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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4766, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958778

RESUMO

Germline telomere maintenance defects are associated with an increased incidence of inflammatory diseases in humans, yet whether and how telomere dysfunction causes inflammation are not known. Here, we show that telomere dysfunction drives pATM/c-ABL-mediated activation of the YAP1 transcription factor, up-regulating the major pro-inflammatory factor, pro-IL-18. The colonic microbiome stimulates cytosolic receptors activating caspase-1 which cleaves pro-IL-18 into mature IL-18, leading to recruitment of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells and intestinal inflammation. Correspondingly, patients with germline telomere maintenance defects exhibit DNA damage (γH2AX) signaling together with elevated YAP1 and IL-18 expression. In mice with telomere dysfunction, telomerase reactivation in the intestinal epithelium or pharmacological inhibition of ATM, YAP1, or caspase-1 as well as antibiotic treatment, dramatically reduces IL-18 and intestinal inflammation. Thus, telomere dysfunction-induced activation of the ATM-YAP1-pro-IL-18 pathway in epithelium is a key instigator of tissue inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Fosforilação , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3929, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764559

RESUMO

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that impairs surfactant homeostasis and manifests as lethal respiratory distress. A compelling argument exists for gene therapy to treat this disease, as de novo protein synthesis of SP-B in alveolar type 2 epithelial cells is required for proper surfactant production. Here we report a rationally designed adeno-associated virus (AAV) 6 capsid that demonstrates efficiency in lung epithelial cell transduction based on imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Intratracheal administration of this vector delivering murine or human proSFTPB cDNA into SP-B deficient mice restores surfactant homeostasis, prevents lung injury, and improves lung physiology. Untreated SP-B deficient mice develop fatal respiratory distress within two days. Gene therapy results in an improvement in median survival to greater than 200 days. This vector also transduces human lung tissue, demonstrating its potential for clinical translation against this lethal disease.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Parvovirinae/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/congênito , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/deficiência , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Proteolipídeos/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/terapia , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/genética , Transdução Genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559248

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S mutants in liver tissues or blood have been regarded as a high-risk population for HCC development and recurrence. Detection of pre-S mutants in clinical specimens is thus important for early diagnosis and prognosis of HCC to improve patient survival. Recently, we have developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based platform that can quantitatively detect pre-S mutants in patient plasma with superior sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, we compared the pre-S genotyping results from plasma by the NGS-based analysis with those from liver tissues by the immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based analysis in 30 HBV-related HCC patients. We demonstrated that the detection rate of pre-S mutants was significantly higher by NGS- than by IHC-based analysis. There was a moderate to good agreement between both analyses in detection of pre-S mutants. Compared with the IHC, the NGS-based detection of pre-S mutants in patient plasma could determine the patterns of pre-S mutants in liver tissues more efficiently in a noninvasive manner. Our data suggest that the NGS-based platform may represent a promising approach for detection of pre-S mutants as biomarkers of HBV-related HCC in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 96-108, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487735

RESUMO

In the mid-1970s, an intense race to identify endogenous substances that activated the same receptors as opiates resulted in the identification of the first endogenous opioid peptides. Since then, >20 peptides with opioid receptor activity have been discovered, all of which are generated from three precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and proopiomelanocortin, by sequential proteolytic processing by prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. Each of these peptides binds to all three of the opioid receptor types (µ, δ, or κ), albeit with differing affinities. Peptides derived from proenkephalin and prodynorphin are broadly distributed in the brain, and mRNA encoding all three precursors are highly expressed in some peripheral tissues. Various approaches have been used to explore the functions of the opioid peptides in specific behaviors and brain circuits. These methods include directly administering the peptides ex vivo (i.e., to excised tissue) or in vivo (in animals), using antagonists of opioid receptors to infer endogenous peptide activity, and genetic knockout of opioid peptide precursors. Collectively, these studies add to our current understanding of the function of endogenous opioids, especially when similar results are found using different approaches. We briefly review the history of identification of opioid peptides, highlight the major findings, address several myths that are widely accepted but not supported by recent data, and discuss unanswered questions and future directions for research. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Activation of the opioid receptors by opiates and synthetic drugs leads to central and peripheral biological effects, including analgesia and respiratory depression, but these may not be the primary functions of the endogenous opioid peptides. Instead, the opioid peptides play complex and overlapping roles in a variety of systems, including reward pathways, and an important direction for research is the delineation of the role of individual peptides.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Opioides/genética , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidase H/metabolismo , Encefalinas/química , Encefalinas/genética , Humanos , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/química , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertases/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/química , Precursores de Proteínas/genética
5.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E163-E174, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459523

