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1.
Behav Neurosci ; 134(5): 369-383, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001679

RESUMO

This study investigated whether the application of high definition transcranial DC stimulation (HD-tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cue-induced food craving when combined with food-specific inhibitory control training. Using a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55) received both active and sham HD-tDCS across 2 sessions while completing a Go/No-Go task in which foods were either associated with response inhibition or response execution. Food craving was measured pre and post stimulation using a standardized questionnaire as well as desire to eat ratings for foods associated with both response inhibition and response execution in the training task. Results revealed no effect of HD-tDCS on reducing state food craving or desire to eat. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were unable to achieve our maximum preplanned sample size or our minimum desired Bayesian evidence strength across all a priori hypotheses; however 6 of the 7 hypotheses converged with moderate or stronger evidence in favor of the null hypothesis over the alternative hypothesis. We discuss the importance of individual differences and provide recommendations for future studies with an emphasis on the importance of cognitive interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fissura/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Cross-Over , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
2.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050404

RESUMO

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although assessing nutrient intake through dietary surveys is desirable, it can be effort- and time-intensive. We aimed to develop a brief screening method for determining sodium intake in order to raise public awareness regarding the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRI-J) 2020. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey, we compared dietary behaviours obtained from a self-administered questionnaire according to sodium intake, which was assessed from one-day dietary records by a semi-weighed method. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the reference values of sodium (salt equivalent) shown in the DRI-J. We also randomly divided the participants into development and validation groups, and used logistic regression analysis to identify predictive factors for sex-specific DRI-J (<7.5 g/day in men and <6.5 g/day in women) and above-average intakes (≥10 g/day in men and women). RESULTS: Among the 6,172 Japanese individuals aged ≥20 years old, participants with lower sodium intake were found to use nutrition labels and had a lower frequency of eating out than those with higher intakes (P for difference < .001). Our final model for predicting sodium intake included adjusted sex, age, dietary behaviours, and consumption of mainly processed foods. In the development group, areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.747 and 0.741 for adherence to sex-specific DRI-J and above-average intake, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation group were 0.734 and 0.730, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This method could easily identify sodium intake using dietary behaviours and specific food consumption, and is expected to be widely useful for health and nutrition education in Japan.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1453, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationships between childhood food allergy and parental unhealthy food choices for their children across attitudes towards childhood obesity as mediators and parental gender, income and education as potential moderators. METHODS: We surveyed parents with at least one child between the ages of 6 and 12 living in Canada and the United States. We received 483 valid responses that were analysed using structural equation modelling approach with bootstrapping to test the hypothetical path model and its invariance across the moderators. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that pressure to eat fully mediated the effects of childhood food allergy and restriction on parental unhealthy food choices for their children. Finally, we found that parental gender moderated the relationship between childhood food allergy and the pressure to eat. CONCLUSIONS: The paper contributes to the literature on food allergies among children and the marginalisation of families with allergies. Our explorative model is a first of its kind and offers a fresh perspective on complex relationships between variables under consideration. Although our data collection took place prior to Covid-19 outbreak, this paper bears yet particular significance as it casts light on how families with allergies should be part of the priority groups to have access to food supply during crisis periods.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238050, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903260

RESUMO

Many campaigns promote the preservation and consumption of leftover food items as a critical household strategy to accomplish national consumer food waste reduction goals. We fill a gap in knowledge about the consumption and creation of leftovers in the United States by analyzing data from a pilot study in which 18 subjects tracked food selection, intake, and plate waste across all eating occasions for about one week. Subjects noted which items selected for consumption were leftovers, i.e., previously prepared but uneaten items that were stored for future consumption, and which unfinished items were saved to become leftovers. We found that 12% of items selected for consumption were leftovers while 24% of selected items that were not fully consumed were kept to become a leftover. Leftovers were most frequently vegetables, cheeses, and meats, and most frequently selected on Mondays and for lunch. Regression analyses isolate significant dining patterns with respect to leftovers, including evidence that leftovers were less likely to be fully consumed than non-leftover items, and that larger meals led to more uneaten food. This suggests that strategies to reduce meal size may be most effective in reducing food waste by limiting the creation of leftovers in the first place. Strategies to make leftovers more attractive and appealing may also reduce food waste.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
8.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872577

RESUMO

During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice-to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745186

RESUMO

Cultured meat grown in vitro from animal cells has the potential to address many of the ethical, environmental, and public health issues associated with conventional meat production. However, as well as overcoming technical challenges to producing cultured meat, producers and advocates of the technology must consider a range of social issues, including consumer appeal and acceptance, media coverage, religious status, regulation, and potential economic impacts. Whilst much has been written on the prospects for consumer appeal and acceptance of cultured meat, less consideration has been given to the other aspects of the social world that will interact with this new technology. Here, each of these issues is considered in turn, forming a view of cultured meat as a technology with a diverse set of societal considerations and far-reaching social implications. It is argued that the potential gains from a transition to cultured meat are vast, but that cultural phenomena and institutions must be navigated carefully for this nascent industry to meet its potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745187

RESUMO

Proof-of-principle for large-scale engineering of edible muscle tissue, in vitro, was established with the product's introduction in 2013. Subsequent research and commentary on the potential for cell-based meat to be a viable food option and potential alternative to conventional meat have been significant. While some of this has focused on the biology and engineering required to optimize the manufacturing process, a majority of debate has focused on cultural, environmental, and regulatory considerations. Animal scientists and others with expertise in muscle and cell biology, physiology, and meat science have contributed to the knowledge base that has made cell-based meat possible and will continue to have a role in the future of the new product. Importantly, the successful introduction of cell-based meat that looks and tastes like conventional meat at a comparable price has the potential to displace and/or complement conventional meat in the marketplace.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4236, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843654

RESUMO

The impact of commensal bacteria on the host arises from complex microbial-diet-host interactions. Mapping metabolic interactions in gut microbial communities is therefore key to understand how the microbiome influences the host. Here we use an interdisciplinary approach including isotope-resolved metabolomics to show that in Drosophila melanogaster, Acetobacter pomorum (Ap) and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) a syntrophic relationship is established to overcome detrimental host diets and identify Ap as the bacterium altering the host's feeding decisions. Specifically, we show that Ap uses the lactate produced by Lp to supply amino acids that are essential to Lp, allowing it to grow in imbalanced diets. Lactate is also necessary and sufficient for Ap to alter the fly's protein appetite. Our data show that gut bacterial communities use metabolic interactions to become resilient to detrimental host diets. These interactions also ensure the constant flow of metabolites used by the microbiome to alter reproduction and host behaviour.


Assuntos
Dieta , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Acetobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/deficiência , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Consórcios Microbianos , Reprodução
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780731

RESUMO

As aquatic invasive species (AIS) proliferate worldwide, a better understanding of their roles in invaded habitats is needed to inform management and introduction prevention strategies and priorities. Metabarcoding of stomach content DNA (scDNA) shows considerable promise in such regard. We thus metabarcoded scDNA from two non-native fish species (alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax)), and three native ones (bloater (Coregonus hoyi), ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus)). Fishes (N = 376) were sampled in spring 2009 and 2010 from 73-128 m depths at three Lake Michigan sites. Four mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) primer sets designed to target five potential AIS prey, and a universal aquatic invertebrate CO1 primer set targeting both native and AIS prey were used. Quality controlled prey amplicons were matched to three AIS prey: Bythotrephes longimanus (mean percent frequency occurrence, all samples = 7%), Cercopagis pengoi (5%), and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (11%). Neither invasive prey Dreissena polymorpha nor Hemimysis anomala were detected. Native prey Leptodiaptomus sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Mysis diluviana were relatively common in scDNA (respective mean percent occurrences, all samples: 48%, 25%, 42%). Analysis of variation in prey occurrences for sample site, predator species, sample year, sample depth, and predator total length (TL) indicated site and predator species were most important. However, B. longimanus occurrence in scDNA depended upon predator TL, perhaps indicative of its unique defensive spine limiting susceptibility to predation until fishes exceed species-specific gape-based limitations. Our analysis of native and invasive prey species indicated possible indirect AIS impacts such as native predators switching their diet due to AIS-driven losses of preferred native prey. Metabarcoding demonstrated that AIS are integrated components of the offshore Lake Michigan food web, with both native and non-native predators, and both invasive and native prey are affecting species interactions across multiple trophic levels.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Peixes/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Espécies Introduzidas , Invertebrados/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Lagos , Michigan , Comportamento Predatório , Wisconsin
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709737

