Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.489
Filtrar
1.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1378-1386, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants and lifestyle factors have been associated with gastric cancer risk, but the extent to which an increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle remains unknown. We aimed to establish a genetic risk model for gastric cancer and assess the benefits of adhering to a healthy lifestyle in individuals with a high genetic risk. METHODS: In this meta-analysis and prospective cohort study, we first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the association between genetic variants and gastric cancer in six independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with a case-control study design. These GWAS comprised 21 168 Han Chinese individuals, of whom 10 254 had gastric cancer and 10 914 geographically matched controls did not. Using summary statistics from the meta-analysis, we constructed five polygenic risk scores in a range of thresholds (p=5 × 10-4 p=5 × 10-5 p=5 × 10-6 p=5 × 10-7, and p=5 × 10-8) for gastric cancer. We then applied these scores to an independent, prospective, nationwide cohort of 100 220 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), with more than 10 years of follow-up. The relative and absolute risk of incident gastric cancer associated with healthy lifestyle factors (defined as not smoking, never consuming alcohol, the low consumption of preserved foods, and the frequent intake of fresh fruits and vegetables), was assessed and stratified by genetic risk (low [quintile 1 of the polygenic risk score], intermediate [quintile 2-4 of the polygenic risk score], and high [quintile 5 of the polygenic risk score]). Individuals with a favourable lifestyle were considered as those who adopted all four healthy lifestyle factors, those with an intermediate lifestyle adopted two or three factors, and those with an unfavourable lifestyle adopted none or one factor. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score derived from 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (p<5 × 10-5) showed the strongest association with gastric cancer risk (p=7·56 × 10-10). When this polygenic risk score was applied to the CKB cohort, we found that there was a significant increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer across the quintiles of the polygenic risk score (ptrend<0·0001). Compared with individuals who had a low genetic risk, those with an intermediate genetic risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·22-1·94], p=2·67 × 10-4) and a high genetic risk (2·08 [1·61-2·69], p<0·0001) had a greater risk of gastric cancer. A similar increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer was observed across the lifestyle categories (ptrend<0·0001), with a higher risk of gastric cancer in those with an unfavourable lifestyle than those with a favourable lifestyle (2·03 [1·46-2·83], p<0·0001). Participants with a high genetic risk and a favourable lifestyle had a lower risk of gastric cancer than those with a high genetic risk and an unfavourable lifestyle (0·53 [0·29-0·99], p=0·048), with an absolute risk reduction of 1·12% (95% CI 0·62-1·56). INTERPRETATION: Chinese individuals at an increased risk of incident gastric cancer could be identified by use of our newly developed polygenic risk score. Compared with individuals at a high genetic risk who adopt an unhealthy lifestyle, those who adopt a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce their risk of incident gastric cancer. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, 333 High-Level Talents Cultivation Project of Jiangsu Province, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22319, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is an episode of major depressive disorder that affecting women of childbearing age. 5-HTTLPR is 1 of the most extensively investigated polymorphisms in PPD. However, the previous results were inconsistent and inclusive. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to precisely evaluate the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and PPD susceptibility. METHODS: The studies were retrieved through databases including PubMed, web of science, EMASE, and CNKI. The odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were applied for evaluating the genetic association between 5-HTTLPR (L/S) polymorphism and PPD risk. RESULTS: Six studies with 519 cases and 737 controls were enrolled in the present study. The frequencies of allelic (OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.60-0.85, P = .0001) and dominant (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.73, P = .004) models of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly decreased in patients with PPD than those in the healthy controls. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the allelic (OR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.60-0.85, P = .0001) and dominant (OR = 0.51, 95%CI = 0.32-0.79, P = .003) models of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were significantly associated with PPD risk in Asian population (P > .05). No evidence was observed between the recessive model of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and PPD risk (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The allelic and dominant models of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism might be protective factors for PPD. To confirm these results, larger number of association studies or multicenter case-control studies are necessary in the future.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez
3.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(10): 840-848, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human prion diseases are rare and usually rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disorders, the most common being sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Variants in the PRNP gene that encodes prion protein are strong risk factors for sCJD but, although the condition has similar heritability to other neurodegenerative disorders, no other genetic risk loci have been confirmed. We aimed to discover new genetic risk factors for sCJD, and their causal mechanisms. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of sCJD in European ancestry populations (patients diagnosed with probable or definite sCJD identified at national CJD referral centres) with a two-stage study design using genotyping arrays and exome sequencing. Conditional, transcriptional, and histological analyses of implicated genes and proteins in brain tissues, and tests of the effects of risk variants on clinical phenotypes, were done using deep longitudinal clinical cohort data. Control data from healthy individuals were obtained from publicly available datasets matched for country. FINDINGS: Samples from 5208 cases were obtained between 1990 and 2014. We found 41 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and independently replicated findings at three loci associated with sCJD risk; within PRNP (rs1799990; additive model odds ratio [OR] 1·23 [95% CI 1·17-1·30], p=2·68 × 10-15; heterozygous model p=1·01 × 10-135), STX6 (rs3747957; OR 1·16 [1·10-1·22], p=9·74 × 10-9), and GAL3ST1 (rs2267161; OR 1·18 [1·12-1·25], p=8·60 × 10-10). Follow-up analyses showed that associations at PRNP and GAL3ST1 are likely to be caused by common variants that alter the protein sequence, whereas risk variants in STX6 are associated with increased expression of the major transcripts in disease-relevant brain regions. INTERPRETATION: We present, to our knowledge, the first evidence of statistically robust genetic associations in sporadic human prion disease that implicate intracellular trafficking and sphingolipid metabolism as molecular causal mechanisms. Risk SNPs in STX6 are shared with progressive supranuclear palsy, a neurodegenerative disease associated with misfolding of protein tau, indicating that sCJD might share the same causal mechanisms as prion-like disorders. FUNDING: Medical Research Council and the UK National Institute of Health Research in part through the Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
4.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 62(4): 252-265, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-355

RESUMO

En mujeres con alto riesgo de padecer cáncer de mama, la detección precoz tiene un importante papel. Debido a la alta incidencia de cáncer mamario y a edades más tempranas que en la población general, se recomienda que el cribado comience en edad más joven, y existe amplia evidencia de que la resonancia magnética es la herramienta diagnóstica más sensible: las principales guías americanas y europeas coinciden en la recomendación de realizar resonancia magnética anual (con mamografía anual suplementaria) como modalidad óptima de cribado. No obstante, no hay un total consenso actual entre las guías sobre algunos subgrupos de pacientes a incluir en la recomendación de cribado con resonancia magnética. El objetivo de esta primera parte de nuestro trabajo es, mediante una revisión de la bibliografía, explicar y valorar las ventajas que este tipo de cribado con resonancia magnética proporciona respecto al cribado solo con mamografía, como son: mayor detección de cánceres de menor tamaño y con menor afectación ganglionar asociada y una reducción de los cánceres de intervalo, lo que puede tener repercusión en supervivencia y mortalidad, con efectos comparables a otras medidas de prevención. Pero, a su vez, también queremos reflejar los inconvenientes que el cribado con resonancia magnética conlleva, y que dificultan su aplicabilidad


Screening plays an important role in women with a high risk of breast cancer. Given this population's high incidence of breast cancer and younger age of onset compared to the general population, it is recommended that screening starts earlier. There is ample evidence that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive diagnostic tool, and American and the European guidelines both recommend annual MRI screening (with supplementary annual mammography) as the optimum screening modality. Nevertheless, the current guidelines do not totally agree about the recommendations for MRI screening in some subgroups of patients. The first part of this article on screening in women with increased risk of breast cancer reviews the literature to explain and evaluate the advantages of MRI screening compared to screening with mammography alone: increased detection of smaller cancers with less associated lymph node involvement and a reduction in the rate of interval cancers, which can have an impact on survival and mortality (with comparable effects to other preventative measures). At the same time, however, we would like to reflect on the drawbacks of MRI screening that affect its applicability


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Mamografia/métodos , Mamografia/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/prevenção & controle
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20716, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590746

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci at chromosome 8q24. We aimed to evaluate the associations between variants in the 8q24 region and cancer susceptibility. A comprehensive research synopsis and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate associations between 28 variants in 8q24 and risk of 7 cancers using data from 103 eligible articles totaling 146,932 cancer cases and 219,724 controls. Results: 20 variants were significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, stomach cancer, and glioma, including 1 variant associated with prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and thyroid cancer. Cumulative epidemiological evidence of an association was graded as strong for DG8S737 -8 allele, rs10090154, rs7000448 in prostate cancer, rs10808556 in colorectal cancer, rs55705857 in gliomas, rs9642880 in bladder cancer, moderate for rs16901979, rs1447295, rs6983267, rs7017300, rs7837688, rs1016343, rs620861, rs10086908 associated in prostate cancer, rs10505477, rs6983267 in colorectal cancer, rs6983267 in thyroid cancer, rs13281615 in breast cancer, and rs1447295 in stomach cancer, weak for rs6983561, rs13254738, rs7008482, rs4242384 in prostate cancer. Data from ENCODE suggested that these variants with strong evidence and other correlated variants might fall within putative functional regions. Our study provides summary evidence that common variants in the 8q24 are associated with risk of multiple cancers in this large-scale research synopsis and meta-analysis. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms underlying variants in the 8q24 involved in various human cancers.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
6.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 64, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503413

RESUMO

Migraine is a common brain disorder with a large genetic component. Of the two main migraine types, migraine with aura and migraine without aura, the genetic underpinning in the former is least understood. Given the evidence from epidemiological studies in cohorts and families that the genetic contribution is highest in migraine with aura, this seems paradoxical. Various genetic approaches have been applied to identify genetic factors that confer risk for migraine. Initially, so-called candidate gene associations studies (CGAS) have been performed that test DNA variants in genes prioritized based on presumed a priori knowledge of migraine pathophysiology. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) tested variants in any gene in an hypothesis-free manner. Whereas GWAS in migraine without aura, or the more general diagnosis migraine have already identified dozens of gene variants, the specific hunt for gene variants in migraine with aura has been disappointing. The only GWAS specifically investigating migraine with aura yielded only one single associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), near MTDH and PGCP, with genome-wide significance. However, interrogation of all genotyped SNPs, so beyond this one significant hit, was more successful and led to the notion that migraine with aura and migraine without aura are genetically more alike than different. Until now, most relevant genetic discoveries related to migraine with aura came from investigating monogenetic syndromes with migraine aura as a prominent phenotype (i.e. FHM, CADASIL and FASPS). This review will highlight the genetic findings relevant to migraine with aura.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Enxaqueca com Aura/diagnóstico , Enxaqueca com Aura/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 708, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to explore the association between early life and life-course exposure to social disadvantage and later life body mass index (BMI) accounting for genetic predisposition and maternal BMI. METHODS: We studied participants of Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944 (HBCS1934-1944, n = 1277) and Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 and 1986 (NFBC1966, n = 5807, NFBC1986, n = 6717). Factor analysis produced scores of social disadvantage based on social and economic elements in early life and adulthood/over the life course, and was categorized as high, intermediate and low. BMI was measured at 62 years in HBCS1934-1944, at 46 years in NFBC1966 and at 16 years in NFBC1986. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to explore associations between social disadvantages and BMI after adjustments for polygenic risk score for BMI (PRS BMI), maternal BMI and sex. RESULTS: The association between exposure to high early social disadvantage and increased later life BMI persisted after adjustments (ß = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.33, 1.25, p < 0.001) in NFBC1966. In NFBC1986 this association was attenuated by PRS BMI (p = 0.181), and in HBCS1934-1944 there was no association between high early social disadvantage and increased later life BMI (ß 0.22, 95% CI -0.91,1.35, p = 0.700). In HBCS1934-1944 and NFBC1966, participants who had reduced their exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course had lower later life BMI than those who had increased their exposure (ß - 1.34, [- 2.37,-0.31], p = 0.011; ß - 0.46, [- 0.89,-0.03], p = 0.038, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: High social disadvantage in early life appears to be associated with higher BMI in later life. Reducing exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course may be a potential pathway for obesity reduction.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(7): e28335, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391946

RESUMO

Oncologists and cancer biologists are frequently confronted by the question of what causes cancer? This is particularly vexing for cancers affecting children and young adults who have had limited exposure to environmental mutagens and the effects of aging. Here, I focus on a general framework of the causes of early-onset cancer development in children and young adults by relating inherited and constitutional cancer predisposition, oncogenic pathogens, and developmental mutations. This framework has implications not only for mechanistic investigation of young cancers, but should also clarify improved strategies for their treatment, screening, and potential prevention.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Vírus Oncogênicos , Adolescente , Carcinógenos Ambientais , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Oncologia , Mutagênicos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/virologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Pediatria , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1776, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296059

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic and genetically complex respiratory disease that affects over 300 million people worldwide. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis for asthma using data from the UK Biobank and the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium. We identify 66 previously unknown asthma loci and demonstrate that the susceptibility alleles in these regions are, either individually or as a function of cumulative genetic burden, associated with risk to a greater extent in men than women. Bioinformatics analyses prioritize candidate causal genes at 52 loci, including CD52, and demonstrate that asthma-associated variants are enriched in regions of open chromatin in immune cells. Lastly, we show that a murine anti-CD52 antibody mimics the immune cell-depleting effects of a clinically used human anti-CD52 antibody and reduces allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity in mice. These results further elucidate the genetic architecture of asthma and provide important insight into the immunological and sex-specific relevance of asthma-associated risk variants.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Antígeno CD52 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Antígeno CD52/genética , Antígeno CD52/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 542-548, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251405