RESUMO

Myostatin inhibition is thought to improve whole body insulin sensitivity and mitigate the development of insulin resistance in models of obesity. However, although myostatin is known to be a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass, the direct effects of myostatin inhibition in muscle on glucose uptake and the mechanisms that may underlie this are still unclear. We investigated the effect of local myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of the myostatin propeptide on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose disposal in chow-fed or high fat diet-fed mice and evaluated the molecular pathways that might mediate this. We found that myostatin inhibition improved glucose disposal in obese high fat diet-fed mice alongside the induction of muscle hypertrophy but did not have an impact in chow-fed mice. This improvement was not associated with greater glucose transporter or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression or 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation as previously suggested. Instead, transcriptomic analysis suggested that the improvement in glucose disposal was associated with significant enrichment in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and translation of mitochondrial genes. Thus, myostatin inhibition improves muscle insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in obese high fat diet-fed mice independent of muscle hypertrophy, potentially involving previously unidentified pathways.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Animais , Dependovirus/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Mitocondriais , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipertrofia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miostatina/antagonistas & inibidores , Miostatina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transfecção
6.
Nature ; 580(7803): 376-380, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296182

RESUMO

Mechanosensory feedback from the digestive tract to the brain is critical for limiting excessive food and water intake, but the underlying gut-brain communication pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood1-12. Here we show that, in mice, neurons in the parabrachial nucleus that express the prodynorphin gene (hereafter, PBPdyn neurons) monitor the intake of both fluids and solids, using mechanosensory signals that arise from the upper digestive tract. Most individual PBPdyn neurons are activated by ingestion as well as the stimulation of the mouth and stomach, which indicates the representation of integrated sensory signals across distinct parts of the digestive tract. PBPdyn neurons are anatomically connected to the digestive periphery via cranial and spinal pathways; we show that, among these pathways, the vagus nerve conveys stomach-distension signals to PBPdyn neurons. Upon receipt of these signals, these neurons produce aversive and sustained appetite-suppressing signals, which discourages the initiation of feeding and drinking (fully recapitulating the symptoms of gastric distension) in part via signalling to the paraventricular hypothalamus. By contrast, inhibiting the same population of PBPdyn neurons induces overconsumption only if a drive for ingestion exists, which confirms that these neurons mediate negative feedback signalling. Our findings reveal a neural mechanism that underlies the mechanosensory monitoring of ingestion and negative feedback control of intake behaviours upon distension of the digestive tract.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Retroalimentação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Encefalinas/genética , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/fisiologia
7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(6): E901-E919, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286880

RESUMO

Lack of GABAB receptors in GABAB1 knockout mice decreases neonatal ARC kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) in females, which show impaired reproduction as adults. Our aim was to selectively impair GABAB signaling during a short postnatal period to evaluate its impact on the reproductive system. Neonatal male and female mice were injected with the GABAB antagonist CGP 55845 (CGP, 1 mg/kg body wt sc) or saline from postnatal day 2 (PND2) to PND6, three times per day (8 AM, 1 PM, and 6 PM). One group was killed on PND6 for collection of blood samples (hormones by radioimmunoassay), brains for gene expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus-periventricular nucleus continuum (AVPV/PeN), and ARC micropunches [quantitative PCR (qPCR)] and gonads for qPCR, hormone contents, and histology. A second group of mice was injected with CGP (1 mg/kg body wt sc) or saline from PND2 to PND6, three times per day (8 AM, 1 PM, and 6 PM), and left to grow to adulthood. We measured body weight during development and parameters of sexual differentiation, puberty onset, and estrous cycles. Adult mice were killed, and trunk blood (hormones), brains for qPCR, and gonads for qPCR and hormone contents were obtained. Our most important findings on PND6 include the CGP-induced decrease in ARC Kiss1 and increase in neurokinin B (Tac2) in both sexes; the decrease in AVPV/PeN tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) only in females; the increase in gonad estradiol content in both sexes; and the increase in primordial follicles and decrease in primary and secondary follicles. Neonatally CGP-treated adults showed decreased ARC Kiss1 and ARC gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh1) and increased ARC glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1) only in males; increased ARC GABAB receptor subunit 1 (Gabbr1) in both sexes; and decreased AVPV/PeN Th only in females. We demonstrate that ARC Kiss1 expression is chronically downregulated in males and that the normal sex difference in AVPV/PeN Th expression is abolished. In conclusion, neonatal GABAergic input through GABAB receptors shapes gene expression of factors critical to reproduction.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Hipotálamo Anterior/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-B/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ácidos Fosfínicos/farmacologia , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Puberdade/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Taquicininas/genética , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
8.
J Virol ; 94(11)2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213612

RESUMO

The structural protein Gag is the only viral component required for retroviral budding from infected cells. Each of the three conserved domains-the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) domains-drives different phases of viral particle assembly and egress. Once virus assembly is complete, retroviruses, like most enveloped viruses, utilize host proteins to catalyze membrane fission and to free progeny virions. These proteins are members of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), a cellular machinery that coats the inside of budding necks to perform membrane-modeling events necessary for particle abscission. The ESCRT is recruited through interactions with PTAP and LYPXnL, two highly conserved sequences named late (L) domains, which bind TSG101 and Alix, respectively. A TSG101-binding L-domain was identified in the p2 region of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Gag protein. Here, we show that the human protein Alix stimulates the release of virus from FIV-expressing human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Alix Bro1 domain rescues FIV mutants lacking a functional TSG101-interacting motif, independently of the entire p2 region and of the canonical Alix-binding L-domain(s) in FIV Gag. However, in contrast to the effect on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the C377,409S double mutation, which disrupts both CCHC zinc fingers in the NC domain, does not abrogate Alix-mediated virus rescue. These studies provide insight into conserved and divergent mechanisms of lentivirus-host interactions involved in virus budding.IMPORTANCE FIV is a nonprimate lentivirus that infects domestic cats and causes a syndrome that is reminiscent of AIDS in humans. Based on its similarity to HIV with regard to different molecular and biochemical properties, FIV represents an attractive model for the development of strategies to prevent and/or treat HIV infection. Here, we show that the Bro1 domain of the human cellular protein Alix is sufficient to rescue the budding of FIV mutants devoid of canonical L-domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the integrity of the CCHC motifs in the Gag NC domain is dispensable for Alix-mediated rescue of virus budding, suggesting the involvement of other regions of the Gag viral protein. Our research is pertinent to the identification of a conserved yet mechanistically divergent ESCRT-mediated lentivirus budding process in general, and to the role of Alix in particular, which underlies the complex viral-cellular network of interactions that promote late steps of the retroviral life cycle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene gag/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/fisiologia , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Liberação de Vírus , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Gatos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Produtos do Gene gag/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Domínios Proteicos , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Dedos de Zinco
9.
Gene ; 742: 144583, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies showed that increased let-7b-5p microRNA during repeated electroacupuncture (EA) treatment was associated the formation of EA tolerance, which manifested as gradually decreased nociceptive threshold. Proenkephalin (PENK) is the precursor of enkephalin which is a pivot neuropeptide responsible for the decreased nociceptive threshold in EA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between let-7b-5p and PENK in EA tolerance. METHODS: The target gene of let-7b-5p microRNA was determined through the dual-luciferase reporter assay in cortical neurons. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats received a combination of EA and intracerebroventricular injection of microRNA (let-7b-5p agomir, antagomir or their controls). The nociceptive thresholds were assessed with radiant heat tail-flick method. PENK and let-7b-5p were measured with Western Blot and qPCR, respectively, after administration of let-7b-5p agomir, antagomir, and their controls at day 1, 4 and 7. RESULTS: Let-7b-5p targeted the 3' untranslated region of Penk1. The nociceptive thresholds in Let-7b-5p agomir + EA group were decreased (p < 0.05) compared with those in Let-7b-5p antagomir + EA group at day 1 to 7. Compared with Let-7b-5p agomir + EA group, the expression level of PENK in Let-7b-5p antagomir + EA group was increased at days 1, 4, and 7 (p < 0.05) CONCLUSION: Let-7b-5p may be a new potential target for decreasing the EA tolerance effect and facilitating the application of EA in treating chronic nociception of patients.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Encefalinas/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Dor Nociceptiva/terapia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Animais , Antagomirs/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Adjuvante de Freund/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraventriculares , MicroRNAs/agonistas , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Nociceptiva/diagnóstico , Dor Nociceptiva/genética , Dor Nociceptiva/imunologia , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(4): 897-907, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive cancer. There are various sub-cellular events (both genetic and epigenetic) that get dysregulated leading to tumorigenesis. Methylation in promoters of tumor suppressor genes is one of these epigenetic phenomena contributing to the pathogenesis of cancer. Genes analyzed for promoter methylation status in this study namely SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine, UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1), NPTX2 (neuronal pentraxin 2), PENK (proenkephalin) had been studied in pancreatic cancer, but there is a need to check methylation in these genes as circulatory non-invasive markers. This study analyzed the absolute quantification of methylation levels of SPARC, UCHL1, PENK, and NPTX2 genes promoters in PDAC patients as well as in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients and healthy subjects (HC) and evaluated its clinical significance in PDAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 65 PDAC patients, 25 CP patients, and 25 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from their plasma samples and subsequently given bisulfite treatment. Absolute quantization of methylated and unmethylated copies of gene promoters of all the four genes was performed using real-time PCR (SYBR green) by the standard curve method. Methylation levels were expressed as methylation index (MI) for each gene in each patient. MI was calculated from absolute copy numbers as follows: MI-methylated copy number/methylated copy number + unmethylated copy number). These indices were used to compare gene methylation levels within different groups and to correlate with clinicopathological features and survival of pancreatic cancer patients. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied. RESULTS: Methylation indices for all the four genes in PDAC cases were found to be significantly higher as compared to that in healthy individuals. SPARC MI values were found to differentiate early-stage PDAC patients from CP patients. PDAC patients with the metastasized disease and stage IV disease were found to have high MI for the SPARC gene as well as for the NPTX2 gene, while a higher UCHL1 methylation index was found to correlate with an advanced stage of the disease. Higher MI values for SPARC and NPTX2 genes were found to associate with poor survival in patients with PDAC. CONCLUSION: Methylation load in the form of MI for each of the four genes assessed in plasma may emerge as a non-invasive biomarker to differentiate pancreatic cancer from healthy individuals. But only SPARC and NPTX2 hypermethylation were able to distinguish pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. Association of aberrant methylation in SPARC and NPTX2 gene with metastasis and poor survival of patients suggest the role of methylation in these genes as prognostic markers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Metilação de DNA , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Encefalinas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Osteonectina/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 48, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106291

RESUMO

Purpose: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for neovascular AMD (nvAMD) obtains a variable outcome. We performed a genome-wide association study for anti-VEGF treatment response in nvAMD to identify variants potentially underlying such a variable outcome. Methods: Israeli patients with nvAMD who underwent anti-VEGF treatment (n = 187) were genotyped on a whole exome chip containing approximately 500,000 variants. Genotyping was correlated with delta visual acuity (deltaVA) between baseline and after three injections of anti-VEGF. Top principal components, age, and baseline VA were included in the analysis. Two lead associated variants were genotyped in an independent validation set of patients with nvAMD (n = 108). Results: Linear regression analysis on 5,353,842 variants revealed five exonic variants with an association P value of less than 6 × 10-5. The top variant in the gene VWA3A (P = 1.77 × 10-6) was tested in the validation cohort. The minor allele of the VWA3A variant was associated with worse response to treatment (P = 0.02). The average deltaVA of discovery plus validation was -0.214 logMAR (≈ a gain of 10.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) for homozygote for the major allele, 0.172 logMAR for heterozygotes (≈ a loss of 8.6 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters), and 0.21 logMAR for homozygote for the minor allele (≈ a loss of 10.5 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters). Minor allele carriers had a higher frequency of macular hemorrhage at baseline. Conclusions: An VWA3A gene variant was associated with worse response to anti-VEGF treatment in Israeli patients with nvAMD. The VWA3A protein is a precursor of the multimeric von Willebrand factor which is involved in blood coagulation, a system previously associated with nvAMD.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização de Coroide , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização de Coroide/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952213

RESUMO

Mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome can potentially lead to vaccination failure, diagnostic escape, and disease progression. However, there are no reports on viral gene expression and large hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) antigenicity alterations due to mutations in HBV isolated from a Bangladeshi population. Here, we sequenced the full genome of the HBV isolated from a clinically infected patient in Bangladesh. The open reading frames (ORFs) (P, S, C, and X) of the isolated HBV strain were successfully amplified and cloned into a mammalian expression vector. The HBV isolate was identified as genotype C (sub-genotype C2), serotype adr, and evolutionarily related to strains isolated in Indonesia, Malaysia, and China. Clinically significant mutations, such as preS1 C2964A, reverse transcriptase domain I91L, and small HBsAg N3S, were identified. The viral P, S, C, and X genes were expressed in HEK-293T and HepG2 cells by transient transfection with a native subcellular distribution pattern analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Western blotting of large HBsAg using preS1 antibody showed no staining, and preS1 ELISA showed a significant reduction in reactivity due to amino acid mutations. This mutated preS1 sequence has been identified in several Asian countries. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating changes in large HBsAg antigenicity due to preS1 mutations.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Mutação , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Bangladesh , Sequência de Bases , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
13.
Comput Biol Chem ; 84: 107168, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791808

RESUMO

The cyclotides are the largest known family of cyclic proteins, which are found in several plant families including Violaceae. They are circular bioactive peptides consisting of 28-37 amino acids, which possess a cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif and could be useful in biotechnology and drug design as scaffolds for peptide-based drugs. This study describes our finding of a potentially novel gene transcript from the petals of the Iranian Viola tricolor (V. tricolor) flowers. This study is based on the cDNA screening method employed for isolation of cyclotide precursor genes and in silico analysis. Our study resulted in the finding of a novel cyclotide-like precursor from V. tricolor, which is documented in the NCBI by GenBank accession number: KP065812. The in silico analysis revealed that there are lots of similar sequences in many other plant families and they all exhibit some different features from previously discovered cyclotide precursors. The differences occur particularly in the main cyclotide domain that exists without the usual CCK structure. All of these hypothetical precursors have a conserved ER-signal sequence, a Cysteine (C)-rich sequence forming two zinc finger motifs and a cyclotide-like region containing several conserved elements including two highly conserved C residues. In conclusion, using the cDNA screening method we found a potentially new cyclotide-like precursor gene and in silico studies revealed its significant characteristics that may open up a new research line on the distribution and evolution of cyclotides.


Assuntos
Ciclotídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Precursores de Proteínas/análise , Viola/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclotídeos/química , Ciclotídeos/genética , Flores/química , Genes de Plantas , Irã (Geográfico) , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/química , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Anesth Analg ; 130(1): 248-257, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent use of prescription opioids beyond the period of surgical recovery is a large part of a public health problem linked to the current opioid crisis in the United States. However, few studies have been conducted to examine whether morphine reward is influenced by acute pain and injury. METHODS: In a mouse model of incisional injury and minor trauma, animals underwent conditioning, extinction, and drug-primed reinstatement with morphine to examine the rewarding properties of morphine in the presence of acute incisional injury and drug-induced relapse, respectively. In addition, we sought to determine whether these behaviors were influenced by kappa opioid receptor signaling and measured expression of prodynorphin messenger RNA in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex after conditioning and before reinstatement with morphine and incisional injury. RESULTS: In the presence of incisional injury, we observed enhancement of morphine reward with morphine-conditioned place preference but attenuated morphine-primed reinstatement to reward. This adaptation was not present in animals conditioned 12 days after incisional injury when nociceptive sensitization had resolved; however, they showed enhancement of morphine-primed reinstatement. Prodynorphin expression was greatly enhanced in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex of mice with incisional injury and morphine conditioning and remained elevated up to drug-primed reinstatement. These changes were not observed in mice conditioned 12 days after incisional injury. Further, kappa opioid receptor blockade with norbinaltorphimine before reinstatement reversed the attenuation induced by injury. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest enhancement of morphine reward as a result of incisional injury but paradoxically a protective adaptation with incisional injury from drug-induced relapse resulting from kappa opioid receptor activation in the reward circuitry. Remote injury conferred no such protection and appeared to enhance reinstatement.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Recompensa , Ferimentos Penetrantes/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Dor Aguda/psicologia , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalinas/genética , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ferimentos Penetrantes/metabolismo , Ferimentos Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/psicologia
15.
Elife ; 82019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710287

