Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.825
Filtrar
1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 77, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404863

RESUMO

In Kerala and other South Indian States, the ayurvedic by-products are widely available which can adequately be incorporated into pig diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary incorporation of cooked barley residue and spent grapes on feed intake, growth performance, and nutrient utilization in sows and their piglets. Using completely randomized design (CRD), fifteen (15) Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pregnant sows with an average body weight of 180.53 kg, 3 weeks before the estimated date of farrowing, were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups. The dietary treatment groups consisted of T1 (control), fed with a ration containing maize and soya bean meal of 18% CP and 3265 kcal/kg ME, T2 with a ration containing cooked barley residue replacing 25% maize in control, and T3 with a ration containing spent grapes replacing 25% maize in control ration. Data on average daily feed intake (ADFI), fortnightly bodyweight of sows and their piglets were recorded for 63 days. Also, the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and cost of feed per kg of weight gain of the piglets were calculated. The result showed no significant (P > 0.05) dietary treatment effects on average weekly dry matter intake and fortnightly average body weight gain among the sows in all the three groups. Piglets showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total dry matter intake (DMI), total body weight gain, ADG, and FCR among the three groups during the entire study period. No variations were observed for the apparent digestibility of nitrogen-free extract and the availability of magnesium in the three rations. The cost of feed per kg weight gain was lower in piglets belonging to T2 and T3 than the control (T1), though not significant statistically (P > 0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that cooked barley residue and spent grapes could be included up to 25% in the ration of sow and their piglets by partially replacing maize without affecting their overall performances.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hordeum/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Índia , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13494, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368854

RESUMO

Assessing the resilience of Awassi sheep to water shortages during pregnancy, thereby investigating the effects of water scarcity on gestation efficiency in animals, could provide valuable and pertinent insight into future scenarios posed by climate change risks. In this study, 40 pregnant Awassi ewes randomly allocated to free watering group (C, n = 20) received water ad libitum and the water restricted group (WR) received 50% less water than the amount provided to group C. Water restriction decreased (p < .05) lambs' birth weights, placental weights (PWs), and cotyledon numbers (CNs). Placental efficiency (PE) and cotyledon efficiency (CE) were significantly higher in the WR group (p < .05). A marked difference in cotyledon weight - an increase of 12.1% - was recorded in the C group. The body weights of the pregnant ewes in the WR group decreased significantly (p < .05) by 22% during pregnancy. