Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 888
Filtrar
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14521, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267238

RESUMO

Home advantage in professional sports is a widely accepted phenomenon despite the lack of any controlled experiments at the professional level. The return to play of professional sports during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to analyze the hypothesized effect of home advantage in neutral settings. While recent work has examined the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage in European football, comparatively few studies have examined the effect of restrictions in the North American professional sports leagues. In this work, we infer the effect of and changes in home advantage prior to and during COVID-19 in the professional North American leagues for hockey, basketball, baseball, and American football. We propose a Bayesian multi-level regression model that infers the effect of home advantage while accounting for relative team strengths. We also demonstrate that the Negative Binomial distribution is the most appropriate likelihood to use in modelling North American sports leagues as they are prone to overdispersion in their points scored. Our model gives strong evidence that home advantage was negatively impacted in the NHL and NBA during their strongly restricted COVID-19 playoffs, while the MLB and NFL showed little to no change during their weakly restricted COVID-19 seasons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Volta ao Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/psicologia , América do Norte , Pandemias , Preconceito/psicologia , Volta ao Esporte/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Esportes de Equipe
3.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(4): 541-554, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242598

RESUMO

Surgical education requires proficiency with multiple types of learning to create capable surgeons. This article reviews a conceptual framework of learning that starts with the biological basis of learning and how neural networks encode memory. We then focus on how information can be absorbed, organized, and recalled, discussing concepts such as cognitive load, knowledge retrieval, and adult learning. Influences on memory and learning such as stress, sleep, and unconscious bias are explored. This overview of the biological and psychological aspects to learning provides a foundation for the articles to follow.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos
4.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 435-451, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251994

RESUMO

The research presented here examined the relationship between the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social group identity, intergroup contact, and prejudice. Utilizing a common ingroup identity approach, two datasets, which were composed of data from university students collected via online questionnaires before and after the onset of COVID-19, were combined (N = 511). Participants identified as either one of two subordinate student identities: domestic (i.e. U.S. citizen or permanent resident) or international (i.e. non-U.S. citizen or foreign resident), then reported on the strength of their subordinate and superordinate identity (university identity). Participants also reported on their contact experiences with outgroup members, outgroup stereotypes, and completed a novel intergroup bias task. Results indicated that after the onset of the pandemic, participants more strongly identified with the superordinate group, which predicted greater perceived intergroup contact and lower intergroup bias. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Preconceito/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Psychoanal ; 81(2): 137-154, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953317

RESUMO

Escaping Nazi annexation of Austria, Sigmund Freud and his family left there in 1938 to live the rest of their lives in exile in the house now known as the Freud Museum in London. This paper is based upon the author's Holocaust Day Memorial Lecture delivered virtually at this museum on January 27, 2021, which marked the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp. Besides remembering those who were lost during World War II, the content of this paper includes a description of different types of massive traumas, with a focus on disasters at the hand of the Other, and their impact on individuals and large groups. Sigmund Freud's ideas about relationships between communities and countries with adjoining territories, as well as large-group psychology, are updated, and individuals' and large groups' needs to grasp onto large-group identities is explained and illustrated with case reports.


Assuntos
Trauma Histórico , Holocausto , Preconceito , Psicanálise , Identificação Social , Anomia (Social) , COVID-19/psicologia , Trauma Histórico/etnologia , Trauma Histórico/história , Trauma Histórico/psicologia , História do Século XX , Holocausto/prevenção & controle , Holocausto/psicologia , Humanos , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Preconceito/psicologia , Psicanálise/ética , Psicanálise/história , Psicologia Social
6.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 477-491, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906584

RESUMO

What mitigates prejudice against migrants in situations of uncertainty? Addressing this question, we explored how individuals with greater COVID-19 concern perceive migrants as a greater threat and show prejudice against them, indirectly through the mechanism of need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations.This study was conducted in two European countries: Malta and Italy. Six hundred and seventy-six individuals participated in this quantitative study (Malta: N = 204; Italy N = 472). Results from this study showed that the need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations mediate the relationship between COVID-19 concern and prejudice against migrants in both countries. When testing the three binding moral foundations (loyalty, authority, and purity), the authority foundation seems to be the most consistent predictor.The implications of the findings contribute to theories about how situational uncertainty caused by COVID-19, together with the need for epistemic certainty and binding morality, contribute to increased prejudiced attitudes against migrants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Preconceito/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Malta , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. psicanal ; 28(1): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/830, Abril 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254385

RESUMO

O presente trabalho propõe o estudo de alguns aspectos relacionados aos preconceitos e ao pensamento fanático, partindo da descrição do "duplipensar" feita por George Orwell em seu livro 1984. Assim, o trabalho se detém no vértice que estuda esses fenômenos do ponto de vista de distúrbios nos processos de pensamento, destacando a dificuldade em estabelecer causas específicas. A importância dos fatores sócio-culturais é discutida, na medida em que não existimos isoladamente. Da mesma forma, a presença desses fenômenos nas instituições psicanalíticas também é abordada, concluindo com alguns tópicos para futuras discussões sobre o tema (AU)


This work proposes to study some aspects related to prejudices and fanatical thinking, having as a starting point the description of "doublethinking" made by George Orwell in his book 1984. The essay therefore focuses on the authors that study these phenomena from the point of view of abnormalities in the thought processes, highlighting the difficulty in establishing specific causes. The importance of socio-cultural factors is discussed, as we do not exist in isolation. Likewise, the presence of these phenomena in psychoanalytic institutions is also addressed, concluding with some topics for future discussions (AU)


El presente trabajo propone el estudio de algunos aspectos relacionados con los prejuicios y el pensamiento fanático, a partir de la descripción del doblepensar hecha por George Orwell en su libro 1984. Así, el trabajo se detiene en el vértice que estudia estos fenómenos desde el punto de vista de las perturbaciones en los procesos de pensamiento, destacando la dificultad para establecer causas específicas. Se discute la importancia de los factores socioculturales, ya que no existimos de forma aislada. Asimismo, se aborda también la presencia de estos fenómenos en las instituciones psicoanalíticas, concluyendo con algunos temas para futuras discusiones sobre la cuestión (AU)


Assuntos
Preconceito/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Fatores Culturais , Manobras Políticas
9.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 8-11, mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202041

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer e interpretar las experiencias y los significados que las personas mayores que viven en comunidad atribuyen al envejecimiento satisfactorio. MÉTODO: Investigación cualitativa, con enfoque hermenéutico dialéctico de George Gadamer, realizada en zona metropolitana de Uruguay, años 2015-2016; participaron 23 personas mayores. RESULTADOS: se identificaron las categorías conciencia histórica con tres subcategorías: familia, sociedad y estado en el que vivimos, y categoría carga de la tradición con dos subcategorías: juicios y límites. CONCLUSIONES: se logró conocer las percepciones sobre envejecimiento satisfactorio desde las vivencias de personas mayores, enfatizando en las relaciones familiares como pilar fundamental de sostén para mantenerse activos y saludables. Es importante la promoción de la salud. Las personas mayores tienen un cuerpo que sufre dolencias; manteniéndose en actividad, son personas con salud mental, ya que ellos manifiestan que mientras la mente anda, todo puede salir bien. La expectativa se centra en ser resiliente, siendo este el punto principal de seguir día a día en el camino


OBJECTIVE: To know and interpret the experiences and meanings attributed by elderly people living in community to satisfactory aging. METHOD: qualitative research, with a dialectical hermeneutic approach by George Gadamer, carried out in the metropolitan area of Uruguay, 2015-2016; 23 elderly people participated. RESULTS: categories were identified: historical awareness with three subcategories: family, society and state in which we live; another category carries the tradition with two subcategories: judgments and limits. CONCLUSIONS: it was possible to know the perceptions of successful aging from the experiences of older people, emphasizing family relationships as a fundamental pillar of support to stay active and healthy; health promotion is important, older people have a body that suffers ailments, staying active, they are people with mental health, since they referenced that while the mind walks everything can go well. The expectation is focused on being resilient, this being the main point to follow day by day along the way


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica , Rememoração Mental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Institucionalizada , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 467, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive, implemented lockdowns, curfew, banning of both private and public transport systems, and mass gatherings to minimize spread. Social control measures for COVID-19 are reported to increase violence and discrimination globally, including in Uganda as some may be difficult to implement resulting in the heavy deployment of law enforcement. Media reports indicated that cases of violence and discrimination had increased in Uganda's communities following the lockdown. We estimated the incidence and factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown to inform control and prevention measures. METHODS: In April 2020, we conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data under the International Citizen Project (ICP) to assess adherence to public health measures and their impact on the COVID-19 outbreak in Uganda. We analyzed data on violence and discrimination from the ICP study. We performed descriptive statistics for all the participants' characteristics and created a binary outcome variable called experiencing violence and/or discrimination. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination. RESULTS: Of the 1726 ICP study participants, 1051 (58.8%) were males, 841 (48.7%) were currently living with a spouse or partner, and 376 (21.8%) had physically attended work for more than 3 days in the past week. Overall, 145 (8.4%) experienced any form of violence and/or discrimination by any perpetrator, and 46 (31.7%) of the 145 reported that it was perpetrated by a law enforcement officer. Factors associated with experiencing violence or discrimination were: being male (AOR = 1.60 CI:1.10-2.33), having attended work physically for more than 3 days in the past week (AOR = 1.52 CI:1.03-2.23), and inability to access social or essential health services since the epidemic started (AOR = 3.10 CI:2.14-4.50). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of Ugandan residents experienced violence and/or discrimination during the COVID-19 lockdown, mostly perpetrated by law enforcement officers. We recommend mitigation of the collateral impact of lockdowns with interventions that focus on improving policing quality, ensuring continuity of essential services, and strengthening support systems for vulnerable groups including males.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544735

RESUMO

Intergroup relations theory posits that cross-group friendship reduces threat perceptions and negative emotions about outgroups. This has been argued to mitigate the negative effects of ethnic diversity on generalized trust. Yet, direct tests of this friendship-trust relation, especially including perceptions of threat and negative affect as mediators, have remained rare at the individual level. In this article, we bridge this research gap using representative data from eight European countries (Group-Focused Enmity). We employ structural equation modelling (SEM) to model mediated paths of cross-group friendship on generalized trust via perceptions of threat and negative affect. We find that both the total effect as well as the (mediated) total indirect effect of cross-group friendship on generalized trust are weak when compared with similar paths estimated for prejudice.


Assuntos
Amigos/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Percepção
14.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117742, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454405

RESUMO

Scientific research aims to bring forward innovative ideas and constantly challenges existing knowledge structures and stereotypes. However, women, ethnic and cultural minorities, as well as individuals with disabilities, are systematically discriminated against or even excluded from promotions, publications, and general visibility. A more diverse workforce is more productive, and thus discrimination has a negative impact on science and the wider society, as well as on the education, careers, and well-being of individuals who are discriminated against. Moreover, the lack of diversity at scientific gatherings can lead to micro-aggressions or harassment, making such meetings unpleasant, or even unsafe environments for early career and underrepresented scientists. At the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM), we recognized the need for promoting underrepresented scientists and creating diverse role models in the field of neuroimaging. To foster this, the OHBM has created a Diversity and Inclusivity Committee (DIC). In this article, we review the composition and activities of the DIC that have promoted diversity within OHBM, in order to inspire other organizations to implement similar initiatives. Activities of the committee over the past four years have included (a) creating a code of conduct, (b) providing diversity and inclusivity education for OHBM members, (c) organizing interviews and symposia on diversity issues, and (d) organizing family-friendly activities and providing childcare grants during the OHBM annual meetings. We strongly believe that these activities have brought positive change within the wider OHBM community, improving inclusivity and fostering diversity while promoting rigorous, ground-breaking science. These positive changes could not have been so rapidly implemented without the enthusiastic support from the leadership, including OHBM Council and Program Committee, and the OHBM Special Interest Groups (SIGs), namely the Open Science, Student and Postdoc, and Brain-Art SIGs. Nevertheless, there remains ample room for improvement, in all areas, and even more so in the area of targeted attempts to increase inclusivity for women, individuals with disabilities, members of the LGBTQ+ community, racial/ethnic minorities, and individuals of lower socioeconomic status or from low and middle-income countries. Here, we present an overview of the DIC's composition, its activities, future directions and challenges. Our goal is to share our experiences with a wider audience to provide information to other organizations and institutions wishing to implement similar comprehensive diversity initiatives. We propose that scientific organizations can push the boundaries of scientific progress only by moving beyond existing power structures and by integrating principles of equity and inclusivity in their core values.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Diversidade Cultural , Preconceito/etnologia , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Científicas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/tendências , Mapeamento Encefálico/tendências , Criatividade , Pessoas com Deficiência , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Sociedades Científicas/tendências
15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12196, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure. CONCLUSIONS: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 36, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective treatment has extended the life expectancy and reduced disability in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, previous research has found 45-65% of working-age PLWH were unemployed compared to 5-10% in the general public of North America and Europe. We examined the barriers to gaining employment among PLWH. METHODS: Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted in person or over the phone with PLWH living in Toronto or Ottawa. This included PLWH who were unemployed but actively seeking employment, as well as PLWH who had successfully gained employment through an agency that specifically supported PLWH funded by the AIDS Committee of Toronto. Interviews were conducted between February 2019 and March 2020. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The majority of participants were between the ages of 40-55 and identified as male. Participants shared many common barriers when describing their attempts to attain or maintain employment. Although varying in employment status at the time of the study, consistent barriers included experiencing HIV stigma in workplaces, challenges overcoming mental health illnesses, and difficulties in navigating social assistance and unemployment insurance programs when pursuing a return to work. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH face significant barriers when attempting to engage with employment opportunities. Health providers and organizations can do more to support campaigns to end HIV stigma, to support individuals in pursuing employment, and to advocate for policy change that supports reentry into the workforce for PLHA.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Estigma Social , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(2): 418-442, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700961

RESUMO

We investigated the dynamics of naturally increasing contact opportunities, frequencies of positive and negative intergroup contact experiences, and prejudice toward forced migrants, in 2 three-wave longitudinal studies (Study 1, N = 183, adult community sample; Study 2, N = 758, nation-wide adult probability sample) in Germany using latent growth curve and parallel process analyses. We examined (research question 1) whether prejudice increases or decreases with increased contact opportunities; (research question 2) whether the rate of change in prejudice is related to the rate of change of positive/negative contact; (research question 3) whether the trajectories of change in prejudice shift as a function of the histories of prior positive/negative contact; and (research question 4) whether the rate of change in positive/negative contact frequencies depends on prior prejudice levels. Across both studies, prejudice increased with increased contact opportunities, as did positive and negative contact frequencies (ad research question 1). Whereas changes in negative contact were significantly related to changes in prejudice in both studies, no such relationships emerged as significant for positive contact (ad research question 2). We did not find any supportive evidence for our research questions 3 and 4. Overall, our results demonstrate that increased contact opportunities can contribute to increases in prejudice. Moreover, they indicate that the trajectories of negative contact and prejudice may be more substantially intertwined than the trajectories of positive contact and prejudice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Preconceito/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Migrantes
18.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(1): 11-17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination is associated with chronic pain and depression and contributes to racial health disparities. In a cohort of older adult veterans with osteoarthritis (OA), our objective was to examine how membership in multiple socially disadvantaged groups (cumulative disadvantage) was associated with perceived discrimination, pain, and depression. We also tested whether perceived discrimination mediated the association of cumulative disadvantage with depression and pain. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from 270 African American veterans and 247 White veterans enrolled in a randomized controlled trial testing a psychological intervention for chronic pain at 2 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants were age ≥50 years and self-reported symptomatic knee OA. Measures included the Everyday Discrimination Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale, and demographic variables. Cumulative disadvantage was defined as the number of socially disadvantaged groups to which each participant belonged (i.e., self-reported female sex, African American race, annual income of <$20,000, and/or unemployed due to disability). We used linear regression models and Sobel's test of mediation to examine hypotheses. RESULTS: The mean ± SD number of social disadvantages was 1.3 ± 1.0. Cumulative disadvantage was significantly associated with higher perceived discrimination, pain, and depression (P < 0.001 for all). Perceived discrimination significantly mediated the association between cumulative disadvantage and depression symptoms (Z = 3.75, P < 0.001) as well as pain severity (Z = 2.24, P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Perceived discrimination is an important psychosocial stressor that contributes to worsening OA-related mental and physical health outcomes, with greater effects among those from multiple socially disadvantaged groups.


Assuntos
Artralgia/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Saúde dos Veteranos , Veteranos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etnologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etnologia , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Preconceito/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Sexismo/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(1): 106-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415531

RESUMO

Are implicit and explicit biases related to ASD identification and/or stigma? College students (N = 493) completed two IATs assessing implicit stigma and racial biases. They evaluated vignettes depicting a child with ASD or conduct disorder (CD) paired with a photo of a Black or White child. CD was more implicitly and explicitly stigmatized than ASD. Accurately identifying ASD was associated with reduced explicit stigma; identifying CD led to more stigma. Participants who identified as White implicitly associated the White child with ASD and the Black child with CD. A trend in the reverse direction was observed among Black participants. Implicit and explicit biases were unrelated. Findings highlight a need for trainings to ameliorate biases favoring one's in-group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Racismo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...