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are poised to be translated into clinical practice through prediction of inborn health risks1, a strategy to utilize genetics to prioritize modifiable risk factors driving heath outcome is warranted2. To this end, we investigated the association of the genetic susceptibility to complex traits with human lifespan in collaboration with three worldwide biobanks (ntotal = 675,898; BioBank Japan (n = 179,066), UK Biobank (n = 361,194) and FinnGen (n = 135,638)). In contrast to observational studies, in which discerning the cause-and-effect can be difficult, PRSs could help to identify the driver biomarkers affecting human lifespan. A high systolic blood pressure PRS was trans-ethnically associated with a shorter lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.03[1.02-1.04], Pmeta = 3.9 × 10-13) and parental lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.06[1.06-1.07], P = 2.0 × 10-86). The obesity PRS showed distinct effects on lifespan in Japanese and European individuals (Pheterogeneity = 9.5 × 10-8 for BMI). The causal effect of blood pressure and obesity on lifespan was further supported by Mendelian randomization studies. Beyond genotype-phenotype associations, our trans-biobank study offers a new value of PRSs in prioritization of risk factors that could be potential targets of medical treatment to improve population health.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Longevidade/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 549-557, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273609

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have shown promise in predicting susceptibility to common diseases1-3. We estimated their added value in clinical risk prediction of five common diseases, using large-scale biobank data (FinnGen; n = 135,300) and the FINRISK study with clinical risk factors to test genome-wide PRSs for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We evaluated the lifetime risk at different PRS levels, and the impact on disease onset and on prediction together with clinical risk scores. Compared to having an average PRS, having a high PRS contributed 21% to 38% higher lifetime risk, and 4 to 9 years earlier disease onset. PRSs improved model discrimination over age and sex in type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer, and over clinical risk in type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and prostate cancer. In all diseases, PRSs improved reclassification over clinical thresholds, with the largest net reclassification improvements for early-onset coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and prostate cancer. This study provides evidence for the additional value of PRSs in clinical disease prediction. The practical applications of polygenic risk information for stratified screening or for guiding lifestyle and medical interventions in the clinical setting remain to be defined in further studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Metabólicas , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(6): 802-808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Israeli population, encompassing 9 million citizens, is comprised of diverse communities. The Ministry of Health genetic screening program for reproductive purposes was introduced in 2013. This program is mainly aimed at severe incurable diseases with high rates of infant and childhood morbidity and/or mortality, with a carrier frequency of at least 1:60 and/or a disease frequency of 1 in 15 000 live births. In this paper, we present the results of the national genetic carrier-screening program implementation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data acquisition for this study was performed by retrospectively searching Ministry of Health database, which includes the reports of 18 genetic laboratories performing genetic screening tests. RESULTS: During 2015-2017, a total of 919 820 carrier-screening genetic tests were executed. The overall number rose by 14.9% over these years. For about two-thirds of the presented disorders, carrier frequency was within the expected range. A decrease of 57% was noted in the observed number of patients with spinal muscular atrophy born during 2014-2017, compared with the expected rate. Familial dysautonomia, Canavan and Tay-Sachs diseases yielded a very low prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the impact of a national genetic carrier-screening program. Couples at risk of an affected fetus mostly choose to perform preconception or prenatal diagnosis and to act accordingly. Our country has several characteristics enabling us to achieve this success, including considerable rates of endogamy and consanguineous marriages, increased frequency of founder mutations, and high fertility rates. In addition, wide accessibility of the tests and good compliance of the population must be noted. Still, raising the awareness and continuing education of population and caregivers about the importance and efficiency of carrier screening remains an important issue. Finally, expanding the existing tests into a uniform, wide genetic panel seems to be the next goal.