RESUMO

Establishing the diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) remains difficult despite the availability of specific molecular genetic testing of the ALDOB gene. This is attributable, at least in part, to the lack of a specific and practical biomarker. We report the incidental diagnosis of HFI as a consequence of nontargeted genetic testing ordered for alternative indications in 5 patients, including 3 children and 2 adults. Two of the children were diagnosed with HFI after extensive evaluations that ultimately involved clinical or research exome sequencing. The third child was diagnosed with HFI during subsequent genetic testing of at-risk family members. Both adults learned to avoid fructose and remained asymptomatic of HFI before diagnosis. One was diagnosed with HFI during preconception, nontargeted expanded carrier screening. For the other, concern for HFI was initially raised by indeterminate direct-to-consumer genetic testing results. None of these patients presented with infantile acute liver failure or other acute decompensation. Our findings suggest that the emphasis of classic teaching on infantile liver failure after first exposure to fructose may be inadvertently increasing the likelihood of missing cases of HFI characterized by other manifestations. HFI is likely underdiagnosed and should be considered for patients with nonspecific findings as well as for individuals with significant aversion to sweets.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Frutose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor , Nanismo/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Intolerância à Frutose/genética , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Infertilidade Feminina , Masculino , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(9): 1423-1426, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following the Covid-19 proliferation beyond the borders of China at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we will provide an analysis of food consumption in Italy during the emergency from a social stance. Secondly, we will consider the risks in relation to health of these food product choices. METHODS AND RESULT: This analysis is based on IRi's data on consumption trends (percentage increase in sales in value) during the first period of the spread of coronavirus, from 23rd of February through the 29th of March, 2020. The sample includes 10 769 stores. There was an increase in the consumption of pasta, flour, eggs, long-life milk and frozen foods, in comparison to a reduction of fresh food goods. The sales of snacks have dropped in relation to the production of homemade bread, pizza and cakes. CONCLUSION: The increase in the consumption of some types of food is linked with their symbolic value and its tendency to carry on at home some external socialization habits. But be careful: these habits are not always healthy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003219, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of genetic risk for obesity on food choice behaviors is unknown and may be in the causal pathway between genetic risk and weight gain. The aim of this study was to examine associations between genetic risk for obesity and food choice behaviors using objectively assessed workplace food purchases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected prior to the start of the "ChooseWell 365" health-promotion intervention randomized control trial. Participants were employees of a large hospital in Boston, MA, who enrolled in the study between September 2016 and February 2018. Cafeteria sales data, collected retrospectively for 3 months prior to enrollment, were used to track the quantity (number of items per 3 months) and timing (median time of day) of purchases, and participant surveys provided self-reported behaviors, including skipping meals and preparing meals at home. A previously validated Healthy Purchasing Score was calculated using the cafeteria traffic-light labeling system (i.e., green = healthy, yellow = less healthy, red = unhealthy) to estimate the healthfulness (quality) of employees' purchases (range, 0%-100% healthy). DNA was extracted and genotyped from blood samples. A body mass index (BMI) genome-wide polygenic score (BMIGPS) was generated by summing BMI-increasing risk alleles across the genome. Additionally, 3 polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated with 97 BMI variants previously identified at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8): (1) BMI97 (97 loci), (2) BMICNS (54 loci near genes related to central nervous system [CNS]), and (3) BMInon-CNS (43 loci not related to CNS). Multivariable linear and logistic regression tested associations of genetic risk score quartiles with workplace purchases, adjusted for age, sex, seasonality, and population structure. Associations were considered significant at P < 0.05. In 397 participants, mean age was 44.9 years, and 80.9% were female. Higher genetic risk scores were associated with higher BMI. The highest quartile of BMIGPS was associated with lower Healthy Purchasing Score (-4.8 percentage points [95% CI -8.6 to -1.0]; P = 0.02), higher quantity of food purchases (14.4 more items [95% CI -0.1 to 29.0]; P = 0.03), later time of breakfast purchases (15.0 minutes later [95% CI 1.5-28.5]; P = 0.03), and lower likelihood of preparing dinner at home (Q4 odds ratio [OR] = 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9]; P = 0.03) relative to the lowest BMIGPS quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest BMICNS quartile was associated with fewer items purchased (P = 0.04), and the highest BMInon-CNS quartile was associated with purchasing breakfast at a later time (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P = 0.03), and not preparing breakfast (P = 0.04) or lunch (P = 0.01) at home. A limitation of this study is our data come from a relatively small sample of healthy working adults of European ancestry who volunteered to enroll in a health-promotion study, which may limit generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, genetic risk for obesity was associated with the quality, quantity, and timing of objectively measured workplace food purchases. These findings suggest that genetic risk for obesity may influence eating behaviors that contribute to weight and could be targeted in personalized workplace wellness programs in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02660086.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Boston , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673349

RESUMO

In mammals, inter- and intraspecies differences in consumption of sweeteners largely depend on allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene (locus Sac) encoding the T1R3 protein, a sweet taste receptor subunit. To assess the influence of Tas1r3 polymorphisms on feeding behavior and metabolism, we examined the phenotype of F1 male hybrids obtained from crosses between the following inbred mouse strains: females from 129SvPasCrl (129S2) bearing the recessive Tas1r3 allele and males from either C57BL/6J (B6), carrying the dominant allele, or the Tas1r3-gene knockout strain C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm (B6-Tas1r3-/-). The hybrids 129S2B6F1 and 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 had identical background genotypes and different sets of Tas1r3 alleles. The effect of Tas1r3 hemizygosity was analyzed by comparing the parental strain B6 (Tas1r3 homozygote) and hemizygous F1 hybrids B6 × B6-Tas1r3-/-. Data showed that, in 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 hybrids, the reduction of glucose tolerance, along with lower consumption of and lower preference for sweeteners during the initial licking responses, is due to expression of the recessive Tas1r3 allele. Hemizygosity of Tas1r3 did not influence these behavioral and metabolic traits. However, the loss of the functional Tas1r3 allele was associated with a small decline in the long-term intake and preference for sweeteners and reduction of plasma insulin and body, liver, and fat mass.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Genótipo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemizigoto , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência
17.
Neuron ; 107(1): 8-11, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645309

RESUMO

C1ql3 protein and its receptor Bai3 are involved in synaptic organization and function. In this issue of Neuron, Wang et al. (2020) report that both are essential for synaptic function between the anterior olfactory nucleus and the olfactory bulb and for the generation, but not recall, of associative olfactory memories determining food preference in mice.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Sinapses , Animais , Memória , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório , Olfato
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525950

RESUMO

Developing new food products is a complex process. Even if a company performs new product development activities successfully, it is still uncertain if consumers will adopt the product. The Bass diffusion model has often been used to study product adoption. However, existing modifications of the Bass diffusion model do not capture the complexity of consumer food choice and they have limitations in situations where there is no sales data. To avoid these challenges, the system dynamics approach can be employed. This paper aimed at extending the existing system dynamics Bass diffusion model to investigate the dynamic adoption process of insect-based food from a consumer research perspective. We performed a structured review of the literature on edible insects to build the model. The model was used to study adoption of the product amongst consumers in the Netherlands. Simulations revealed that diffusion of a radical innovation, such as an insect-based burger, can proceed for many years before there are observable adopters in the total population, under the currently reported practices in the Netherlands. Expanding awareness of this innovation requires many decades, which can be quickened by developing strategies aimed at increasing word-of-mouth. Nevertheless, the low likelihood to adopt such food remains a challenge towards full adoption, even when the sensory quality of products is improved. To fully explore how to improve the diffusion outcome of edible insects, more knowledge on mechanisms related to positive and negative word-of-mouth, and adoption of insect-based burgers by people who initially reject them, is needed. Our study demonstrated that system dynamics models could have potential in designing new food product strategies in companies, as they facilitate decision-making and uncover knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Difusão de Inovações , Insetos Comestíveis , Indústria Alimentícia , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Países Baixos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516322

RESUMO

There is a global lack of data concerning shark consumption trends, consumer attitudes, and public knowledge regarding sharks. This is the case in Trinidad and Tobago, where shark is a popular culinary delicacy. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago. Six hundred and seven questionnaires were administered. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regressions were performed to test the association between KAP and demographic categories. The response rate was 93.4% with 567 questionnaires returned (473 from Trinidad and 94 from Tobago). Two hundred and seventeen (38.3%) participants were knowledgeable, 422 (74.4%) displayed attitudes in favour of shark conservation and sustainable use, and 270 (47.6%) displayed practices promoting shark conservation and sustainable use. Island (AOR = 2.81, CI = 1.78, 4.46) and tertiary education (AOR = 2.31, CI = 1.20, 4.46) significantly influenced knowledge level. Gender (AOR = 1.50, CI = 1.02, 2.20) and island (AOR = 0.56, CI = 0.35, 0.90) significantly influenced attitude. Gender (COR = 1.59, CI = 1.14, 2.22) was significantly associated with practices. Over 70% of respondents ate shark, and 54.7% ate shark infrequently enough to avoid risks from heavy metal toxicity. Our results may be useful to develop public awareness and practice improvement initiatives in order to improve KAP regarding shark meat consumption.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Tubarões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Marinhos , Sorogrupo , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 186, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the elderly, nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) could potentially affect food purchasing behaviors. We examined the association between combinations of nutritional status and QOL and food purchasing motives among the elderly. METHODS: A total of 143 community-dwelling elderly were recruited in Seoul, South Korea. Nutritional status and QOL were assessed and participants were divided into four groups according to those combinations. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds of food purchasing motives according to combinations of nutritional status and QOL. RESULTS: As a result of comparing the scores (mean ± SD) of the overall important factors for food purchasing, health related factors such as Nutrition quality and Preventive of treatment effect were the highest score (4.4 ± 0.8), followed by Price (4.1 ± 0.9), Ease of purchase (3.8 ± 0.9), Ease of chewing (3.7 ± 0.9), and Taste (3.6 ± 0.9). Participants with a low nutritional status and low QOL had more eating-related problems (77.8%) including chewing difficulty (48.9%) and constipation (17.8%) than those with a high nutritional status and high QOL (P < 0.05). Participants who were in high nutritional status and low QOL were more likely to be motivated by Ease of chewing (OR: 6.72; 95% CI: 1.44-31.37; P < 0.05), while those who were in low nutritional status and high QOL were less motivated by Taste (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.08-0.94; P < 0.05) compared to those who were in high nutritional status and high QOL. CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in food purchasing motives such as Ease of chewing or Taste according to combinations of nutritional status and QOL. These data are important in demonstrating differing motives for food choice across nutritional status and QOL, and also provide indications of which care service and food development may be needed in promoting health for the elderly in South Korea.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Seul , Inquéritos e Questionários
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