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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371987

RESUMO

It was previously observed that in a population of a high-income country, dietary multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and increased offspring size at birth. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether similar changes are observed with dietary iron supplementation. For this we used the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study with records of maternal GDM status, nutrient supplementation, and extensive offspring birth size measurements. Maternal iron supplementation in pregnancy was associated with GDM development (risk ratio 1.67 (1.01-2.77), p = 0.048, n = 677) as well as offspring size and adiposity (n = 844-868) at birth in terms of weight (ß' = 0.078 (0.024-0.133); p = 0.005), head circumference (ß' = 0.060 (0.012-0.107); p = 0.02), body mass index (ß' = 0.067 (0.014-0.119); p = 0.01), and various skinfold thicknesses (ß' = 0.067-0.094; p = 0.03-0.003). In a subset of participants for whom GDM statuses were available, all these associations were attenuated by adjusting for GDM. Iron supplementation also attenuated the associations between multiple micronutrient supplementation and these same measures. These results suggest that iron supplementation may mediate the effects associated with multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy in a high-income country, possibly through the increased risk of developing GDM.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371802

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic has reached old age but the effect of obesity on functional recovery in geriatric rehabilitation patients has not been investigated to date. In this prospective cohort study, patients admitted into geriatric rehabilitation were consecutively included between September 2015 and September 2016, aged ≥70 years. Individual activities of daily living were documented by the Barthel index (BI, 0-100 points). Obesity was assessed by the measurement of body mass index (BMI, kg/m²), waist circumference (WC, cm) and percentage of body fat mass (%FM) based on triceps' skinfold thickness at admission (t1), discharge (t2) and six months after discharge (t3). A total of 122 patients were included in the analysis. Prevalence of obesity according to BMI, WC and %FM was 33.6%, 83.6% and 71.3% respectively. Patients with a high WC and patients with a high BMI had lower BI values at t1, t2, t3 and the improvement in BI (t1-t2, t2-t3) was lower than in those with low WC and low BMI, but without statistical significance. In multiple regression analysis, BMI, WC and %FM were not associated with BI at t3 and improvement of BI (t2-t3). Obesity was highly prevalent in geriatric rehabilitation patients, but it was not associated with BI during the 6-month follow-up.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso/fisiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/reabilitação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Centros de Reabilitação , Pregas Cutâneas , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
J Sports Sci ; 39(15): 1772-1779, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283009

RESUMO

There is an adverse cross-sectional association between sedentary time, physical activity (PA) and adiposity, but weak and inconsistent estimates raise question to the direction of associations. The present study aims to examine whether the prospective association between sedentary time, different PA intensities and indicators of adiposity is bi-directional. The Active Smarter Kids Study obtained data from 869 ten-year-old children with valid measurements for sedentary time, PA, and adiposity at baseline and follow-up. Time spent sedentary and PA was measured by accelerometry, adiposity was assessed by three different measures: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sum of four skinfolds (S4SF). Neither overall PA nor time spent sedentary predicted lower BMI or WC at follow-up, but the time spent in moderate-and-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) predicted lower S4SF at follow-up among boys (MVPA ß - 0.066 [95% CI -0.105, -0.027] p = 0.001). Baseline BMI and WC predicted less overall PA, MVPA and VPA in boys. All adiposity measures predicted more time spent sedentary at follow-up in boys. The results suggest that overall PA and sedentary time do not predict future adiposity. Baseline adiposity may rather predict more sedentary time and less higher intensity activity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205279

RESUMO

Lipoprotein subclasses possess crucial cardiometabolic information. Due to strong multicollinearity among variables, little is known about the strength of influence of physical activity (PA) and adiposity upon this cardiometabolic pattern. Using a novel approach to adjust for covariates, we aimed at determining the "net" patterns and strength for PA and adiposity to the lipoprotein profile. Principal component and multivariate pattern analysis were used for the analysis of 841 prepubertal children characterized by 26 lipoprotein features determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a high-resolution PA descriptor derived from accelerometry, and three adiposity measures: body mass index, waist circumference to height, and skinfold thickness. Our approach focuses on revealing and validating the underlying predictive association patterns in the metabolic, anthropologic, and PA data to acknowledge the inherent multicollinear nature of such data. PA associates to a favorable cardiometabolic pattern of increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very large and large HDL particles, and large size of HDL particles, and decreasedtriglyceride, chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and their subclasses, and to low size of VLDL particles. Although weakened in strength, this pattern resists adjustment for adiposity. Adiposity is inversely associated to this pattern and exhibits unfavorable associations to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) features, including atherogenic small and very small LDL particles. The observed associations are still strong after adjustment for PA. Thus, lipoproteins explain 26.0% in adiposity after adjustment for PA compared to 2.3% in PA after adjustment for adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Exercício Físico , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Noruega , Tamanho da Partícula , Pregas Cutâneas
5.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(3): 360-367, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk scores (CMRs) in European adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adolescents (n = 525; 46% boys; 14.1 ± 1.1 years old, mean ± SD) from 10 European cities involved in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. CRF was measured by means of the shuttle run test, while fatness measures included body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio, and fat mass index estimated from skinfold thicknesses. A clustered CMRs was computed by summing the standardized values of homeostasis model assessment, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and leptin. RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that CRF acted as an important and partial mediator in the association between fatness and CMRs in 12-17-year-old adolescents (for BMI: coefficients of the indirect role ß = 0.058 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.023-0.101), Sobel test z = 3.11 (10.0% mediation); for waist to height ratio: ß = 4.279 (95%CI: 2.242-7.059), z =3.86 (11.5% mediation); and for fat mass index: ß = 0.060 (95%CI: 0.020-0.106), z = 2.85 (9.4% mediation); all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In adolescents, the association between fatness and CMRs could be partially decreased with improvements to fitness levels; therefore, CRF contribution both in the clinical field and public health could be important to consider and promote in adolescents independently of their fatness levels.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Masculino , Exame Físico , Pregas Cutâneas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Razão Cintura-Estatura
6.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3872-3882, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977947

RESUMO

2S-Hesperidin is the main flavonoid of orange (Citrus sinensis). Previous researches have pointed its effects in muscle development and fat accumulation reduction, although most of these results have not been assessed in humans. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of chronic (8-weeks) intake of 2S-hesperidin on amateur cyclists' body composition. A double-blind, parallel and randomized trial, was carried out with 40 amateur cyclists that were divided in two groups, one taking 2S-hesperidin (500 mg d-1, n = 20) and another taking placebo (500 mg d-1 microcellulose, n = 20) for 8 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were used to assess the effect of both treatments on body composition. In addition, the resting metabolic rate was measured. In comparison to placebo, DXA analysis showed a decrease in percentage body fat (%BF) (-10.4%; p = 0.035) and lower limb fat mass (-10.5%; p = 0.029) in favour of 2S-hesperidin. After evaluation of anthropometric data, a decrease in %BF (-3.7%; p = 0.006), total body fat (-3.0%; p = 0.047), ∑ of 8 skinfolds (-6.1%; p = 0.008) was observed in 2S-hesperidin group, but not in placebo. Additionally, there was an increase in muscle mass percentage (1.0%; p = <0.001) and total muscle mass (1.7%; p = 0.011) after ingestion of 2S-hesperidin, with no changes in placebo. Chronic intake of 2S-hesperidin decreased fat mass in amateur cyclists, evaluated through different body composition measurement methodologies (DXA and anthropometry). In addition, 2S-hesperidin supplementation showed a promoting effect on muscle development.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo , Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Adulto , Metabolismo Basal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799425

RESUMO

To describe whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes vary in their body composition and skinfold (SKF) thicknesses and if they differ from women without PCOS, a preiminar case-control study was performed. A total of 117 cases were diagnosed using the Rotterdam criteria. Gynecological examinations and transvaginal ultrasound were performed in all women (266 women). Anthropometric measurements including SKF thickness were taken according to the restricted profile protocol of the international standards for the anthropometric evaluation according to the International Society of the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Women with PCOS had higher body mass index and percentage of fat mass with respect to controls. The endomorphy component was also significantly higher in women with PCOS than in controls. Each PCOS phenotype displayed a different representation in the somatochart respect to the others phenotypes and also compared to controls. Women with PCOS had significantly higher ∑7 SKF (p = 0.013), ∑appendicular SKF (p = 0.017) and ∑arm SKF (p = 0.019) than controls. H-O-POM phenotype had higher 7∑ SKF (p = 0.003), ∑appendicular SKF (p = 0.01), ∑arm SKF (0.005), ∑leg SKF, and ∑trunk SKF (0.008) and also a higher fast mass percentage than controls (p = 0.011). In conclusion, body composition evaluated by ISAK protocol is different in women with PCOS, especially in the complete phenotype (H-O-POM). This could have relevant implications in terms of clinical evaluation and follow-up of these women, although more researches in this field are needed.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Pregas Cutâneas
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806245

RESUMO

Whilst the assessment of body composition is routine practice in sport, there remains considerable debate on the best tools available, with the chosen technique often based upon convenience rather than understanding the method and its limitations. The aim of this manuscript was threefold: (1) provide an overview of the common methodologies used within sport to measure body composition, specifically hydro-densitometry, air displacement plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance analysis and spectroscopy, ultra-sound, three-dimensional scanning, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and skinfold thickness; (2) compare the efficacy of what are widely believed to be the most accurate (DXA) and practical (skinfold thickness) assessment tools and (3) provide a framework to help select the most appropriate assessment in applied sports practice including insights from the authors' experiences working in elite sport. Traditionally, skinfold thickness has been the most popular method of body composition but the use of DXA has increased in recent years, with a wide held belief that it is the criterion standard. When bone mineral content needs to be assessed, and/or when it is necessary to take limb-specific estimations of fat and fat-free mass, then DXA appears to be the preferred method, although it is crucial to be aware of the logistical constraints required to produce reliable data, including controlling food intake, prior exercise and hydration status. However, given the need for simplicity and after considering the evidence across all assessment methods, skinfolds appear to be the least affected by day-to-day variability, leading to the conclusion 'come back skinfolds, all is forgiven'.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Atletas , Composição Corporal , Pregas Cutâneas , Densitometria , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Pletismografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral , Esportes , Ultrassonografia
9.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1578-1587, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition assessment is paramount for spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA I) patients, as weight and BMI have proven to be misleading for these patients. Despite its importance, no disease-specific field method is currently available, and the assessment of body composition of SMA I patients requires reference methods available only in specialized settings. OBJECTIVE: To develop predictive fat mass equations for SMA I children based on simple measurements, and compare existing equations to the new disease-specific equations. DESIGN: Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were examined as potential predictors of the best candidate response variable and non-linear relations were taken into account by transforming continuous predictors with restricted cubic splines. Alternative models were fitted including all the dimensions revealed by cluster analysis of the predictors. The best models were then internally validated, quantifying optimism of the obtained performance measures. The contribution of nusinersen treatment to the unexplained variability of the final models was also tested. RESULTS: A total of 153 SMA I patients were included in the study, as part of a longitudinal observational study in SMA children conducted at the International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), University of Milan. The sample equally represented both sexes (56% females) and a wide age range (from 3 months to 12 years, median 1.2 years). Four alternative models performed equally in predicting fat mass fraction (fat mass/body weight). The most convenient was selected and further presented. The selected model uses as predictors sex, age, calf circumference and the sum of triceps, suprailiac and calf skinfold thicknesses. The model showed high predictive ability (optimism corrected coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.72) and internal validation indicated little optimism both in performance measures and model calibration. The addition of nusinersen as a predictor variable did not improve the prediction. The disease-specific equation was more accurate than the available fat mass equations. CONCLUSIONS: The developed prediction model allows the assessment of body composition in SMA I children with simple and widely available measures and with reasonable accuracy.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Avaliação Nutricional , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Pregas Cutâneas
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy or infancy is associated with adverse growth in children. No systematic review has been conducted to summarize available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on growth and body composition in children. OBJECTIVE: We aim to summarize the available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on child growth and body composition. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during early life on children's growth and body composition (bone, lean and fat). A literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and infancy on children's body composition (bone, lean and fat) in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library from inception to 31 December 2020. A Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool was used for quality assessment. The comparison was vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo or standard care. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted. The effects are presented as mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 3960 participants from eleven randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with higher triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (MD 0.33, 95% CI, 0.12, 0.54; I2 = 34%) in neonates. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy was associated with significantly increased length for age z-score in infants at 1 year of age (MD 0.29, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.54; I2 = 0%), and was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (MD -0.19, 95% CI -0.34, -0.04; I2 = 0%) and body mass index z-score (BMIZ) (MD -0.12, 95% CI -0.21, -0.04; I2 = 0%) in offspring at 3-6 years of age. Vitamin D supplementation during early life was not observed to be associated with children's bone, lean or fat mass. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy may be associated with reduced adiposity in childhood. Further large clinical trials of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on childhood body composition are warranted.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adiposidade , Viés , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pregas Cutâneas , Vitamina D/fisiologia
11.
J Sport Rehabil ; 30(5): 725-730, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618331

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Fast and adequate recovery after exercise and activity is important for increasing performance and preventing injuries. Inadequate recovery usually causes changes in the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the muscle. OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate effect of petrissage massage (PM) and manual lymph drainage (MLD) following submaximal exercise on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the rectus femoris muscle in healthy women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, repeated-measures. SETTING: Marmara University. PARTICIPANTS: 18 healthy female students. INTERVENTION(S): Following the submaximal quadriceps strengthening exercise performed in 3 sets of 8 repetitions with intensity of 75% of 1 maximum repetition, participants' right leg received a 5-minute PM (PM group) and the contralateral leg received a 5-minute MLD application (MLD group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Skin temperature was measured using P45 thermographic thermal camera (Flir System; ThermaCAM, Danderyd, Sweden), and muscle tone, biomechanical, and viscoelastic features were measured with a myometer (Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia) at baseline, immediately postexercise, post-PM/MLD application, and 10 minutes postexercise. RESULTS: In the PM group, the tonus (P = .002) and stiffness (P < .001) values measured after the massage and at the end of the 10-minute resting period were found to be statistically different than those measured right after the exercise (P < .05). Relaxation time and creep values at all measurement times were significantly different (P < .05). In the MLD group, it was observed the tonus (P < .001), stiffness (P = .025), and relaxation time (P < .01) values decreased significantly after the MLD compared with the values measured after the exercise; however, the creep value was found to be significantly different in all measurements (P < .05). CONCLUSION: PM and MLD reduce passive tissue stiffness and improve the extent of muscle extensibility over time against the muscle tensile strength. PM and MLD are therapeutic methods that can be used to support tissue recovery after exercise and prevent injuries.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Drenagem Linfática Manual , Massagem/métodos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Tono Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 94-99, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: body fat reflects important clinical impacts among hemodialysis patients; thus, simple and safe methods are required for a careful evaluation of this body compartment. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the concordance of estimates of total body fat percentage (%BF), calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and sum of four skinfolds (SSKD) measures, with those obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving hemodialysis. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 317 patients undergoing hemodialysis. The %BF was evaluated using BIA, SSKD measurement, and DEXA, and stratified by sex and tertiles. The Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used to compare the %BF obtained using the different methods, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC-L) to evaluate concordance. RESULTS: the average %BF estimated using DEXA was 29.3 ± 9.3 %, with significant differences among the three methods (p < 0.05). SSKD measurement presented a higher CCC-L concordance with DEXA, regardless of sex. After stratification of the sample in tertiles, BIA presented a higher CCC-L concordance with DEXA among the patients with CKD with a %BF above 34.4 % (third tertile). Conversely, SSKD measurement presented better concordance with DEXA for those with a %BF equal to or less than 34.4 %. CONCLUSIONS: in terms of the estimates of the %BF, SSKD measurement displayed a better concordance with DEXA


INTRODUCCIÓN: la grasa corporal refleja importantes impactos clínicos entre los pacientes en hemodiálisis; por lo tanto, se requieren métodos simples y seguros para una evaluación cuidadosa de este compartimiento del cuerpo. OBJETIVOS: evaluar la concordancia de las estimaciones del porcentaje de grasa corporal total (%GC), calculadas mediante el análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA) y la suma de las medidas de cuatro pliegues cutáneos (CPC), con las obtenidas mediante absorciometría dual energética de rayos X (DEXA) en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) que reciben hemodiálisis. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio transversal en 317 pacientes en hemodiálisis. La %GC se evaluó mediante BIA, medición de CPC y DEXA, y se estratificó por sexos y terciles. Se utilizó la prueba de Wilcoxon para muestras pareadas para comparar los %GC obtenidos con los diferentes métodos, y el coeficiente de correlación de concordancia de Lin (CCC-L) para evaluar la concordancia. RESULTADOS: el %GC promedio estimado usando DEXA fue del 29,3 ± 9,3 %, con diferencias significativas entre los tres métodos (p < 0,05). La medición de los CPC presentó una mayor concordancia de CCC-L con DEXA, independientemente del sexo. Tras la estratificación de la muestra en terciles, la BIA presentó una mayor concordancia de CCC-L con DEXA entre los pacientes con ERC con un %GC superior al 34,4 % (tercer tercil). Por el contrario, la medición de los CPC presentó una mejor concordancia con la DEXA para aquellos con un %GC igual o inferior al 34,4 %. CONCLUSIÓN: en términos de las estimaciones del %GC, la medición de los CPC mostró una mejor concordancia con la DEXA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pregas Cutâneas , Nefropatias/complicações , Nefropatias/dietoterapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Impedância Elétrica , Absorciometria de Fóton , Estudos Transversais
13.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(5): 636-644, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the physical fitness characteristics of semi-professional rugby union (RU) players using VO2max (mL. min-1. kg-1), knee peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), hamstring: quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and basic anthropometrics characteristics and to compare backs and forwards across these same characteristics. METHODS: VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT) as a percentage of VO2max were measured using the Bruce protocol maximal graded test. Knee strength test PT, MP and H:Q were analyzed using the isokinetic dynamometer test. Basic anthropometrics measures were obtained by measures of body mass, height (from Tanita Body Composition Analysis; Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). While fat mass was measured using skinfold thicknesses taking from different body parts. Twenty-five semi-professional players aged (26.3±0.9 years) from the same team were recruited for the study. Mean experimental values from maximal graded test and isokinetic dynamometer test were analyzed using t-tests from the SigmaStat 3.11 program (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). RESULTS: The results showed that forwards were significant taller (P=0.036), heavier (P=0.01), with greater fat mass (P=0.001) than backs. Backs had a greater VO2max (P=0.02) than forwards. With forwards having a greater (P=0.01) eccentric H PT. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents important information for players and athletic coordinators as to the differences between backs and forwards across physiological and strength measures. This information can greatly inform the individualized training protocol and preparation of current and future players across different positions and different levels.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Torque
14.
J Sports Sci ; 39(1): 48-56, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808569

RESUMO

Despite climbing's popularity and an increasing number of female participants, there are limited anthropometric and performance data for this population. This study compares the characteristics of 55 experienced female climbers, divided into three categories (lower [ADV-L] and higher advanced [ADV-H] and elite [ELT]) based on self-reported ability. Data on climbing experience, body dimensions, body composition, flexibility, lower and upper-body power and finger strength were assessed. ELT climbers differed significantly from the ADV groups in age (Mean Difference [MD] = 8.8-9.8 yrs; despite smaller differences in years climbing MD = 1.6-2.4 yrs), greater climbing and hours training per week (MD = 3.0-3.7 h & MD = 0.9-1.6 h, respectively), and greater upper-body power (MD = 12.9-16.6 cm) and finger strength (MD = 51.6-65.4 N). Linear regression analysis showed finger strength and upper body power to be associated with ability, particularly when adjusting for descriptive and anthropometric variables (finger strength R2 = 53% and 45%; upper-body power R2 = 60% and 39% for boulder and sport, respectively). The findings support the importance of finger strength and upper-body power; changes in female anthropometric data over the last decade provide insight into the changing nature of the sport.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Atletas/classificação , Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Lineares , Montanhismo/classificação , Montanhismo/tendências , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Pregas Cutâneas , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Sports Sci ; 39(4): 439-445, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016229

RESUMO

Muscles serve as a critical regulator of locomotion and damping, resulting in changes of soft tissue vibration. However, whether muscle fibre compositions of different individuals will cause different extents of soft tissue vibration during gait is unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the differences in lower extremity vibration frequencies among power-trained and non-power-trained athletes during walking and running. Twelve weightlifting athletes were assigned to the power-trained group and twelve recreational runners were assigned to the non-power-trained group. Accelerometers were used to detect soft tissue compartment vibration frequencies of the rectus femoris (RF) and gastrocnemius medialis (GMS) during walking and running. Results indicated that power-trained athletes, as compared to the non-power-trained, induced significantly (p < 0.05) higher vibration frequencies in their soft tissue compartments during walking and running. This suggests that power-trained athletes, who have higher ratios of fatigable fast-twitch muscle fibres, may have induced higher soft tissue compartment vibration frequencies. As a result, there is a likelihood that power-trained athletes may recruit more fatigable fast-twitch muscle fibres during muscle tuning, causing dysfunctions during prolonged exercises.


Assuntos
Atletas , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Vibração , Caminhada/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Estudantes , Universidades
16.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 97(1): 75-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the most used skinfold thickness equations with multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis in the prediction of body fat levels in children. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of healthy Brazilian community-dwelling individuals. The anthropometric assessment included height, body mass, arm circumference, and waist circumference. The percentage of body fat was obtained by measuring skinfold thickness equations and using bioimpedance analysis, and skinfold thickness was measured using a scientific skinfold caliper. Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to verify the agreement between the methods. RESULTS: There were 439 children and adolescents evaluated, with a mean age of 11.6±3.7 years. The mean body fat by bioimpedance analysis was 22.8%±10.4%, compared to 22.4%±8.8% by Slaughter (1), 20.4%±9.2% by Slaughter (2), 19.6%±4.4% by Goran, and 24.7%±10.0% by Huang equations. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed limits of agreement greater than 8% between the bioimpedance analysis approach and equations, exceeding the clinically acceptable limit predefined a priori. None of the equations had good agreement with bioimpedance analysis. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that skinfold thickness and bioimpedance analysis should not be used interchangeably in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Antropometria , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pregas Cutâneas
17.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(3): 341-354, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216207

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine predictors of neonatal adiposity and differences in associations by fetal sex in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), normal-weight and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) normal glucose-tolerant women (NGT). METHODS: Skinfold thickness was measured in 576 newborns, and cord blood leptin, c-peptide and lipids in 327 newborns in a multi-centric prospective cohort study. RESULTS: Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women (327), neonates of women with GDM (97) were more often large-for-gestational age (LGA) (16.5% vs 8.6%, p = 0.024) ,but the macrosomia rate (8.2% vs 5.8%, p = 0.388), sum of skinfolds (13.9 mm ± 2.9 vs 13.3 mm ± 2.6, p = 0.067), neonatal fat mass (1333.0 g ± 166.8 vs 1307.3 g ± 160.9, p = 0.356), and cord blood biomarkers were not significantly different. Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women, neonates of overweight NGT women (152) had higher rates of macrosomia (12.5% vs 5.8%, p = 0.012), LGA (17.1% vs 8.6%, p = 0.006), higher sum of skinfolds (14.3 mm ± 2.6 vs 13.2 mm ± 2.6, p < 0.001), neonatal fat mass (1386.0 g ± 168.6 vs 1307.3 g ± 160.9, p < 0.001), % neonatal fat mass > 90th percentile (15.2% vs 7.1%, p < 0.001), without significant differences in cord blood biomarkers. Maternal BMI, fasting glycemia, triglycerides, gestational weight gain, cord blood leptin ,and cord blood triglycerides were independent predictors for neonatal adiposity. Gestational weight gain was positively associated with adiposity in boys only. CONCLUSION: Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women, neonates of GDM women have higher LGA rates but similar adiposity, while neonates of overweight NGT women have increased adiposity. Limiting gestational weight gain might be especially important in the male fetus to reduce neonatal adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Macrossomia Fetal/diagnóstico , Feto/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Peptídeo C/análise , Peptídeo C/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Macrossomia Fetal/sangue , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leptina/análise , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(2): 210.e1-210.e17, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association's formal characterization of cardiovascular health combines several metrics in a health-oriented, rather than disease-oriented, framework. Although cardiovascular health assessment during pregnancy has been recommended, its significance for pregnancy outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of gestational cardiovascular health-formally characterized by a combination of 5 metrics-with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, including 2304 mother-newborn dyads from 6 countries. Maternal cardiovascular health was defined by the combination of the following 5 metrics measured at a mean of 28 (24-32) weeks' gestation: body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and smoking. Levels of each metric were categorized using pregnancy guidelines, and the total cardiovascular health was scored (0-10 points, where 10 was the most favorable). Cord blood was collected at delivery, newborn anthropometrics were measured within 72 hours, and medical records were abstracted for obstetrical outcomes. Modified Poisson and multinomial logistic regression were used to test the associations of gestational cardiovascular health with pregnancy outcomes, adjusted for center and maternal and newborn characteristics. RESULTS: The average age of women at study exam was 29.6 years old, and they delivered at a mean gestational age of 39.8 weeks. The mean total gestational cardiovascular health score was 8.6 (of 10); 36.3% had all ideal metrics and 7.5% had 2+ poor metrics. In fully adjusted models, each 1 point higher (more favorable) cardiovascular health score was associated with lower risks for preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.73]), unplanned primary cesarean delivery (0.88 [0.82-0.95]), newborn birthweight >90th percentile (0.81 [0.75-0.87]), sum of skinfolds >90th percentile (0.84 [0.77-0.92]), and insulin sensitivity <10th percentile (0.83 [0.77-0.90]). Cardiovascular health categories demonstrated graded associations with outcomes; for example, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for preeclampsia were 3.13 (1.39-7.06), 5.34 (2.44-11.70), and 9.30 (3.95-21.86) for women with ≥1 intermediate, 1 poor, or ≥2 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively. CONCLUSION: More favorable cardiovascular health at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation was associated with lower risks for several adverse pregnancy outcomes in a multinational cohort.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(1): 13-18, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the tracking of within-athlete changes in criterion measures of whole-body fat percentage (BF%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) with skinfold thickness (Σ 4, 6, or 8) in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived whole BF% and Σ 4, 6, or 8 skinfolds were obtained at 5 time points over 15 months (N = 16). A linear mixed model with restricted maximum likelihood (random intercept, with identity covariance structure) to derive the within-athlete prediction error for predicting criterion BF% from Σ skinfolds was used. This prediction error allowed us to evaluate how well a simple measure of the Σ skinfolds could track criterion changes in BF %; that is, the authors derived the change in Σ skinfolds that would have to be observed in an individual athlete to conclude that a substantial change in criterion BF% had occurred. Data were log-transformed prior to analysis. RESULTS: The Σ 8 skinfolds was the most precise practical measure for tracking changes in BF%. For the monitoring of an individual player, a change in Σ 8 skinfolds by a factor of greater than 1.28 (multiply or divide by 1.28) is associated with a practically meaningful change in BF% (≥1 percentage point). CONCLUSIONS: The Σ 8 skinfolds can track changes in BF% within individuals with reasonable precision, providing a useful field monitoring tool in the absence of often impractical criterion measures.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Paratletas , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Basquetebol , Humanos , Pregas Cutâneas
20.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(6): 634-644, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a critical time in the development of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between measures of adiposity, cardiovascular fitness, and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study design, 129 girls and 95 boys aged 12.9-14.4 years at various stages of puberty were included, along with their mothers (n = 217) and fathers (n = 207). Anthropometric assessments of adiposity were made, along with cardiovascular physical fitness, using the 20-m shuttle run test, and biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk, including glucose, insulin, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. RESULTS: Waist-to-height ratio values were similar in boys and girls and correlated positively with diastolic blood pressure, insulin, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP concentrations, and inversely with cardiovascular fitness scores. Skinfold thickness measurements were higher in girls. High-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations were lower in boys than girls, particularly in late puberty, and CRP levels were higher. Cardiovascular fitness, maternal body mass index (BMI), and paternal BMI contributed independently to the variance in waist measurements in girls and boys. Gender, triceps skinfold thickness, and weight-to-height ratio, but not parental BMI, contributed independently to the variance in cardiovascular fitness. CONCLUSION: There is a relationship between measures of adolescent adiposity and parental weight that involves factors other than cardiovascular fitness. Adolescent boys have relatively more abdominal fat than girls and a tendency to have a proinflammatory profile of biomarkers. These observations suggest that family and social environmental interventions are best undertaken earlier in childhood, particularly among boys.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pais , Puberdade , Caracteres Sexuais , Pregas Cutâneas , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
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