Assuntos
Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921644, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031653

RESUMO

Importance: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, and modest contributions of common genetic variants to ASD have been reported. However, the association of genetic risks derived from common risk variants with ASD traits in children from the general population is not clear, and the association of these genetic risks with neurodevelopment in infants has not been well understood. Objective: To test whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) for ASD is associated with neurodevelopmental progress at age 18 months and ASD traits at age 6 years among children from the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 876 children in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for Mothers and Children in Hamamatsu, Japan, underwent testing for the association of an ASD PRS with neurodevelopmental progress and ASD traits. Data collection began in December 2007 and is ongoing. Data analysis was conducted from April to December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Summary data from the largest genome-wide association study were used to generate ASD PRSs, and significance of thresholds was calculated for each outcome. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 2 was used to measure ASD traits at age 6 years, and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning was used to measure neurodevelopmental progress at age 18 months. Results: Of 876 participants (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 38.9 [1.6] weeks; 438 [50.0%] boys; 868 [99.1%] Japanese), 734 were analyzed. The ASD PRS was associated with ASD traits (R2 = 0.024; ß, 0.71; SE, 0.24; P = .03). The association of ASD PRS with infant neurodevelopment was most pronounced in gross motor (R2 = 0.015; ß, -1.25; SE, 0.39; P = .01) and receptive language (R2 = 0.014; ß, -1.19; SE, 0.39; P = .02) scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Gene set enrichment analyses found that several pathways, such as cell maturation (R2 = 0.057; ß, -5.28; SE, 1.40; P < .001) and adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration (R2 = 0.064; ß, -5.30; SE 1.30; P < .001), were associated with ASD traits. Gene sets associated with inflammation were commonly enriched with ASD traits and gross motor skills (eg, chemokine motif ligand 2 production: R2 = 0.051; ß, -6.04; SE, 1.75; P = .001; regulation of monocyte differentiation: R2 = 0.052; ß, -6.63; SE, 1.90; P = .001; and B-cell differentiation: R2 = 0.051; ß, 7.37; SE, 2.15; P = .001); glutamatergic signaling-associated gene sets were commonly enriched with ASD traits and receptive language skills (eg, regulation of glutamate secretion: R2 = 0.052; ß, -5.82; SE, 1.68; P = .001; ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway: R2 = 0.047; ß, 3.54; SE, 1.09; P = .001; and negative regulation of glutamate secretion: R2 = 0.045; ß, -5.38; SE, 1.74; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the ASD PRS was associated with ASD traits among children from the general population. Genetic risks for ASD might be associated with delays in some neurodevelopmental domains, such as gross motor and receptive language skills.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 363-369, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between a high genetic disease risk and disease severity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients with SLE (n=1001, discovery cohort and n=5524, replication cohort) and healthy controls (n=2802 and n=9859) were genotyped using a 200K Immunochip single nucleotide polymorphism array. A genetic risk score (GRS) was assigned to each individual based on 57 SLE risk loci. RESULTS: SLE was more prevalent in the high, compared with the low, GRS-quartile (OR 12.32 (9.53 to 15.71), p=7.9×10-86 and OR 7.48 (6.73 to 8.32), p=2.2×10-304 for the discovery and the replication cohorts, respectively). In the discovery cohort, patients in the high GRS-quartile had a 6-year earlier mean disease onset (HR 1.47 (1.22 to 1.75), p=4.3×10-5), displayed higher prevalence of damage accrual (OR 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04), p=2.0×10-2), renal disorder (OR 2.22 (1.50 to 3.27), p=5.9×10-5), anti-dsDNA (OR 1.83 (1.19 to 2.81), p=6.1×10-3), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (OR 5.58 (1.50 to 20.79), p=1.0×10-2), proliferative nephritis (OR 2.42 (1.30 to 4.49), p=5.1×10-3), anti-cardiolipin-IgG (OR 1.89 (1.13 to 3.18), p=1.6×10-2), anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I-IgG (OR 2.29 (1.29 to 4.06), p=4.8×10-3) and positive lupus anticoagulant test (OR 2.12 (1.16 to 3.89), p=1.5×10-2) compared with patients in the low GRS-quartile. Survival analysis showed earlier onset of the first organ damage (HR 1.51 (1.04 to 2.25), p=3.7×10-2), first cardiovascular event (HR 1.65 (1.03 to 2.64), p=2.6×10-2), nephritis (HR 2.53 (1.72 to 3.71), p=9.6×10-7), ESRD (HR 6.78 (1.78 to 26.86), p=6.5×10-3) and decreased overall survival (HR 1.83 (1.02 to 3.30), p=4.3×10-2) in high to low quartile comparison. CONCLUSIONS: A high GRS is associated with increased risk of organ damage, renal dysfunction and all-cause mortality. Our results indicate that genetic profiling may be useful for predicting outcomes in patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/genética , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia
18.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(6): 382-387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive, autoinflammatory disease that is common in Arabs, Jews, Armenians and Turks, is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene, which encodes a protein called pyrin. The disease is characterised by recurrent fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, abdominal pain and arthralgia. OBJECTIVE: Determine the distributions of MEFV mutations and their relationship with clinical manifestations. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive. SETTING: Turkish community. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included patients with complaints related to FMF who were admitted to the research hospital of Cumhuriyet University between 2005 and 2017. FMF was diagnosed by physical examination using the Tel-Hashomer criteria. MEFV mutations were detected by reverse hybridization strip assay and pyrosequencing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of specific MEFV gene mutations in a large cohort of Middle Anatolia. SAMPLE SIZE: 10 033 patients admitted, 1223 with confirmed mutations. RESULTS: Of 1684 patients diagnosed by Tel-Hashomer criteria, mutation screening confirmed that 1223 patients (72.6%) had FMF. Male/female ratio of the FMF patients was 1.3:1. One or more FMF mutations were found in 4497 patients (44.8%). 3262 had heterozygous or carrier mutations, 821 had compound heterozygous mutation, 381 had homozygous mutations, and 21 had triple mutations. Sixty-six percent had a family history of the disease and 13.7% of the patients had parental consanguinity. Main symptoms found in the patients were abdominal pain (85.2%), fever (84%), chest pain (30.2%), arthralgia (28.6%), rash or erysipelas-like erythema (8.2%). The most common mutation in this population was M694V (39%) of 5753 alleles. CONCLUSION: M694V was the most frequent mutation in our population (Middle Anatolia, Turkey) and cause severe forms of the disease. Patients with E148Q, V726A and R761H mutations may have milder FMF symptoms. There was a high rate of carriers in our study group. LIMITATIONS: Amyloidosis, an important complication of the disease, needs to be analyzed. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Pirina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 115, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with migraine susceptibility. However, evidences for their associations with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes are scarce. We aimed to investigate the associations of pre-identified migraine susceptibility loci in Taiwanese with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia. METHODS: The associations of six SNPs identified from our previous study, including TRPM8 rs10166942, LRP1 rs1172113, DLG2 rs655484, GFRA1 rs3781545, UPP2 rs7565931, and GPR39 rs10803531, and migraine endophenotypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia were tested. Significant associations in the discovery cohort were validated in the replication cohort. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: In total, 1904 patients (mean age 37.5 ± 12.2 years old, female ratio: 77.7%) including 1077 in the discovery cohort and 827 in the replication cohort were recruited. Of them, 584 (30.7%) had chronic migraine. Of the 6 investigated SNPs, TRPM8 rs10166942 T allele-carrying patients were more likely to have chronic migraine than non-T allele carriers in both discovery and replication cohorts and combined samples (33.7% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.004, aOR = 1.62). In addition, T allele carriers reported more allodynic symptoms than non-T allele carriers (3.5 ± 3.7 vs. 2.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001). However, allodynia severity did not differ between episodic and chronic migraine patients. No further correlations between genetic variants and endophenotypes were noted for the other SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic migraine. However, our study did not support allodynia as a link between them. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hiperalgesia/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico , Hiperalgesia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 34754-34774, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696427

