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1.
Behav Processes ; 169: 103983, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622658

RESUMO

This study examined whether a history of beneficial social learning experiences affects social partner preferences in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) and whether observer mice acquire adaptive model-based social learning strategies through associative learning. We tested whether observers would come to socially prefer demonstrators who provide beneficial information through the social transmission of food preference (STFP), over demonstrators who do not; and whether they would preferentially attend to and learn from such demonstrators. Observers were given repeated exposures to two demonstrators who differed in whether or not they consistently provided beneficial information (which increased observers' ingestion of food via the STFP). After multiple social learning experiences with a "relevant demonstrator" (our CS+) whose demonstrated food was available for consumption (our US) by the observer and a "non-relevant demonstrator" whose demonstrated food was never encountered, neither demonstrator was preferred over the other. Furthermore, observers learned equally well from both relevant and non-relevant demonstrators. The present findings suggest that adaptive model-based social learning strategies are not followed in the STFP, although we recommend further testing of the social preference hypothesis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500232

RESUMO

Social learning plays important roles in gaining new foraging skills and food preferences. However, the potential role and molecular mechanism of social learning in acquiring new feeding habits is less clear in fish. In the present study, we examined the success rate of feeding habit domestication from live prey fish to dead prey fish, as well as the food intake of dead prey fish in mandarin fish with or without feeders of dead prey fish as demonstrators. Here, we found that mandarin fish can learn from each other how to solve novel foraging tasks, feeding on dead prey fish. In addition, the analysis of gene expressions and signaling pathways of learning through Western blotting and transcriptome sequencing shows that the expression of the c-fos, fra2, zif268, c/ebpd and sytIV genes were significantly increased, and the anorexigenic pomc and leptin a expressions were decreased in fish of the learning group. The phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the learning group were significantly higher than those of the control group, while the phosphorylation level of S6 ribosomal protein (S6) was lower. With the inhibitors of PKA and CaMKII signaling and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we further found that the social learning of new feeding habits in mandarin fish could be attributed to the activation of the CaMKII signaling pathway and then the stimulation of the expression of the c-fos gene, which might be an important transcriptional factor to inhibit the expression of the anorexigenic gene pomc, resulting in the food intake of dead prey fish in mandarin fish. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that social learning could facilitate the acquisition of novel feeding habits in fish, and it considerably increases the rate of subsequent individual food intake and domestication through the interaction between the learning gene c-fos and the appetite control gene pomc.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Domesticação , Ingestão de Alimentos , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fosforilação , Comportamento Predatório , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária
3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480416

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study determined whether 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status moderates the relationship between food consumption patterns and body composition in children. Children were recruited (n = 342, 50% female, 8-10 y) from across New Zealand. Using a food frequency questionnaire, these food consumption patterns were derived: Processed Foods, Fruit and Vegetables, and Breakfast Foods. Body composition variables included: body fat (%), fat mass (kg), fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), body mass index (kg/m2) and waist to height ratio (W:Ht). Following adjustment for confounders, Processed Foods were positively associated with %fat (p = 0.015), fat mass (p = 0.004) and FMI (p = 0.016). Taste test strips determined PROP status. For Breakfast Foods, there were small negative associations with all body composition variables (p ≤ 0.001 to 0.037). The population sample was also stratified by PROP taster status. For the non-tasters, there were small to moderate negative associations between Breakfast Foods and each body composition variable (p = 0.003-0.045) except W:Ht (p = 0.112), and these relationships were stronger for girls compared to boys. For the tasters, there were small to moderate positive associations between Processed Foods with %fat (p = 0.030), fat mass (p ≤ 0.001) and FMI (p = 0.014). In conclusion, sensitivity to bitterness may moderate the relationship between food consumption patterns and body composition in children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Propiltiouracila/análise , Paladar/fisiologia , Desjejum/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fast Foods , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Fatores Sexuais , Verduras
4.
Obes Facts ; 12(5): 529-542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence suggests that obesity is associated with alteration of sweet taste perception. The purpose of this study was to determine if nonsurgical cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based weight loss can cause a change in sweet taste perception. METHODS: This case-control study consisted of 51 women aged 21-64 years. Twenty-seven with obesity or overweight were assigned to an obesity (OB) group (BMI: 29.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2) and 24 to a normal control (NC) group (BMI: 20.9 ± 0.3 kg/m2). The OB group underwent a 30-week weight loss intervention using CBT-based group therapy. The results of measurement of detection threshold, suprathreshold perceived intensity, preference, and palatability, elements of sweet taste perception, were compared before and after the intervention. Psychological variables and appetite-related hormonal levels were measured. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients and 22 controls completed the study. The OB group showed a 14.6% weight loss after the intervention. At baseline, the OB group preferred significantly higher sucrose concentrations than did the NC group; however, this difference was no longer significant after intervention. In the OB group, persistent pleasure and reduced desire for other taste, measured by repeated exposure to sweetness, normalized after weight loss to levels comparable to those seen in the NC group. No significant difference in discriminative perception of the threshold concentration or the suprathreshold sensory value was found between the two groups before or after intervention. A significant correlation was found between the basal preferred sucrose concentration and the serum leptin level of the OB group after adjusting for confounding factors, such as BMI, depressive symptom score, and trait-anxiety scores. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss induced by CBT-based nonsurgical intervention resulted in the normalization of the sucrose preference and palatability of women with obesity. Leptin activity may be associated with the altered sweet taste preference of people with obesity.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Paladar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Fissura/fisiologia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438489

RESUMO

Children's favourite food and beverage brands use various tactics to foster positive associations and loyalty. This brand-consumer dynamic is frequently influenced by the use of implicit techniques and emotional appeals. Few studies have used physiological methods to examine the connections that brands build with children and the influence this has on their automatic responses. These techniques are potentially less prone to bias than behavioural or cognitive methods. This is the first study to explore the implicit response that children have to images of their favourite food and beverage brands using skin conductance responses as a marker of arousal. Australian children aged 8-11 years (n = 48) were recruited. Images of the participants' favourite branded food and beverage products, alongside images of the same products unpackaged, their family and friends, and neutral objects were presented in a randomised order with a standard timed interval between images. Children were significantly more aroused by branded images of their favourite food and beverage products than by their unpackaged counterparts (p < 0.042, d = 0.4). The physiological response to the branded products was similar to the response to the children's family and friends (p = 0.900, d = -0.02). These findings suggest that children may have an implicit connection to their favourite branded products.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 69, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing healthy eating behaviours in early life has implications for health over the life course. As the majority of Australian children aged five and under regularly attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, mealtimes at ECEC settings present opportunities to promote healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore children's eating behaviours and interactions between peers and educators during mealtimes in ECEC settings, with the aim of constructing a grounded theory of children's mealtimes in ECEC. METHODS: In-depth qualitative case studies were undertaken at two ECEC centres. Each centre had been assessed as meeting national quality standards and were located in a lower socioeconomic status area. Data collection consisted of direct observation, video recording, written memos, and daily field notes. The analysis included open coding of video recorded mealtimes and field notes resulting in the allocation of initial codes and focused codes. Codes were grouped to form thematic categories and emergent themes. Theoretical sampling was used to identify mealtime interactions exemplifying thematic categories. RESULTS: Data from 47 mealtimes was available. A grounded theory of children's mealtimes was developed to demonstrate children's outcomes at mealtimes. Outcomes were represented by five thematic categories: rituals, learning moments, food preference development, socialisation and child agency. Mealtimes offered opportunities for children to construct a community of peers with their educators by sharing information, stories and occasionally their food. Each centre established its own unique culture within mealtimes observed as the children were involved in routines and rituals. CONCLUSIONS: Mealtimes in ECEC settings are a unique cultural phenomenon co-constructed by the ECEC community of children and educators. The findings highlight the importance of mealtimes as a time for learning and socialization. The routine and rituals of mealtimes provide an opportunity for educators to support the development of healthy food preferences.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Refeições , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219607, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295301

RESUMO

Why do people who care about the environment adopt behaviours that are not consistent with their beliefs? Previous studies approach this as a case of cognitive dissonance, researchers looking into the strategies through which people reduce gaps between their attitudes and their behaviours. Here we start from the premise that there is no dissonance, and that people have consistent reasons of why they are doing what they are doing. The research task is then to shed light on these reasons. Using Q-methodology, a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach, we interviewed 42 environmentally-minded researchers asking them why they eat meat. Our interviewees were aware of and cared about the environmental and ethical impacts of meat eating, but reasoned that they eat meat because either technological, or political changes are more important than what they personally do, because of doubts about the impact of personal action in a complex world, or simply because they lack the determination to stop eating meat. Our analysis suggests that policies and messages that try to educate or guilt meat-eaters are unlikely to work with those well aware of the impacts of their actions.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Dissonância Cognitiva , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Atitude , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Princípios Morais , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
8.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(10): 2811-2817, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Eating-related problems are among the most frequent issues in olfactory impairment, causing a noticeable loss of quality of life for some of the affected persons. To what extent olfactory dysfunction impacts on the sensory perception of food is less explored. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of olfactory dysfunction on the perception of food aromas, as well as the perception of the "basic tastes" salty, sour, sweet, and bitter. METHODS: Eighty-nine participants were recruited for the prospective study. Group 1 consisted of thoroughly examined patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 48, mean age = 60.0 years), group 2 consisted of people with normal olfactory function (n = 41, mean age = 50.4 years). First, olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed for all participants with the help of the "Sniffin'Sticks" battery and the "taste strips" test. Second, food odors were rated for their pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and desirability. Last, real food items were tasted orally and the intensity for basic taste qualities (sweet, bitter, salty, and sour) and pleasantness was rated. In addition, salivation was measured following exposure to the food odors. RESULTS: In comparison to controls, patients rated orthonasal food odors as less pleasant, intense, familiar, and less appetizing. "Taste strip" scores were significantly lower in patients (M = 9.56, SD = 2.76) as compared to controls (M = 10.88, SD = 1.89). In addition, ratings of food liking for chocolate and peanut were lower in patients compared to controls (chocolate: patients-M = 6.85, SD = 2.09, controls-M = 7.90, SD = 1.53; peanut: patients-M = 4.88, SD = 2.20, controls-M = 6.80, SD = 2.33). No significant differences were found regarding the comparison of the salivary flow rate in controls (M = 0.52 g/min, SD = 0.19) and patients (M = 0.50 SD = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the perception of odors may change the perception of food with specific effects on food liking. Olfactory dysfunction affects gustatory function, indicating the central-nervous interaction between taste and smell. Still, olfactory dysfunction did not appear to affect patients' salivary flow.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos , Transtornos do Olfato , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Salivação/fisiologia , Olfato , Paladar
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220167

RESUMO

The emerging field of nutritional geometry (NG) provides powerful new approaches to test whether and how organisms prioritize specific nutritional blends when consuming chemically complex foods. NG approaches can thus help move beyond food-level estimates of diet breadth to predict invasive success, for instance by revealing narrow nutritional niches if broad diets are actually composed of nutritionally similar foods. We used two NG paradigms to provide different, but complementary insights into nutrient regulation strategies and test a hypothesis of extreme nutritional generalism in colony propagules of the globally distributed invasive ant Monomorium pharaonis. First, in two dimensions (protein:carbohydrates; P:C), M. pharaonis colonies consistently defended a slightly carbohydrate-biased intake target, while using a generalist equal-distance strategy of collectively overharvesting both protein and carbohydrates to reach this target when confined to imbalanced P:C diets. Second, a recently developed right-angled mixture triangle method enabled us to define the fundamental niche breadth in three dimensions (protein:carbohydrates:lipid, P:C:L). We found that colonies navigated the P:C:L landscape, in part, to mediate a tradeoff between worker survival (maximized on high-carbohydrate diets) and brood production (maximized on high-protein diets). Colonies further appeared unable to avoid this tradeoff by consuming extra lipids when the other nutrients were limiting. Colonies also did not rely on nutrient regulation inside their nests, as they did not hoard or scatter fractions of harvested diets to adjust the nutritional blends they consumed. These complementary NG approaches highlight that even the most successful invasive species with broad fundamental macronutrient niches must navigate complex multidimensional nutritional landscapes to acquire limiting macronutrients and overcome developmental constraints as small propagules.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Formigas/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Espécies Introduzidas
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3317-3327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been especially related to clozapine and olanzapine. Underlying mechanisms in relation to food preferences with an increased food craving and consumption of specific nutrients have not been extensively studied in patients with serious mental illness (SMI). We aim to describe specific food preferences (craving) and subsequent food consumption in SMI patients starting clozapine, as well as their possible relation to weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: An observational prospective follow-up study (18 weeks) was conducted in a cohort of 34 SMI patients who started clozapine due to resistant-psychotic symptoms. Anthropometric measures, Food Craving Inventory (FCI), and a food consumption frequency questionnaire were evaluated at baseline, weeks 8 and 18 of treatment. Statistical analysis included generalized estimating equations models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: No longitudinal changes over time were found across the different food craving scores after 18 weeks of treatment. However, adjusted models according to BMI status showed that the normal weight (NW) group presented an increased score for the "complex carbohydrates/proteins" food cravings (- 0.67; 95% CI [- 1.15, - 0.19]; P = 0.010), while baseline scores for "fast-food fats" cravings were significantly higher in the overweight/obese (OWO) group in comparison with NW patients (NW, 2.05; 95% CI [1.60, 2.49]; OWO, 2.81, 95% CI [2.37, 3.25]; P = 0.016). When considering if food craving could predict weight gain, only increments in "fast-food fats" cravings were associated (ß = - 5.35 ± 1.67; 95% CI [- 8.64, - 2.06]; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: No longitudinal differences were found for any of the food craving scores evaluated; however, in the NW group, food craving for "complex carbohydrates/proteins" changed. Thus, changes in "fast-food fats" cravings predicted weight increase in this sample. Interventions targeting food preferences may help to mitigate weight gain in patients starting treatment with clozapine.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Preferências Alimentares/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Fissura/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2407, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160592

RESUMO

The senses play critical roles in helping animals evaluate foods, including fruits that can change both in colour and scent during ripening to attract frugivores. Although numerous studies have assessed the impact of colour on fruit selection, comparatively little is known about fruit scent and how olfactory and visual data are integrated during foraging. We combine 25 months of behavioural data on 75 wild, white-faced capuchins (Cebus imitator) with measurements of fruit colours and scents from 18 dietary plant species. We show that frequency of fruit-directed olfactory behaviour is positively correlated with increases in the volume of fruit odours produced during ripening. Monkeys with red-green colour blindness sniffed fruits more often, indicating that increased reliance on olfaction is a behavioural strategy that mitigates decreased capacity to detect red-green colour contrast. These results demonstrate a complex interaction among fruit traits, sensory capacities and foraging strategies, which help explain variation in primate behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/fisiopatologia , Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Frutas , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Cebus , Odorantes
13.
Curr Obes Rep ; 8(3): 292-300, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222526

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery leads to a substantial decrease in energy intake. It is unclear whether this decrease in energy intake is simply due to eating smaller portions of the same food items or a shift in food preference towards less energy-dense foods. This review evaluates the existing literature on changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms involved. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in food preferences have been reported; however, the evidence is mainly based on indirect measurements, such as self-reporting. When changes in food preferences are directly assessed, results contradict previous findings, indicating that results based on self-reporting must be interpreted with caution as they do not necessarily reflect actual behaviour. However, it seems that there could be inter-individual differences in the response to surgery. Future studies investigating changes in food preferences should not only focus on direct measured of behaviour but should also consider the heterogeneity of the response after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Recompensa , Paladar/fisiologia
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2097415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119155

RESUMO

In this study, several factors (social status, age, gender, education, knowledge about healthy eating, and attitude to food) affecting consumer food choices (FC), including the relationship between the taste of food, FC, and depression, were analysed by using sensory traits and face reading technology. The first stage of the experimental scheme was the analysis of factors affecting consumer food preferences by using a questionnaire, while the second stage was evaluation of emotional expressions evoked by different food tastes in individuals with and without depressive disorders (DD), using the FaceReader 6 software. We show that gender is a significant factor for most emotional motivations, with a higher effect in females where there was an indication of increased cravings for sweets when feeling depressed. Age was a significant factor in the motivation to eat for positive feelings, while education had a significant influence on perceptions regarding healthy eating. Face reading technology was found to be sufficiently accurate to detect differences in facial expressions induced by different tastes of food, for groups with and without DD. In conclusion, many factors are of high importance in the analysis of food choices, and the results obtained using the FaceReader 6 technique are very promising for food-mood relation analysis. We suggest that mood has a strong link with the choice of food.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Face , Expressão Facial , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain Behav ; 9(5): e01262, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the anticipatory stage of swallowing, sensory stimuli related to food play an important role in the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of swallowing. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between food preferences and oscillatory brain activity during the anticipatory stage of swallowing. Therefore, to clarify the effect of individual food preferences on oscillatory brain activity, we investigated the relationship between food preferences and oscillatory brain activity during the observation of food images. METHODS: Here we examined this relationship using visual food stimuli and electroencephalography (EEG). Nineteen healthy participants were presented 150 images of food in a random order and asked to rate their subjective preference for that food on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (don't want to eat) to 4 (want to eat). Oscillation analysis was performed using a Hilbert transformation for bandpass-filtered EEG signals. RESULTS: The results showed that the oscillatory beta band power on C3 significantly decreased in response to favorite foods compared to disliked food. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that food preferences may impact oscillatory brain activity related to swallowing during the anticipatory stage of swallowing. This finding may lead to the development of new swallowing rehabilitation techniques for patients with dysphagia by applying food preferences to modulate oscillatory brain activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Deglutição/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(3): e141-e145, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897609

RESUMO

Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) often exhibit nutritional deficiencies and are at high risk of dying before the age of 5 years. Ensuring adequate nutrition is a critical part of health care for such children. This study aimed to investigate the association between nutritional status, nutrient intake, and food diversity in children with SCA. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 74 children with SCA, between 24 and 71 months of age. Anthropometric measurements, food and nutrients consumption were determined. The prevalence of low weight, stunting, and overweight/obesity were 16.2%, 35.1%, and 16.2%, respectively. Mean folic acid intake was low (49.05%±51.22%), whereas the intakes of protein (426.71%±171.93%), retinol (292.97%±403.88%), phosphorus (204.55%±151.35%), magnesium (233.02%±151.14%), iron (250.76%±165.81%), and zinc (243.21%±148.40%) were high. The dietary phosphorus/protein ratio was high for 31.1% of the children, and 44.6% of the children had low dietary diversity score. No correlation was found between food diversity, nutrient adequacy, and nutritional status. Despite the adequacy of the intake of most micronutrients, diet quality was inadequate, constituting mainly ultraprocessed foods. Knowing the food consumption pattern of these children enables a more resolute nutritional intervention.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/dietoterapia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2627-2633, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research on multiple invasive ant species has revealed the importance of carbohydrates for achieving high activity levels and outcompeting native ants. However, comparatively little is known about the role of diet and macronutrient preferences for uptake of insecticidal baits used to control invasive ants. We tested whether diet affected yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes Fr Smith) survival and behavior, and whether bait preference would be complementary to past diet. RESULTS: We found that colonies fed only crickets for 28 days had fewer live workers and queens, and less brood per live queen than colonies fed crickets + honeydew but did not differ significantly from colonies fed only honeydew. Colonies that had been fed only crickets were more active (as assessed by interaction with a novel object), retrieved 16-17 times more bait per worker overall, and consumed more of the six bait types than cricket + honeydew and honeydew-only fed colonies. However, prior diet did not affect bait choice. The two highest sugar bait formulations combined accounted for most of the bait consumed across all treatments (cricket-only 74.8% ± 28.1; cricket + honeydew 69.2% ± 12.4; honeydew-only 62.5% ± 30.4). CONCLUSION: Yellow crazy ant colonies fare better without protein than without carbohydrates. Yellow crazy ants ate the most bait when fed only crickets but did not choose baits complementary to their previous diet. Baits in a sugar-rich carrier may be most effective for the control of yellow crazy ants, regardless of the relative availability of macronutrients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Formigas , Dieta , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas
18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691090

RESUMO

Chronic smokers have a greater risk for altered chemosensation, unhealthy dietary patterns, and excessive adiposity. In an observational study of chronic smokers, we modeled relationships between chemosensation, fat/carbohydrate liking, smoking-associated dietary behaviors, and body mass index (BMI). Also tested in the model was liking for sweet electronic cigarette juice (e-juice). Smokers (n = 135, 37 ± 11 years) were measured for: Taste genetics (intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil-PROP); taste (NaCl and quinine intensities) and olfactory (odor identification) function; liking for cherry e-juice; and weight/height to calculate BMI. Smokers survey-reported their food liking and use of smoking for appetite/weight control. Structural equation models tested direct and indirect relationships between chemosensation, fat/carbohydrate liking, dietary behaviors, and BMI. In good-fitting models, taste intensity was linked to BMI variation through fat/carbohydrate liking (greater PROP intensity→greater NaCl intensity→greater food liking→higher BMI). Olfactory function tended to predict sweet e-juice liking, which, in turn, partially mediated the food liking and BMI association. The path between smoking-associated dietary behaviors and BMI was direct and independent of chemosensation or liking. These findings indicate that taste associates with BMI in chronic smokers through liking of fats/carbohydrates. Future research should determine if vaping sweet e-juice could improve diet quality and adiposity for smokers.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Prosthodont Res ; 63(2): 210-215, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relation between preference and the gaze for the test foods under unconsciousness using the eye-tracking system was investigated. METHODS: Participants consisted of 37 healthy volunteers. Test foods were steamed rice 150g, grilled salmon approximately 45g and slice cooked squash 60g, all of which were served on a tray. Foods forms were regular food, chopped food, and blended food. After attached to the eye tracker, participants watched the each dish arranged in front of them freely for 10s. And they ate test foods freely within 10min. The gazing point was measured for 10s from the time when the food was ordered and just before the eating. Preference levels were interviewed. The number of gaze point fixations and the total gaze point fixation time of the viewpoint during 10s just before eating were analyzed. The analysis items were (1) the total number of gaze point fixations (2) the total gaze point fixation time (3) the amount of food intake and (4) the preference level details. RESULTS: For foods with higher preference levels, the number of gaze point fixations increased significantly and the total gaze point fixation time significantly increased. In both groups, maximum food intake was observed for food forms with a high preference level. Most of the participants' selected regular foods as their most preferred food form among the food forms. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that subjects gazed at regular food which had high preference level.


Assuntos
Medições dos Movimentos Oculares/instrumentação , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a low-cost computer-based tool to elicit dietary choices in an incentive compatible manner, which can be used on-line or as part of a laboratory study. METHODS: The study was conducted with around 255 adults. Respondents were asked to allocate a fixed monetary budget across a choice of around a hundred grocery items with the prospect of receiving these items with some probability delivered to their home by a real supermarket. The tool covers a broad range of food items, allows inference of macro-nutrients and calories, and allows the researcher to fix the choice set participants can choose from. We compare the information derived from our incentivized tool, and compare it to alternative low-cost ways of measuring dietary intake, namely the food frequency questionnaire and a one-shot version of the 24-hour dietary recall, which are both based on self-reports. We compare the calorie intake indicators derived from each tool with a number of biometric measures for each subject, namely weight, body-mass-index (BMI) and waist size. RESULTS: The results show that the dietary information collected is only weakly correlated across the three methods. We find that only the calorie intake measure from our incentivized tool is positively and significantly related to each of the biometric indicators. Specifically, a 10% increase in calorie intake is associated with a 1.5% increase in BMI. By contrast, we find no significant correlations for either of the two measures based on self-reports. CONCLUSION: The computer-based tool is a promising new, low-cost measure of dietary choices, particularly in one-shot situations where such behaviours are only observed once, whereas other tools like 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires may be more suited when they are administered repeatedly. The tool may be useful for research conducted with limited time and budget.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/economia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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