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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190041, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) are increasingly popular in Nutritional Epidemiology studies. However, misunderstandings regarding the choice and application of these methods have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare and present the main differences and similarities between FA and PCA, focusing on their applicability to nutritional studies. METHODS: PCA and FA were applied on a matrix of 34 variables expressing the mean food intake of 1,102 individuals from a population-based study. RESULTS: Two factors were extracted and, together, they explained 57.66% of the common variance of food group variables, while five components were extracted, explaining 26.25% of the total variance of food group variables. Among the main differences of these two methods are: normality assumption, matrices of variance-covariance/correlation and its explained variance, factorial scores, and associated error. The similarities are: both analyses are used for data reduction, the sample size usually needs to be big, correlated data, and they are based on matrices of variance-covariance. CONCLUSION: PCA and FA should not be treated as equal statistical methods, given that the theoretical rationale and assumptions for using these methods as well as the interpretation of results are different.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Análise Fatorial , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Humanos
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 546, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor dietary habits have been identified as one of the cancer risks factors in various epidemiological studies. Consumption of healthy and balance diet is crucial to reduce cancer risk. Cancer prevention food plan should consist of all the right amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. Although dietary habits could be changed, affordability of healthy foods has been a major concern, as the price of healthy foods are more expensive the unhealthy counterparts. METHODS: Therefore, using linear programming, this study is aimed to develop a healthy and balanced menu with minimal cost in accordance to individual needs that could in return help to prevent cancer. A cross sectional study involving 100 adults from a local university in Kuala Lumpur was conducted in 3 phases. The first phase is the data collection for the subjects, which includes their socio demographic, anthropometry and diet recall. The second phase was the creation of a balanced diet model at a minimum cost. The third and final phase was the finalization of the cancer prevention menu. Optimal and balanced menus were produced based on respective guidelines of WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research) 2007, MDG (Malaysian Dietary Guidelines) 2010 and RNI (Recommended Nutrient Intake) 2017, with minimum cost. RESULTS: Based on the diet recall, most of subjects did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake for fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, B12, folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and beta-carotene. While, the intake of sugar (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%) and sodium (2585 ± 544 g) was more than recommended. From the optimization model, three menus, which met the dietary guidelines for cancer prevention by WCRF/AICR 2007, MDG 2010 and RNI 2017, with minimum cost of RM7.8, RM9.2 and RM9.7 per day were created. CONCLUSION: Linear programming can be used to translate nutritional requirements based on selected Dietary Guidelines to achieve a healthy, well-balanced menu for cancer prevention at minimal cost. Furthermore, the models could help to shape consumer food choice decision to prevent cancer especially for those in low income group where high cost for health food has been the main deterrent for healthy eating.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Programação Linear , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Fibras na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Dieta Saudável/economia , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 609-620, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195322

RESUMO

Dietary choices affect personal health and environmental impacts, but little is known about the relation between these outcomes. Here we examine the intake-related health impacts and the food-production related impacts to ecosystems and human health by applying life cycle impact assessment methods to habitual diet data of 1457 European adults. We measured food production impacts for each individual in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) as calculated by the Recipe 2016 life cycle impact assessment method using secondary production data, which were then compared with their personal health DALYs predicted from the known relationships between dietary choices and disease risk. Across this population cohort, each individual was estimated to lose on average 2.5 ±â€¯0.9 DALYs per lifetime due to sub-optimal dietary intake (with seed and vegetable under-consumption the greatest contributors) and their food choices caused environmental human health impacts of 2.4 ±â€¯1.3 DALYs (particularly due to the damage associated with production of meats, milk, and vegetables). Overall, there was no relationship between a healthier dietary pattern and the environmental human health impacts associated with production of its constituent foods (i.e. healthier diets did not have lower or higher production impacts). This was due to a combination of decreased meat consumption correlating with increased consumption of other foods, as well as the fact that under-consumption of some low impact foods yielded high personal health consequences. However, for specific food items synergies and tradeoffs could be identified. For example, reduced processed meat consumption benefits both personal and environmental health. Every DALY caused by higher whole grain and vegetable production and consumption would be offset by reduced disease risk that equated to an average of 7.7 (5.7 to 10.4) and 1.4 (0.9 to 2.5) lower personal health DALYs, respectively.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Carne , Política Nutricional , Verduras
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2407, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160592

RESUMO

The senses play critical roles in helping animals evaluate foods, including fruits that can change both in colour and scent during ripening to attract frugivores. Although numerous studies have assessed the impact of colour on fruit selection, comparatively little is known about fruit scent and how olfactory and visual data are integrated during foraging. We combine 25 months of behavioural data on 75 wild, white-faced capuchins (Cebus imitator) with measurements of fruit colours and scents from 18 dietary plant species. We show that frequency of fruit-directed olfactory behaviour is positively correlated with increases in the volume of fruit odours produced during ripening. Monkeys with red-green colour blindness sniffed fruits more often, indicating that increased reliance on olfaction is a behavioural strategy that mitigates decreased capacity to detect red-green colour contrast. These results demonstrate a complex interaction among fruit traits, sensory capacities and foraging strategies, which help explain variation in primate behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/fisiopatologia , Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Frutas , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Cebus , Odorantes
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 155-162, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103653

RESUMO

In the last decade, cisgenic breeding emerged as a valuable alternative to transgenic genetic modification. Cisgenesis allows to obtain disease-resistant crops, thus reducing the need of chemical pesticides in the fields. This would imply a reduction of the environmental impact deriving from agricultural production. To concretely exploit the potential deriving from such biotechnology application, consumers' willingness to buy and consume such food is an essential matter. In this study we explore consumer choice behavior for cisgenic vs conventional apple alternatives through a hypothetical Choice Experiment, meanwhile examining attribute non-attendance behaviors. The Latent Class Model estimates reveal considerable differences across population segments in terms of choice behavior and preferences. In fact, while some consumers choose based on this attribute, a sizable segment of the population ignores it, suggesting that there may be room on the market for these products with potential implications in terms of environmental and food policy formulation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Ambiente , Preferências Alimentares , Malus , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas
7.
J Insect Sci ; 19(3)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039585

RESUMO

Specificity is one of the fundamental concepts in ecology. Host specificity of phytophagous insects has been of particular interest because of its crucial role in diversification and life-history evolution. However, the majority of tropical insects remain insufficiently explored with respect to their host-plant relations. A lack of respective data is also hindering the debate over whether higher levels of host-plant specificity prevail in tropical insects compared to temperate ones. We investigated host-plant specificity of forest geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in equatorial Africa using host-plant acceptability trials with neonate larvae, with the addition of field observations. We compare our experimental data to the (well-known) host-specificity patterns of closely related temperate (hemiboreal) species. Similarly to the temperate region, there were broadly polyphagous tropical species in several clades of Geometridae utilizing hosts belonging to different plant families. Phylogenetic comparative analysis returned no significant differences in host specificity between the two regions. Our study contributes to the evidence that host-plant specificity of herbivores is not necessarily substantially higher in tropical than temperate regions.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Herbivoria , Mariposas , Árvores , Clima Tropical , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Larva
8.
Meat Sci ; 155: 8-15, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048239

RESUMO

In recent decades, processed meat consumers have drastically revised their consumption patterns and have gained an increasing awareness of related health concerns. Although several studies have examined the role of meat products in the human diet, we observed a certain scarcity in the multi-perspective approach to the health implications of cocked ham. Therefore, we decided to verify different sources of potentially unhealthy constituents by simultaneously analysing the role that saturated fats, salt and nitrites play in consumer perception. The purpose of this paper was to investigate consumer preferences for healthier processed meat, in particular the specific objective of this study was to evaluate the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics and the components or additives that could pose a risk to the health of consumers, by considering the sensory and marketing characteristics involved in the choice of cooked ham. With these aims, two different analyses on stated preferences were carried out: firstly, a principal component analysis was performed to identify the main consumer attitudes towards meat products; subsequently, a conjoint analysis was carried out in order to identify the descriptive attributes. The results show that the presence of high salt content and nitrites discourage the intention to purchase, as the presence of a high fat content also does, however at the same time, consumers attach importance to taste, colour and juiciness that are strongly influenced by the above mentioned potentially unhealthy compounds. The overall results are strongly consistent with previous studies but evidence a certain dichotomy between sensory properties and health attributes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Produtos da Carne/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Atitude , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitritos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Paladar
9.
Behav Processes ; 164: 178-185, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082477

RESUMO

Organisms must frequently make cost-benefit decisions based on time, risk, and effort in choosing rewards to pursue. Various tasks have been developed to assess effort-based choice in rats, and experimenters have found largely similar results across tasks and brain regions. In this review, we focus primarily on the convergence of different effort-based choice tasks where quality or quantity of reward are manipulated. In the former, the rat is typically presented with the option to work for a preferred reward or select a less preferred, but freely-available reward. In such paradigms, the rewards are of different identities but are confirmed to differ qualitatively in value by a food preference task when both are freely-available. In the latter task type, rats are required to select between higher magnitude versus lower magnitudes of the same reward, but each with a similar effort requirement. We discuss the strengths/limitations of these paradigms, and describe brain regions that have been probed that result in converging or equivocal findings. Results are also reviewed with reference to a need for future work, and the broader impacts and implications of studies probing the mechanisms of effort.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Esforço Físico , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Preferências Alimentares , Recompensa
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 535, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of cognitive function is a significant issue as the world's population ages. Preserving cognitive function maintains independence in older adults bringing major societal and financial benefits. Lifestyle factors such as diet are modifiable risk factors, which may help preserve cognitive function. Most nutrition research aimed at preserving cognitive function and metabolic health has focussed on individual nutrients and foods, not allowing for food combinations and interactions. A dietary pattern approach considers the entire diet including its complexity. Previous research investigating dietary patterns and cognitive function has not always considered relevant covariates such as physical activity and the Apolipoprotein E genotype, which are known to have associations with cognitive function. The aim of the REACH (Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health) study is to investigate associations between dietary patterns, cognitive function and metabolic syndrome, accounting for a range of covariates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study design will recruit older, community-living adults (65-74 years) from Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data will be collected via a 109-item food frequency questionnaire validated using a 4-day food record. Cognitive function will be assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (paper based) and the Computerised Mental Performance Assessment System (COMPASS) - a testing suite covering six domains. Additional data will include genetic (Apolipoprotein E ε4) and biochemical markers (fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipids profile), anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short form) and health and demographics (questionnaire). Dietary patterns will be derived by principal component analysis. Associations between cognitive function and dietary patterns will be examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates and interaction factors will include age, education, socio-economic status, physical activity, Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, family history of dementia or cognitive impairment, and lifestyle factors. Differences between participants with and without metabolic syndrome will also be examined. DISCUSSION: This study will bring new knowledge regarding associations between dietary patterns and cognitive function and metabolic health in older adults living in New Zealand. This is important for developing nutrition related recommendations to help older adults maintain cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Nova Zelândia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Ter Arkh ; 91(1): 38-42, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090369

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the investigation was to study the peculiarities of food consumption in patients with atrial fibrillation, capable of influencing the anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, in comparison with healthy volunteers and taking into account geographical specifics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an open cohort study, 196 respondents (88 men, 108 women) evaluated food preferences using a questionnaire survey. The quantitative evaluation of adherence to lifestyle modification was studied by QAA-25. Statistical data processing was performed by parametric (Student's t-test) and nonparametric (Wald-Wolfowitz, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson) analysis methods. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in food rations between the studied categories of respondents, both increasing [37.0±19.5 points versus 37.3±17.98 points; Wald-Wolfowitz (Z), p=0.16] and reducing the activity of warfarin [62.2±26.3 points versus 63.4±23.8 points; Wald-Wolfowitz (Z), p=0.95]. The absence of differences remained in the evaluation, taking into account regional characteristics of nutrition. The respondents were taking warfarin, there is no relationship between the level of commitment to the modification of lifestyle and diet modification. CONCLUSION: it is shown that medical recommendations aimed at correcting the eating behavior of respondents taking warfarin are not effective, which can be an independent risk factor for complications of both warfarin therapy and the underlying disease.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Preferências Alimentares , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(3): 7303205110p1-7303205110p11, 2019 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the cultural beliefs that influence Latino-American mothers' feeding practices with their young children and the sources they referenced in making food choices for their children. METHOD: We conducted semistructured interviews with 12 Latino-American mothers focusing on their experiences of feeding their young children. Data analysis, based in grounded theory, consisted of interview transcription, content analysis, coding, and theme development. RESULTS: We identified four themes summarizing the mothers' feeding practices: (1) "Grandma knows best," (2) "I want my child(ren) to be healthy," (3) "always soup and always rice," and (4) "mealtime is family time." CONCLUSION: Occupational therapy practitioners need to obtain accurate information from families about feeding practices and to understand and interpret those practices in broader cultural contexts to design and implement targeted feeding intervention strategies that avoid stereotyping or misinterpreted information. To promote family-centered, meaningful interventions, practitioners must understand the cultural influences on feeding practices and be sensitive to mothers' needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Mães/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5092-5101, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study identified and compared the drivers of liking for fresh pears cross-culturally, using Korean and Chinese panels and consumers. The pear samples consisted of six types of fresh pear varying in flavor and texture qualities. The descriptive panels for the two countries independently derived descriptive terms for the pears. Acceptance testing was also conducted to examine the hedonic levels of fresh pears among Chinese and Korean consumers. Multivariate analysis of variance, using a general linear model (GLM), and multiple-factor analysis were applied to the descriptive data. The consumer test data were analyzed using a GLM, correspondence analysis, and internal preference mapping. RESULTS: The results showed that the overall perceptual configurations of pears developed by the Chinese and Korean panels were similar. The consumer liking for fresh pears and the drivers of liking were also cross-culturally similar. Consumers from both countries liked crisp and juicy Asian pears but they had different perceptions of and liking for the pear with a strong fruity note and soft texture. This observation was supported by the results of the descriptive analysis, which showed that the Chinese panel considered this pear sample to be fruity and have an harmonious flavor, whereas the Korean panel - which was less familiar with the sample - considered its flavor unharmonious. CONCLUSION: Previous cross-cultural studies have often found that food acceptance levels vary markedly with the degree of familiarity with target foodstuffs. However, unlike other food categories, the difference seems relatively small for fruits that are commonly available across cultures. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Pyrus/química , Adulto , China , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pyrus/classificação , Pyrus/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934965

RESUMO

This study has revealed the role of a new factor, perceived correspondence of health effects, in consumer acceptance of functional foods. Using a web survey of 1016 people, we hypothesized and verified the following: when an ingredient does not occur naturally in the carrier but the consumer assigns the same health effect to it as to the carrier, the product's acceptance will be more positive than it would be if an identical health effect was not associated with the carrier and the functional ingredient. Factors influencing consumer acceptance were examined via binary logistic regression models. According to the results, if a functional food developer fortifies the carrier with an ingredient that does not occur naturally in the carrier, the product can expect higher acceptance if the health effects perceived by consumers are properly matched. In general, it has been found that expected taste and awareness of the product were decisive in all demographic and income groups, whereas perceived correspondence of health effects had a lesser, but still positive influence on acceptance.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimento Funcional , Percepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986941

RESUMO

Food cravings have been associated with problematic eating behaviors, such as emotional eating. Late adolescence is an important developmental period to examine this association, as late adolescents have greater independence in food choices as well as potentially higher demands during a transitional period of their lives. Mechanisms underlying the association between food cravings and problematic eating remain unclear. This study examined whether experiential avoidance (EA) may be one possible mechanism mediating the association between higher levels of food cravings and problematic eating behaviors. Late adolescents (n = 174) completed measures assessing EA, food cravings, and three problematic eating behaviors: emotional eating, cognitive restraint, and uncontrolled eating. Height and weight were measured objectively to calculate body mass index (BMI). Food cravings were positively associated with emotional eating and mediated by EA. EA also significantly mediated the association between greater cognitive restraint and greater food cravings. No significant mediation was detected for food cravings and uncontrolled eating. Future research may consider EA as a treatment target in intervention strategies for late adolescents seeking to decrease emotional or restrained eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Fissura , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978944

RESUMO

First-year college students are at particular risk of dietary maladaptation during their transition to adulthood. A college environment that facilitates consistent access to nutritious food is critical to ensuring dietary adequacy among students. The objective of the study was to examine perceptions of the campus food environment and its influence on the eating choices of first-year students attending a minority-serving university located in a food desert. Focus group interviews with twenty-one first-year students were conducted from November 2016 to January 2017. Students participated in 1 of 5 focus groups. Most interviewees identified as being of Hispanic/Latino or Asian/Pacific Islander origin. A grounded theory approach was applied for inductive identification of relevant concepts and deductive interpretation of patterns and relationships among themes. Themes related to the perceived food environment included adequacy (i.e., variety and quality), acceptability (i.e., familiarity and preferences), affordability, and accessibility (i.e., convenience and accommodation). Subjective norms and processes of decisional balance and agency were themes characterizing interpersonal and personal factors affecting students' eating choices. The perceived environment appeared to closely interact with subjective norms to inform internal processes of decision-making and agency around the eating choices of first-year students attending a minority-serving university campus located in a food desert.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Preferências Alimentares , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estudantes , Universidades , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comportamento de Escolha , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Grupos Focais , Alimentos/economia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Percepção
17.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934544

RESUMO

Recent research points to the bidimensional nature of orthorexia, with one dimension related to interest in healthy eating (healthy orthorexia) and another dimension related to a pathological preoccupation with eating healthily (orthorexia nervosa). Research was needed to provide further support for this differentiation. We examined the food-choice motives related to both aspects of orthorexia. Participants were 460 students from a Spanish university who completed the Teruel Orthorexia Scale and the Food Choice Questionnaire. By means of structural equation modeling, we analyzed the relationship between orthorexia, food-choice motives, gender, body mass index, and age. The motives predicting food choices in orthorexia nervosa and healthy orthorexia were quite different. In the case of orthorexia nervosa, the main motive was weight control, with sensorial appeal and affect regulation also showing significant associations. For healthy orthorexia, the main motive was health content, with sensorial appeal and price also showing significant associations. This supports the hypothesis that orthorexia nervosa is associated with maladaptive eating behavior motived more by weight control than by health concerns.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Meat Sci ; 154: 1-10, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954793

RESUMO

The study objectives were to determine assessors' (n = 256) preference for corned beef, produced with sequential reductions in NaCl concentrations and to determine if preference was affected by assessor age. The use of a salt replacer such as potassium lactate was also assessed. The youngest age cohort disliked samples containing the highest level of NaCl, whereas the oldest age cohort did not detect differences between samples. The most negatively perceived sample was the control, suggesting that NaCl levels added to commercial corned beef are currently too high for consumer acceptance. All age cohorts, with the exception of the 65-74 age cohort, accepted corned beef samples possessing NaCl levels closest to the FSAI target (1.63 g/100 g). No major sensory differences were noted between samples with and without potassium lactate by the ≥65 age cohort. Potassium lactate may be added to corned beef without affecting sensory attributes, whilst enhancing nutritional content. Assessors of varying age groups have differing preferences for certain NaCl levels and salt replacers.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Produtos da Carne/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Potássio
19.
Meat Sci ; 154: 37-45, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986669

RESUMO

Clean meat (grown from animal cells rather than rearing animals) has the potential to address many concerns associated with meat production. However, research suggests that the perceived unnaturalness of clean meat could be a barrier to consumer acceptance. This study investigated the efficacy of different messages designed to address consumers' concerns about clean meat naturalness. In an experimental design, participants read one of four messages: clean meat is natural, conventional meat is unnatural, naturalness is not important, or highlighting benefits of clean meat without addressing naturalness. The results indicated that arguing that conventional meat is unnatural resulted in a significant increase in some measures of acceptance compared to other messages. Arguing that clean meat is natural and challenging the appeal to nature were less persuasive, and challenging the appeal to nature resulted in some measures of acceptance being lower than not addressing naturalness. We discuss these results in the context of existing naturalness research and give recommendations for further research.


Assuntos
Células Cultivadas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Carne , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Meat Sci ; 154: 46-53, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004939

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to obtain the dynamic sensory profile of smoked bacon using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Eight samples were studied considering different smoking process: six samples were submitted to conventional smoking using different woods from reforestation and two samples were manufactured with liquid smoke. Seventy-eight regular bacon consumers evaluated the samples using the TDS methodology. TDS data were analyzed based on the sequence (bandplot by attribute and trajectory map) and dominance duration (univariate and multivariate techniques). TDS results showed differences between samples in terms of rate, trajectory and duration of dominant sensations. These differences can be mainly explained by the smoking processes used in their manufacture and by the oral work involved in the mastication task. Overall, TDS was a promising method for capturing temporal sensory changes in smoked bacon.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos da Carne/análise , Fumaça , Paladar , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Sus scrofa , Madeira
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