RESUMO

Recently, there has been increased studies in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). We aimed to make an overview of research trends and genetic polymorphisms for NIHL from 2009 to 2018 with VOSviewer software. A total of 2391 papers were identified for research trends analysis in NIHL and 33 studies identified for a brief review of genetic polymorphisms in human NIHL. The number of publications has been increasing over the past decade. The journal Hearing Research published the most articles (218). The USA contributed the largest number of papers (1042; 43.58%), with the most citations (18,987) and the highest H-index (60). The University of Washington was the most contributive institution. Liberman MC published the most articles (32), and Kujawa SG possessed the highest co-citations (584). Except for high-frequency keywords identified by the software, "prevalence," "oxidative stress," "hair cells," and "cochlear implant" were also the latest research frontiers. HSPA1A rs1043618, HSPA1L rs2227956, PON2 rs12026 and rs7785846, SOD2 rs2855116, KCNE1 rs2070358, KCNQ4 rs34287852, GJB2 rs3751385, PCDH15 rs7095441 and rs11004085, GRHL2 rs1981361, ITGA8 rs10508489, MYH14 rs667907, and POU4F3 rs891969 were the research hotspots and were replicated in independent samples. Inflammation response underlying NIHL has emerged and should be considered as a pioneering field in the future for the prevention of NIHL and conservation of hearing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Transcrição Brn-3C , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA