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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21722, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the role of vitamin D (VD) as a protective factor in cardiovascular disease has been recognized. Thus, there is a need to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the control of different cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome, especially in young populations where few studies have been conducted. METHODS: Pilot study of a randomized, parallel two-arm, triple-blind clinical controlled trial in 150 adolescents and young adults in the city of Bucaramanga-Colombia. The intervention group will receive 1000 IU of VD and the control group 200 IU of VD daily for 15 weeks. The main outcomes are: serum calcifediol levels (25(OH) D), body mass index and lipid profile; secondary outcomes are complementary to the previous ones (skin folds, waist-hip ratio). Other variables will be analyzed such as assessment of dietary intake, physical activity, sun exposure, cigarette and tobacco consumption and compliance with VD supplementation. DISCUSSION: This study is innovative since there is little evidence from clinical trials in adolescents and young adults; similar studies are not known in our context. The results of this study may facilitate the recommendation of oral vitamin D supplementation in the population of interest. In addition, it is a low-cost and easy-to-apply intervention that could contribute to the formulation and implementation of health policies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04377386.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Calcifediol/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Colômbia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pregas Cutâneas , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706814

RESUMO

Obesity and regional adiposity are important risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to compare 7-site skinfold (SF) measurement to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and regional adiposity in diabetic outpatients. A total of 59 diabetic patients (36 females and 23 males) aged 28.5-78 years (median 67.7 years) with BMI 18.8-40.6 kg/m2 (median: 25.5 kg/m2) were enrolled. 7-site skinfold measurement and DXA were performed at the same visit day and biochemistry data were collected. Our results demonstrate the BF% calculated via Jackson & Pollock 7-site skinfold equation presents a strong correlation (r = 0.672, p < 0.001 in females; r = 0.885, p < 0.001 in males) with that measured by DXA, but the means of BF% between these two methods are significantly different in both sexes (paired t-test, p < 0.001). The Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean differences (DXA-SF) of BF% were positive for female (8.74%) and male (7.22%), suggesting Jackson & Pollock 7-site skinfold equation tends to underestimate the BF%. Besides, regional SF thicknesses of 7-site skinfold measurement were significantly correlated with the matched regional adiposity quantified by DXA. Furthermore, truncal and android SF thicknesses were notably positively correlated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in gender-specific manner. Our data indicate the 7-site skinfold measurement is not an interchangeable method for precisely measuring BF%, but might be practical for evaluating the cardiometabolic risks in Taiwanese diabetic outpatients.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adiposidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 257-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of bioimpedance (BIA) and skinfolds thickness (SF) in body fat percentage measuring (%BF) compared to the reference method dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Brazilian reproductive age women, as well as to estimate of inter- and intra-observer precision for SF. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 170 women aged 18-37 years with BMI between 18 and 39.9 kg/m2 were selected for this cross-sectional study. Body density was evaluated through equations proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (1980) (EqJPW) and Petroski (1995) (EqPET), and %BF was estimated by BIA, DXA and Siri's formula (1961). The SF were measured by two separate observers: A and B (to determine inter-observer variability), who measured the folds at three times with 10-minute interval between them (to determine intra-observer variability - we used only observer A). RESULTS: The %BF by DXA was higher than those measured by SF and BIA (p<0.01, for all) of 90 volunteers. The Lin coefficient of agreement was considered satisfactory for %BF values obtained by EqJPW and BIA (0.55) and moderate (0.76) for sum of SF (ΣSF) values obtained by EqJPW and EqPET. No agreement was observed for the values obtained by SF (EqJPW and EqPET), BIA and DXA. Analysis of inter- and intra-observer of 59 volunteers showed that different measures of SF thickness met acceptability standards, as well as the % BF. CONCLUSION: BIA and SF measurements may underestimate %BF compared with DXA. In addition, BIA and SF measurements are not interchangeable with DXA. However, our results suggest the equation proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (three skinfolds) compared to BIA are interchangeable to quantify the %BF in Brazilian women in reproductive age. Furthermore, our results show acceptable accuracy for intra- and inter-observer skinfold measurements. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):257-68.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Pregas Cutâneas , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2307-2313, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552507

RESUMO

Body composition can substantially impact elite swimming performance. In practice, changes in fat and lean mass of elite swimmers are estimated using body mass, sum of seven skinfolds (∑7) and lean mass index (LMI). However, LMI may be insufficiently accurate to detect small changes in body composition which could meaningfully impact swimming performance. This study developed equations which estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean and fat mass using body mass and ∑7 data. Elite Australian swimmers (n = 44; 18 male, 26 female) completed a DXA scan and standardised body mass and ∑7 measurements. Equations to estimate DXA-derived lean and fat mass based on body mass, ∑7 and sex were developed. The relationships between ∑7, body mass and DXA-derived lean and fat mass were non-linear. Fat mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.91; standard error = 1.0 kg) and lean mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.99; standard error = 1.0 kg) equations were considered sufficiently accurate. Lean mass estimates outperformed the LMI in identifying the correct direction of change in lean mass (82% correct; LMI 71%). Using the accurate estimations produced by these equations will enhance the prescription and evaluation of programmes to optimise the body composition and subsequent performance in swimmers.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pregas Cutâneas , Natação/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 610-615, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353880

RESUMO

The phase angle is used to evaluate nutritional status and is an indicator of cellular health. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition are strong indicators of health during adolescence. We aimed to evaluate if body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness have an association with phase angle among adolescents. 203 girls and 220 boys (12.8±1.3 years) were evaluated. Peak height velocity, percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and phase angle measurements were collected. Linear regression adjusted by peak height velocity was used to verify if predictor variables were associated with phase angle among adolescents. Phase angle showed correlation with fat-free mass (girls: r=0.42 and boys: r=0.37); with percent fat mass (girls: r=0.23); and with cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: r=0.19). Linear regression showed that percentage fat mass (in girls) and cardiorespiratory fitness (in boys) had an effect of 11 and 17% in phase angle, respectively, while fat-free mass had an effect of 22 and 26% in phase angle for girls and boys, respectively. Changes in phase angle seem to be more associated with the percentage fat mass in girls, cardiorespiratory fitness in boys, and fat-free mass in both when controlled by peak height velocity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pregas Cutâneas
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012616, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis. Oral protein-based nutritional supplements are often provided to patients whose oral intake is otherwise insufficient to meet their energy and protein needs. Evidence for the effectiveness of oral protein-based nutritional supplements in this population is limited. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to determine the benefits and harms of using oral protein-based nutritional supplements to improve the nutritional state of patients with CKD requiring dialysis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 12 December 2019 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with CKD requiring dialysis that compared oral protein-based nutritional supplements to no oral protein-based nutritional supplements or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data from individual studies. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (1278 participants) were included in this review. All participants were adults on maintenance dialysis of whom 79% were on haemodialysis (HD) and 21% peritoneal dialysis. The follow-up period ranged from one to 12 months. The majority of studies were at unclear risk of selection, performance, and reporting bias. The detection bias was high for self-reported outcomes. Oral protein-based nutritional supplements probably lead to a higher mean change in serum albumin compared to the control group (16 studies, 790 participants: MD 0.19 g/dL, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.33; moderate certainty evidence), although there was considerable heterogeneity in the combined analysis (I2 = 84%). The increase was more evident in HD participants (10 studies, 526 participants: MD 0.28 g/dL, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.46; P = 0.001 for overall effect) and malnourished participants (8 studies, 405 participants: MD 0.31 g/dL, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.52, P = 0.003 for overall effect). Oral protein-based nutritional supplements also probably leads to a higher mean serum albumin at the end of the intervention (14 studies, 715 participants: MD 0.14 g/dL, 95% CI 0 to 0.27; moderate certainty evidence), however heterogeneity was again high (I2 = 80%). Again the increase was more evident in HD participants (9 studies, 498 participants: MD 0.21 g/dL, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.38; P = 0.02 for overall effect) and malnourished participants (7 studies, 377 participants: MD 0.25 g/dL, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.03 for overall effect). Compared to placebo or no supplement, low certainty evidence showed oral protein-based nutritional supplements may result in a higher serum prealbumin (4 studies, 225 participants: MD 2.81 mg/dL, 95% CI 2.19 to 3.43), and mid-arm muscle circumference (4 studies, 216 participants: MD 1.33 cm, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.43) at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo or no supplement, oral protein-based nutritional supplements may make little or no difference to weight (8 studies, 365 participants: MD 2.83 kg, 95% CI -0.43 to 6.09; low certainty evidence), body mass index (9 studies, 368 participants: MD -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.66; moderate certainty evidence) and lean mass (5 studies, 189 participants: MD 1.27 kg, 95% CI -1.61 to 4.51; low certainty evidence). Due to very low quality of evidence, it is uncertain whether oral protein-based nutritional supplements affect triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, C-reactive protein, Interleukin 6, serum potassium, or serum phosphate. There may be little or no difference in the risk of developing gastrointestinal intolerance between participants who received oral protein-based nutritional supplements compared with placebo or no supplement (6 studies, 426 participants: RR 2.81, 95% CI 0.58 to 13.65, low certainty evidence). It was not possible to draw conclusions about cost or quality of life, and deaths were not reported as a study outcome in any of the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, it is likely that oral protein-based nutritional supplements increase both mean change in serum albumin and serum albumin at end of intervention and may improve serum prealbumin and mid-arm muscle circumference. The improvement in serum albumin was more evident in haemodialysis and malnourished participants. However, it remains uncertain whether these results translate to improvement in nutritional status and clinically relevant outcomes such as death. Large well-designed RCTs in this population are required.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Desnutrição/terapia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Viés , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/etiologia , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Pregas Cutâneas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344832

RESUMO

The relationship of body fat (BF) percentage with performance of elite marathon runners has been well studied; however, less information is available about the variation of skinfold thickness by sex and performance in non-elite marathon runners. The aim of the present study was to examine the variation of skinfold thickness by sex and performance in recreational marathon runners. Participants included 32 female (age 40.1 ± 9.0 years, BF 19.6 ± 4.7%, and training volume 47.7 ± 22.6 km) and 134 male marathon runners (44.3 ± 8.8 years, 17.6 ± 4.0%, and 53.0 ± 21.2 km, respectively). The largest skinfold thickness was the abdomen in both sexes, whereas the smallest was biceps in men, and chins in women (p < 0.001). The largest sex difference in skinfold thickness was observed in triceps being the fattest in women (p < 0.001). The largest difference in skinfold thickness among men's performance groups was observed in the iliac crest, and the smallest in the patella and proximal calf (p < 0.001). In summary, skinfold measurements indicated that women had more fat in both their upper and lower limbs, while men had more fat in their trunk. With regards to the role of performance level, the slowest runners presented relatively more fat in the upper limbs and trunk anatomical sites, i.e., away from the active muscles of legs.


Assuntos
Atletas , Músculo Esquelético , Corrida , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(1): 56-64, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187574

RESUMO

Introducción: los supervivientes de leucemia aguda infantil (LAI) tienen riesgo de desarrollar obesidad. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la composición corporal en estos pacientes mediante las diferentes técnicas de empleadas en la práctica clínica y compararlas con el empleo del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Métodos: estudio transversal de 39 supervivientes de LAI con más de diez an~os desde el diagnóstico. Se evaluó el grado de acuerdo entre diferentes técnicas antropométricas y composición corporal y se analizaron factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de obesidad. Resultados: prevalencia de obesidad según porcentaje masa grasa por IMC 38,5%, perímetro cintura 46,1%, sumatorio cuatro pliegues 51,3% y bioimpedanciometría (BIA) 56,4%. Existe adecuada correlación entre los métodos, pero el IMC infraestima la adiposidad respecto al perímetro de cintura (-1,03 ± 2,01), pliegues (-2,95 ± 5,78 y BIA (-3,78 ± 7,4), con mayor infraestimación en % masa magra > 28%. Tres pacientes mostraron sarcopenia y solo uno, obesidad sarcopénica. La adiposidad estimada por el perímetro de cintura fue el parámetro con mejor asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (colesterol-LDL: r = 0,703; colesterol-HDL: r = -0,612; p < 0,05 e hipertensión: OR 4,17; IC 95%: 1,012-19,3). Los factores de riesgo asociados a obesidad fueron: sexo femenino, alto riesgo tumoral, tratamiento con radioterapia y trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos. Conclusiones: el IMC infraestima el porcentaje de supervivientes obesos respecto al empleo del perímetro de cintura, pliegues cutáneos y bioimpedanciometría, existiendo riesgo de clasificar erróneamente a sujetos obesos como no obesos. El sexo femenino, el alto riesgo tumoral, la radioterapia y el trasplante son factores de riesgo para presentar obesidad


Background: survivors of childhood acute leukemia are at risk for obesity. The purpose was to evaluate the different clinical measurements of body composition and to compare with body mass index (BMI). Methods: cross-sectional study of 39 survivors with more than ten years of survivorship since diagnosis. Anthropometry and body composition accuracy measurements were determined and also obesity risk factors. Results: obesity prevalence by body fat percentage were: 38.5 % for BMI; 46.1 % for waist circumference; 51.3 % for skinfolds and 56.4 % for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). There was a good correlation among the measurements, but BMI underestimated the percent body fat among childhood leukemia survivors in comparison with: waist circumference (-1.03 ± 2.01), skinfolds (-2.95 ± 5.78) and BIA (-3.78 ± 7.4), and this bias appears to be more variable with increasing percent of body fat > 30 %. Three patients showed sarcopenia and only one sarcopenic obesity. Waist circumference fat mass was the better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors (LDL-cholesterol: r = 0.703; HDL-cholesterol: r = -0.612; p < 0.05 and hypertension: OR 4.17; IC 95 %: 1.012-19.3). Obesity risk factors were: female sex, high-risk tumor, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Conclusions: BMI underestimates obese childhood leukemia survivors in comparison with waist circumference, skinfolds and bioelectrial impedance analysis. BMI use could misclassify obese survivors as non-obese. Female sex, high tumoral risk and coadyuvant treatments (radiotherapy and stem cell transplant) are risk factors for adiposity


Assuntos
Humanos , Composição Corporal , Antropometria/métodos , Sobrevivência , Impedância Elétrica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Radioterapia/métodos , Circunferência da Cintura , Pregas Cutâneas , Leucemia/terapia
9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(5): 644-650, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study is to compare the sonographic measurement of subcutaneous adipose thickness and visceral adipose thickness during 1st trimester screening for aneuploidies between non-diabetic pregnant women and patients who develop 1st trimester or 2nd trimester gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adipose thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound imaging in pregnant women attending our clinic for screening for fetal aneuploidies between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation. During the 1st trimester all patients were evaluated for fasting glycemia in accordance with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommendations. Patients with confirmed fasting glycemia (FPG) ≥92 mg/dL were diagnosed as 1st trimester GDM. Patients with FPG <92 mg/dL underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks. RESULTS: The study population included 238 non-diabetic women, 29 women with 1st trimester GDM and 28 women with 2nd trimester GDM. Mean subcutaneous adipose thickness and visceral adipose thickness values in non-diabetic women were 9.8 mm (standard deviation [SD = 4.9) and 7.2 mm (SD = 3.5), respectively. Values in women with 1st trimester GDM were 12.8 mm (SD = 6.5) and 9.9 mm (SD = 4.4). In the 2nd trimester GDM group, the mean subcutaneous adipose thickness was 11.1 mm (SD = 4.6) and the mean visceral adipose thickness 10.5 mm (SD = 5.3). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that visceral adipose thickness, but not subcutaneous adipose thickness, was significantly and independently associated with both 1st trimester GDM (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29) and 2nd trimester GDM (odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.34). CONCLUSIONS: Sonographic thickness of maternal visceral adipose tissue was greater in women with GDM than in non-diabetic patients, independently of other known risk factors associated with GDM in the 1st and in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Thus, this measurement may be considered of clinical use in 1st trimester screening.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/complicações , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(1): 72-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072272

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in anthropometric measures and muscle performance in users and non-users of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) performing resistance training (RT) programmes involving only multiple joint (MJ) exercises or a combination of MJ and single joint (SJ) exercises. Thirty recreational bodybuilders were divided into 4 groups: non-AAS users performing only MJ exercises (MJ), non-AAS users performing MJ + SJ (MJ + SJ), AAS users performing only MJ exercises (AAS - MJ) and AAS users performing MJ + SJ exercises (AAS - MJ + SJ). Before and after 8 weeks of training, the participants were tested for 10 repetition maximum (10RM) in different RT exercises. Flexed arm circumference (FAC), biceps and triceps skinfolds were measured. No interactions were found between time and the performance of SJ exercise in any variable (p > .05). However, there was a significant interaction between AAS use and time (p < .001), such that AAS users showed greater 10RM gains in all exercises, skinfold decreases and increases in FAC than non-users. In conclusion, our study shows that the addition of SJ exercises to MJ exercises brings no additional benefit in terms of muscle performance and anthropometric changes in trained men, either if they were using AAS or not. These results suggest that trained men can save time not including SJ in their routines and still achieve optimal results. Moreover, our results show that AAS use is associated with greater increases in muscle strength and FAC and greater reductions in biceps and triceps skinfold thickness.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 86: 103942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Calf circumference (CC) is an indirect method used to evaluate muscle mass in older adults. Ultrasound has also been studied as a method for measuring muscle mass. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to correlate CC and muscle thickness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MGM) in healthy older women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 74 healthy older women. The MGM thickness was evaluated using an ultrasound device (Logiq Book XP, General Electric®). The reference value for adequate CC was ≥ 31 cm. Weight and height were measured for the calculation of the body mass index (BMI), which was dichotomized as with or without excess weight based on the cutoff points recommended by the World Health Organization (1995); Lipschitz (1994) and the Pan-American Health Organization (2001). RESULTS: All participants were ≥ 64 years of age. Mean weight and height were 66.19 kg (SD: 10.48) and 1.55 m (SD: 0.06), respectively. Half of the participants had a BMI higher than 27.53 kg/m2. Moderate positive correlations were found between CC and MGM thickness (ρ = 0.432; p < 0.001), MGM thickness and weight (r = 0.422; p < 0.001) and between MGM thickness and BMI (r = 0.438; p < 0.001). However, the correlation between CC and MGM thickness was non-significant among the women with excess weight. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate positive correlation between MGM thickness and CC was found in healthy older women. However, this correlation was weak and non-significant among those with excess weight.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Pregas Cutâneas , Saúde da Mulher
12.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 826-832, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indian babies are hypothesized to be born thin but fat. This has not been confirmed with precise measurements at birth. If it is true, it could track into later life and confer risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to accurately measure percentage of body fat (%BF) and body cell mass (BCM) in Indian babies with normal birth weight, compare them across different gestational ages and sex, and test the hypothesis of the thin but fat phenotype in Indian babies. Secondarily, to examine the relation between body weight and body fat in Indian babies. METHODS: Term newborns (n = 156) weighing ≥2500 g, from middle socioeconomic status mothers were recruited in Bengaluru, India, and their anthropometry, %BF (air displacement plethysmography), and BCM (whole-body potassium counter) were measured. Maternal demography and anthropometry were recorded. The mean %BF and its dispersion were compared with earlier studies. The relation between newborn %BF and body weight was explored by regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean birth weight was 3.0 ± 0.3 kg, with mean %BF 9.8 ± 3.5%, which was comparable to pooled estimates of %BF from published studies (9.8%; 95% CI: 9.7, 10.0; P > 0.05). Appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) babies had higher %BF (1.8%) compared to small-for-gestational age (SGA) babies (P < 0.01). Mean %BCM of all babies at birth was 35.4 ± 10.5%; AGA babies had higher %BCM compared to SGA babies (7.0%, P < 0.05). Girls in comparison to boys had significantly higher %BF and lower %BCM. Body weight was positively associated with %BF. CONCLUSION: Indian babies with normal birth weight did not demonstrate the thin but fat phenotype. Body weight and fat had positive correlation, such that SGA babies did not show a preservation of their %BF. These findings will have relevance in planning optimal interventions during early childhood to prevent NCDs risk in adult life.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Composição Corporal , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Fenótipo , Pletismografia , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(6): 524-529, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the prevalence of undernutrition in hospitalised infants aged under 6 months and test the utility of simple index measures to detect undernutrition. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study: weight, length, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured in infants aged 2 weeks to 6 months admitted to a Teaching Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Index criteria : low (<-2SD) weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ); MUAC <11 cm. Reference definition: weight faltering (conditional weight gain below fifth percentile for healthy Nigerian infants) or sum of skinfolds (SSF) <10 mm. RESULTS: Of 125 hospitalised infants, only 5% (6) were admitted specifically for undernutrition, but low SSF were found in 33% (41) and, 24% (25) with known birth weight had weight faltering, giving an undernutrition prevalence of 36%. Low WAZ was the most discriminating predictor of undernutrition (sensitivity 69%, positive predictive value 86%, likelihood ratio 5.5; area under receiver operator curves 0.90) followed by MUAC (73%, 73%, 4.9; 0.86), while WLZ performed least well (49%, 67%, 2.9; 0.84). Where both MUAC and WAZ were low, there was sensitivity 90%, positive predictive value 82% and likelihood ratio 8.7. CONCLUSIONS: Infants aged under 6 months admitted to hospital in Nigeria had a high prevalence of undernutrition. In young, high-risk population, a low WAZ alone was a valuable screening criterion, while combining weight with MUAC gave even higher discrimination. Measurement of length to calculate WLZ was a less useful predictor in this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pregas Cutâneas
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 223, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem among children with chronic liver diseases (CLD). We aimed to assess the nutritional status of children with CLD and to correlate the anthropometric indices with the severity of liver disease, liver function tests, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25- OH D). METHODS: A total of 69 patients with CLD and 50 healthy controls (6 months - 6 years) were included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices expressed in standard deviation score (Z score), biochemical, hematological and clinical parameters. RESULTS: We found 52.2% of CLD patients underweight by weight for age (W/A); 50.2% were stunted by height for age/ length for age (HAZ or LAZ); and 39% exhibited wasting by weight/height or (length) for age (W/HZ or W/LZ) z scores analysis. The mean values of z scores for all anthropometric parameters were significantly correlated with unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin and INR (p < 0.05), except HAZ or LAZ. Also, a significant correlation to albumin was found, except for W/HZ or (W/LZ) (p = 0.157). The z scores < - 2 SD based on W/ H versus arm indicators showed significant differences in MUAC, UAA and AMA (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between anthropometric z-scores and the mean IGF-1 and (25- OH D) values (p > 0.05). Malnutrition was directly correlated with the severity of hepatic dysfunction, particularly, Child-Pugh C cases. The mean IGF-1 and (25- OH D) values were significantly correlated with the severity of liver disease (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified anthropometric arm indicators and MUAC/A measurements as an effective applied methods for assessing nutritional status in CLD children. Moreover, Integrating comprehensive clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements and objective biochemical analyses is essential for evaluation, follow-up and management of CLD children with variable degree of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Hepatopatias/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/etiologia , Albumina Sérica/análise , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pregas Cutâneas , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Síndrome de Emaciação/sangue , Síndrome de Emaciação/diagnóstico
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1534-1540, Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040166

RESUMO

Las diferencias de sexo es un aspecto muy presente en el mundo laboral y deportivo. Esto se traduce en la diferenciación de actividades deportivas, determinadas como masculinas o femeninas. De ahí que el objetivo del estudio fue analizar el nivel de participación y características morfológicas en gimnastas de acrobática y ver las diferencias en relación al sexo y rol: portor y ágil. Se analizó la participación en los Campeonatos de España entre 2011 y 2018, y se comparó medidas antropométricas, composición corporal y de proporcionalidad, en función del rol de actuación y sexo. El Comité Autonómico de Ética de Investigación de la Xunta de Galicia (España) aprobó la metodología de trabajo. Los resultados mostraron un porcentaje mucho mayor de participación en función del sexo a favor del sexo femenino en todos los campeonatos analizados. Sin embargo, el peso, índice de masa corporal y el porcentaje muscular no fueron diferentes entre sexos en ninguno de los dos roles. De las 62 variables morfológicas evaluadas, existe un mayor predominio de las diferencias en los portores que en los ágiles en relación al sexo, destacando el porcentaje de grasa.


Sex differences are a very present aspect in the world of work and sports. This translates into the differentiation of sports activities, determined as masculine or feminine. Hence, the aim of the study was to analyze the level of participation and morphological characteristics in acrobatic gymnasts and to see the differences in relation to sex and role: Base and top. Participation in the Spanish Championships between 2011 and 2018 was analyzed, and anthropometric measures, body composition and proportionality were compared, depending on the role of performance and sex. The Autonomous Committee of Research Ethics of the Xunta de Galicia (Spain) approved the work methodology. The results showed a much higher percentage of participation according to sex in favor of the female sex in all the analyzed championships. However, the weight, body mass index and muscle percentage were not different between sexes in either of the two roles. Of the 62 morphological variables evaluated, there is a greater predominance of differences in the bases than in the tops ones in relation to sex, highlighting the percentage of fat.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Ginástica/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Somatotipos , Espanha , Antropometria
16.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to determine if a difference exists in skinfold thickness measured by two interchangeable approaches; (1) supraspinale skinfold recommended in the Heath-Carter method and (2) iliac crest skinfold measurement. The question arises as to whether each approach has a similar or different effect on endomorphy determination, and whether there is a possibility to estimate the supraspinale skinfold based on other skinfold measurements. METHODS: A group of 186 male and 161 female students participated in this study. Anthropometric examination included all somatic measurements, as recommended in the Heath-Carter protocol, and the iliac crest skinfold measurement. Estimation of the supraspinale skinfold was performed based on the multiple linear regression procedure. RESULTS: Skinfold thickness measured in the supraspinale and iliac crest differed (p<0.001) in both men (5.41±1.65 mm and 9.55±4.05 mm, respectively) and women (8.87±4.08 mm and 15.20±6.85 mm), respectively. Endomorphy was significantly higher (0.46 in men, 0.63 in women) when the iliac crest skinfold was used. Subscapular skinfold and iliac crest skinfolds were included in the linear regression model for supraspinale skinfold estimation (R2 = 0.724, SE = 0.9 mm and R2 = 0.947, SE = 2.3 mm for men and women, respectively). CONCLUSION: Two common skinfold approaches produced different measurements between the supraspinale and iliac crest skinfolds, which subsequently affected estimated endomorphy. Regression equations for supraspinale skinfold enabled correction of endomorphy in the case of improperly applied measurement (i.e. iliac crest) and thus, could allow for uniform somatotype estimation according to Carter and Heath approach.


Assuntos
Pregas Cutâneas , Somatotipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 369-377, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) conducts backcountry research in an effort to provide the most up-to-date support to its students. Past research efforts have used a variety of body composition measurement tools, including bioelectrical impedance (BIA), skinfold calipers, and air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod), but these tools are not interchangeable. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of the Tanita scale and the Harpenden skinfold calipers for assessing body composition in backcountry hikers. METHODS: Twenty-two NOLS participants completed a 23-d backpacking trip into the Wind River Range in Wyoming. Pre- and postexpedition anthropometric measures were collected using 3 different body composition measurement tools: Tanita segmental body composition monitor, Harpenden skinfold calipers, and the Bod Pod. For the purposes of this study, the Bod Pod was used as the standard against which other methods were compared. RESULTS: Participants lost a significant amount of weight and fat during the expedition. Fat-free mass increased by 0.4±1.9 kg, but this did not reach significance. A high degree of reliability was found between skinfold calipers and the Bod Pod and between BIA and the Bod Pod. The BIA measurements significantly underreported body fat percentage when compared to the Bod Pod, whereas the skinfold measurements were not significantly different from the Bod Pod, but measurements were more variable. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the skinfold caliper and the Tanita scale give measurements comparable to the less readily available and more costly Bod Pod measurement in backcountry expedition participants.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Recreação , Pregas Cutâneas , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(9): 1259-1265, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of 34 Cytosine >Guanine (proline 12 alanine) variant of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, and to associate it with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and anthropometric obesity parameters. METHODS: The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, from September 2016 to 2017, and comprised patients of metabolic syndrome and healthy controls. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of all the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood sample of 4ml was taken for biochemical parameter and deoxyribonucleic acid extraction. The frequency of genetic variant was determined by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Out of 400 subjects, 200 (50%) each were patients and controls. Overall, there were 308 (77%) males and 92 (23%) females. Patients had significantly higher blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness compared to the controls (p<0.0001). Insulin resistance was also significantly higher in the patients (p<0.0001) and showed significant correlation with body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (p<0.05).Waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness were significant predictors of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Overall, the frequency of homozygous dominant genotype CC of PPAR2 34C>G was 291 (72.75%), heterozygous CG was 93 (23.25%) and homozygous recessive GG was 16 (4%).There was no significant difference in frequency of genotypes between the groups (p=0.216). However, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly lower in GG genotype compared to the CC (p=0.006 versus p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness were found to be the significant predictors of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, while no association was found between 34 C>G variant of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Adulto , Antropometria , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Paquistão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pregas Cutâneas , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Early Hum Dev ; 139: 104885, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has a high prevalence of low birth weight. Evidence indicates that poor fetal growth and rapid postnatal weight gain are associated with adiposity. OBJECTIVES: (i) To study the differences between the anthropometry, body fat measures of LBW and NBW children and (ii) To find out if there is any relationship between birth weight, change in weight SD and body fat measures of these children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: We studied 396 children aged between 3.5 and 4 years who were beneficiaries of government-run anganwadis in urban slums of Mumbai city, India. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight, current weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference. Change in weight SD and body fat (%) were calculated. WHOAnthro was used to compute the z scores. Parent's education, income and breastfeeding history was recorded. RESULTS: The mean change in weight SD of LBW and NBW groups were 1.01 ±â€¯1.4 and -0.73 ±â€¯1.13 respectively (p < 0.001). LBW children were lighter and shorter than NBW ones but had similar body fat (%) and central adiposity measures. In LBW and NBW children, birth weight Z score and change in weight SD were positively related to body fat (%) and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Children in this study belonged to low socioeconomic section. Despite this, LBW displayed a tendency towards accumulating body fat particularly, abdominal fat for lower body weight. Birth weight and postnatal weight change predict body fat and waist circumference in LBW and NBW children.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pregas Cutâneas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 338-344, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041335

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness' tracking from childhood to adolescence, as well as to test the moderation role of somatic maturation. Methods: Our sample was composed by 375 children (197 boys), with a baseline age between 7 and 10 years old. The children were followed-up over three years. Body mass and stature were measured as anthropometric indicators and were used to estimate maturity status through Moore's method. Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated through 9-minute running test. Body adiposity was estimated through the subcutaneous skinfold method, with measures of triceps and subscapular skinfolds and used as a covariate. Sample was categorized into tertiles. Thereafter, the Kappa (k) coefficient and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (LCCC) tests were adopted to verify stability. Dummy variable in regression was used to test moderation effects. All analyses were conducted in Stata 14.0, adopting p<0.05. Results: Cardiorespiratory fitness presented a moderate to low tracking from childhood to adolescence (k=0.294; LCCC=0.458). Moreover, maturity status significantly moderated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness at childhood and adolescence (regardless of cohort and body adiposity) among boys (β=0.644; p=0.003) and role sample (β=0.184; p=0.020), but not girls (-0.217; p=0.413). Conclusions: Tracking of cardiorespiratory fitness from childhood to adolescence is moderate to low in both sexes. Moreover, maturity status moderated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline and in adolescence. A lower age at peak height velocity was associated to a greater cardiorespiratory fitness.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o tracking da aptidão cardiorrespiratória da infância à adolescência, bem como testar a via de moderação pela maturação somática. Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 375 crianças (197 meninos), com idades entre 7 e 10 anos na linha de base. Os sujeitos foram acompanhados por três anos. Massa corporal e estatura foram mensuradas como indicadores antropométricos e usadas para estimar a maturação somática pelo método de Moore. Aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi avaliada pelo teste de 9 minutos de corrida. Adiposidade corporal foi estimada pelo método de dobras subcutâneas, com medidas das dobras tricipital e subescapular, além de ter sido utilizada como covariável. A amostra foi categorizada em tercis, e então o coeficiente Kappa (k) e o coeficiente de correlação de concordância de Lin (LCCC) foram adotados para verificar estabilidade. Foram criadas variáveis dummy nas regressões para estimar o efeito de moderação. Todas as análises foram conduzidas no Stata 14.0, adotando p<0,05. Resultados: A aptidão cardiorrespiratória apresentou tracking baixo a moderado da infância para a adolescência (k=0,294; LCCC=0,458). Além disso, o status de maturação moderou significativamente a associação entre aptidão cardiorrespiratória na infância e adolescência (independentemente da coorte e adiposidade) em meninos (β=0,644; p<0,003) e na amostra total (β=0,184; p<0,020), mas não em meninas (-0,217; p=0,413). Conclusões: O tracking da aptidão cardiorrespiratória da infância à adolescência é baixo a moderado em ambos os sexos. Ainda, o estado maturacional moderou a associação entre aptidão cardiorrespiratória na infância e adolescência. Menor idade do pico de velocidade de crescimento foi associada à maior aptidão cardiorrespiratória.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Longitudinais , Teste de Esforço
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