RESUMO

Seeking new insights into the homeostasis, modulation and plasticity of cortical synaptic networks, we have analyzed results from a single-cell RNA-seq study of 22,439 mouse neocortical neurons. Our analysis exposes transcriptomic evidence for dozens of molecularly distinct neuropeptidergic modulatory networks that directly interconnect all cortical neurons. This evidence begins with a discovery that transcripts of one or more neuropeptide precursor (NPP) and one or more neuropeptide-selective G-protein-coupled receptor (NP-GPCR) genes are highly abundant in all, or very nearly all, cortical neurons. Individual neurons express diverse subsets of NP signaling genes from palettes encoding 18 NPPs and 29 NP-GPCRs. These 47 genes comprise 37 cognate NPP/NP-GPCR pairs, implying the likelihood of local neuropeptide signaling. Here, we use neuron-type-specific patterns of NP gene expression to offer specific, testable predictions regarding 37 peptidergic neuromodulatory networks that may play prominent roles in cortical homeostasis and plasticity.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Homeostase/genética , Camundongos , Neocórtex/citologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Córtex Visual/citologia
16.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 18: 122-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia (PE) is a disease of pregnancy characterized by early onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria. New findings indicate that arginine vasopressin (AVP) may be a contributing factor to ignite PE. The aim of this study was to identify if there is any correlation between arginine vasopressin promoter polymorphisms and PE. STUDY DESIGN: Venous blood samples of 100 PE and 100 normal pregnant women were obtained for DNA extraction to identify the polymorphisms of AVP promoter by RFLP and nested-PCR techniques. MAIN OUTCOME: rs3729965 polymorphism of PE women was detected to have significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.028). RESULTS: Statistical analysis of three polymorphisms namely rs3729965, rs61138008 and rs3761249 of preeclamptic women (PEW) and none preeclamptic pregnant women (NPEW) revealed that rs3729965 genotypic distribution was significantly different between both groups (P = 0.04). Further analysis revealed that rs3729965 CT genotype of PEW had significant correlation to their BMI (P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Polymorphic variants located on the promoter region of AVP are associated with PE. Thus we hypothesize that allelic variation may have a role in increasing the risk of developing PE.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neurofisinas/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Vasopressinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504041

RESUMO

HIV envelope protein (Env) is the sole target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) that are capable of neutralizing diverse strains of HIV. While BNAbs develop spontaneously in a subset of HIV-infected patients, efforts to design an envelope protein-based immunogen to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses have so far been unsuccessful. It is hypothesized that a primary barrier to eliciting BNAbs is the fact that HIV envelope proteins bind poorly to the germline-encoded unmutated common ancestor (UCA) precursors to BNAbs. To identify variant forms of Env with increased affinities for the UCA forms of BNAbs 4E10 and 10E8, which target the Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER) of Env, libraries of randomly mutated Env variants were expressed in a yeast surface display system and screened using fluorescence activated cell sorting for cells displaying variants with enhanced abilities to bind the UCA antibodies. Based on analyses of individual clones obtained from the screen and on next-generation sequencing of sorted libraries, distinct but partially overlapping sets of amino acid substitutions conferring enhanced UCA antibody binding were identified. These were particularly enriched in substitutions of arginine for highly conserved tryptophan residues. The UCA-binding variants also generally exhibited enhanced binding to the mature forms of anti-MPER antibodies. Mapping of the identified substitutions into available structures of Env suggest that they may act by destabilizing both the initial pre-fusion conformation and the six-helix bundle involved in fusion of the viral and cell membranes, as well as providing new or expanded epitopes with increased accessibility for the UCA antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Mutação , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/química , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Ligação Proteica , Precursores de Proteínas/química , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Estabilidade Proteica
18.
Biochem J ; 476(16): 2411-2425, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399498

RESUMO

Tip-link as force-sensor in hearing conveys the mechanical force originating from sound to ion-channels while maintaining the integrity of the entire sensory assembly in the inner ear. This delicate balance between structure and function of tip-links is regulated by Ca2+-ions present in endolymph. Mutations at the Ca2+-binding sites of tip-links often lead to congenital deafness, sometimes syndromic defects impairing vision along with hearing. Although such mutations are already identified, it is still not clear how the mutants alter the structure-function properties of the force-sensors associated with diseases. With an aim to decipher the differences in force-conveying properties of the force-sensors in molecular details, we identified the conformational variability of mutant and wild-type tip-links at the single-molecule level using FRET at the endolymphatic Ca2+ concentrations and subsequently measured the force-responsive behavior using single-molecule force spectroscopy with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). AFM allowed us to mimic the high and wide range of force ramps (103-106 pN s-1) as experienced in the inner ear. We performed in silico network analysis to learn that alterations in the conformations of the mutants interrupt the natural force-propagation paths through the sensors and make the mutant tip-links vulnerable to input forces from sound stimuli. We also demonstrated that a Ca2+ rich environment can restore the force-response of the mutant tip-links which may eventually facilitate the designing of better therapeutic strategies to the hearing loss.


Assuntos
Caderinas , Perda Auditiva , Mecanotransdução Celular , Mutação , Precursores de Proteínas , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo
19.
Brain Behav ; 9(9): e01355, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the expression of mRNA encoding vasopressin in the hypothalamus of autopsy brains of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Ten brains of individuals with schizophrenia and 10 brains from individuals without any disease were examined during autopsy. The hypothalamic block was dissected and immersion fixed in paraformaldehyde, sucrose substituted, frozen, and cut into 20-µm-thick coronal cryostat sections. The sections were hybridized with an S-35-labeled DNA antisense oligo probe and after washing covered by an X-ray film. The hybridization signals on the films were transferred to a computer and densitometrically quantified. RESULTS: The densitometry signals showed a statistically significant lower mRNA expression (53% decrease; p = 0.014) in the paraventricular nucleus of the individuals with schizophrenia compared to the controls. In the supraoptic nucleus, the decrease in the group with schizophrenia was 39% compared to the controls, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.194). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a low expression of mRNA encoding vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus of the individuals with schizophrenia. We suggest that vasopressin is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but might influence schizophrenic symptoms via vasopressin receptors located in the social behavioral neural network in the forebrain.


Assuntos
Neurofisinas/genética , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Núcleo Supraóptico/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioquímica , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(8): e12600, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339663

RESUMO

Persistent alterations of proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) activity and stress responses after alcohol are critically involved in vulnerability to alcohol dependency. Gene transcriptional regulation altered by alcohol may play important roles. Mice with genome-wide deletion of neuronal Pomc enhancer1 (nPE1-/- ), had hypothalamic-specific partial reductions of beta-endorphin and displayed lower alcohol consumption, compared to wildtype littermates (nPE1+/+ ). We used RNA-Seq to measure steady-state nuclear mRNA transcripts of opioid and stress genes in hypothalamus of nPE1+/+ and nPE1-/- mice after 1-day acute withdrawal from chronic excessive alcohol drinking or after water. nPE1-/- had lower basal Pomc and Pdyn (prodynorphin) levels compared to nPE1+/+ , coupled with increased basal Oprm1 and Oprk1 (kappa-opioid receptor) levels, and low alcohol drinking increased Pomc and Pdyn to the basal levels of nPE1+/+ in the water group, without significant effects on Oprm1 and Oprk1. In nPE1+/+ , excessive alcohol intake increased Pomc and Oprm1, with no effect on Pdyn or Oprk1. For stress genes, nPE1-/- had lowered basal Oxt (oxytocin) and Avp (arginine vasopressin) that were restored by low alcohol intake to basal levels of nPE1+/+ . In nPE1+/+ , excessive alcohol intake decreased Oxt and Avpi1 (AVP-induced protein1). Functionally examining the effect of pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptor, we found that naltrexone reduced excessive alcohol intake in nPE1+/+ , but not nPE1-/- . Our results provide evidence relevant to the transcriptional profiling of the critical genes in mouse hypothalamus: enhanced opioid and reduced stress gene transcripts after acute withdrawal from excessive alcohol may contribute to altered reward and stress responses.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Animais , Arginina Vasopressina/metabolismo , Bebedeira/metabolismo , Encefalinas/genética , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
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