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Preconceito/etnologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Obes Facts ; 11(6): 501-513, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated whether treatment options for episodic tension-type headache vary among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark depending on the patients' weight status and gender, and whether these decisions can be explained by the GPs' own anti-fat bias and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study with responses from 240 GPs on measures of anti-fat bias, healthiness of GPs' lifestyles, and reported patient treatment decisions. RESULTS: GPs tended to exhibit negative explicit and implicit anti-fat bias. There were no differences in choice of medical treatment for patients with obesity and those of a normal weight. GPs were more likely to advise a general health check to a patient with obesity (p < 0.001). GPs treating a male patient with obesity were less likely to believe that their patient would comply with the advised treatment compared to those with a male patient of normal weight. Compared with other patient types (4.4-7.7%), GPs who treated a male patient with obesity (27.9%) were more likely to advise a general health check only and no diary-keeping or follow-up consultation (p < 0.001). This was explained by the healthiness of the GPs' lifestyles (Spearman's ρ = 0.367; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the presence of clear anti-fat bias, there were no differences in medical treatment, and GPs managed the general health of patients with obesity proactively. The fact that the GPs' own lifestyle influenced the likelihood that they would recommend diary-keeping and follow-up consultations for male patients with obesity is remarkable and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Preconceito , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/complicações , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ ; 363: k4926, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report woman physicians' experiences, in their own words, of discrimination based on their role as a mother. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of physician mothers' free-text responses to the open question: "We want to hear your story and experience. Please share" included in questions about workplace discrimination. Three analysts iteratively formulated a structured codebook, then applied codes after inter-coder reliability scores indicated high concordance. The relationships among themes and sub-themes were organized into a conceptual model illustrated by exemplary quotes. PARTICIPANTS: Respondents to an anonymous, voluntary online survey about the health and wellbeing of physician mothers posted on a Facebook group, the Physician Moms Group, an online community of US physicians who identify as mothers. RESULTS: We analyzed 947 free-text responses. Participants provide diverse and vivid descriptions of experiences of maternal discrimination. Gendered job expectations, financial inequalities (including lower pay than equally qualified colleagues and more unpaid work), limited opportunities for advancement, lack of support during the pregnancy and postpartum period, and challenging work-life balance are some of the key themes identified. In addition, participants' quotes show several potential structural drivers of maternal discrimination and describe the downstream consequences of maternal discrimination on the physician herself, her career, family, and the healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a view of maternal discrimination directly from the perspective of those who experience it. Women physicians report a range of previously uncharacterized ways in which they experience maternal discrimination. While certain aspects of these experiences are consistent with those reported by women across other professions, there are unique aspects of medical training and the medical profession that perpetuate maternal discrimination.


Assuntos
Mães , Saúde do Trabalhador , Médicas , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Preconceito/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(39): 9696-9701, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201708

RESUMO

Disparities in outcomes across social groups pervade human societies and are of central interest to the social sciences. How people treat others is known to depend on a multitude of factors (e.g., others' gender, ethnicity, appearance) even when these should be irrelevant. However, despite substantial progress, much remains unknown regarding (i) the set of mechanisms shaping people's behavior toward members of different social groups and (ii) the extent to which these mechanisms can explain the structure of existing societal disparities. Here, we show in a set of experiments the important interplay between social perception and social valuation processes in explaining how people treat members of different social groups. Building on the idea that stereotypes can be organized onto basic, underlying dimensions, we first found using laboratory economic games that quantitative variation in stereotypes about different groups' warmth and competence translated meaningfully into resource allocation behavior toward those groups. Computational modeling further revealed that these effects operated via the interaction of social perception and social valuation processes, with warmth and competence exerting diverging effects on participants' preferences for equitable distributions of resources. This framework successfully predicted behavior toward members of a diverse set of social groups across samples and successfully generalized to predict societal disparities documented in labor and education settings with substantial precision and accuracy. Together, these results highlight a common set of mechanisms linking social group information to social treatment and show how preexisting, societally shared assumptions about different social groups can produce and reinforce societal disparities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Economia Comportamental , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito/psicologia , Psicologia Social , Identificação Social , Percepção Social , Estereotipagem
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 190: 200-208, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are prevalent among people who inject heroin (PWIH). Delays in seeking health care lead to increased costs and potential mortality, yet the barriers to accessing care among PWIHs are poorly understood. METHODS: We administered a quantitative survey (N = 145) and conducted qualitative interviews (N = 12) with PWIH seeking syringe exchange services in two U.S. cities. RESULTS: 66% of participants had experienced at least one SSTI. 38% reported waiting two weeks or more to seek care, and 57% reported leaving the hospital against medical advice. 54% reported undergoing a drainage procedure performed by a non-medical professional, and 32% reported taking antibiotics that were not prescribed to them. Two of the most common reasons for these behaviors were fear of withdrawal symptoms and inadequate pain control, and these reasons emerged as prominent themes in the qualitative findings. These issues are often predicated on previous negative experiences and exacerbated by stigma and an asymmetrical power dynamic with providers, resulting in perceived barriers to seeking and completing care for SSTIs. CONCLUSIONS: For PWIH, unaddressed pain and withdrawal symptoms contribute to profoundly negative health care experiences, which then generate motivation for delaying care SSTI seeking and for discharge against medical advice. Health care providers and hospitals should develop policies to improve pain control, manage opioid withdrawal, minimize prejudice and stigma, and optimize communication with PWIH. These barriers should also be addressed by providing medical care in accessible and acceptable venues, such as safe injection facilities, street outreach, and other harm reduction venues.


Assuntos
Heroína , Dor/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/psicologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Abscesso/psicologia , Abscesso/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Preconceito/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/terapia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947478

RESUMO

Suicide rates are higher in those who identify as transgender or gender nonconforming (TGNC) compared to the overall population. Suicide risk factors include discrimination, family rejection, internalized transphobia, and being denied appropriate bathroom or housing access. It is important to assess the risk of suicide among transgender and gender-nonconforming patients and discuss past experiences of prejudice or maltreatment to prevent further victimization. This narrative review includes the most pertinent literature from the past 17 years on issues related to suicide among individuals who identify as TGNC. ​.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Humanos
18.
Vaccine ; 36(25): 3606-3612, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as a major global health threat. Having access to any type of information in social media has been suggested as a potential influence on the growth of anti-vaccination groups. Recent studies w.r.t. other topics than vaccination show that access to a wide amount of content through the Internet without intermediaries resolved into major segregation of the users in polarized groups. Users select information adhering to theirs system of beliefs and tend to ignore dissenting information. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to assess whether users' attitudes are polarized on the topic of vaccination on Facebook and how this polarization develops over time. METHODS: We perform a thorough quantitative analysis by studying the interaction of 2.6 M users with 298,018 Facebook posts over a time span of seven years and 5 months. We applied community detection algorithms to automatically detect the emergence of communities accounting for the users' activity on the pages. Also, we quantified the cohesiveness of these communities over time. RESULTS: Our findings show that the consumption of content about vaccines is dominated by the echo chamber effect and that polarization increased over the years. Well-segregated communities emerge from the users' consumption habits i.e., the majority of users consume information in favor or against vaccines, not both. CONCLUSION: The existence of echo chambers may explain why social-media campaigns that provide accurate information have limited reach and be effective only in sub-groups, even fomenting further opinion polarization. The introduction of dissenting information into a sub-group is disregarded and can produce a backfire effect, thus reinforcing the pre-existing opinions within the sub-group. Public health professionals should try to understand the contents of these echo chambers, for example by getting passively involved in such groups. Only then it will be possible to find effective ways of countering anti-vaccination thinking.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Comunicação , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Políticas de Controle Social/organização & administração , Rede Social , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(5): 1507-1520, 2018 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768605

RESUMO

Obese individuals are often blamed for their own condition and the targets of discrimination and prejudice. The scope of this study is to describe the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese and the validation of the Antifat Attitudes Test - specifically developed for evaluation of negative attitudes toward the obese individual. The scale has 34 statements distributed in three subscales - Social/Character Disparagement (15 items), Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness (10 items) and Weight Control/Blame (9 items). The method involved the translation of the scale; evaluation of the conceptual, operational and item equivalence; evaluation of the semantic equivalence using the paired t test, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); internal consistency evaluation (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (ICC) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis - after application in 340 college students in the area of health. The results showed good global internal consistency and reliability (α 0.85; CCI 0.83), and factor analysis showed that the original subscales can be kept in the adaptation, and therefore the scale adapted to the Brazilian-Portuguese version is valid and useful in studies to explore negative attitudes toward obese individuals.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comparação Transcultural , Obesidade/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
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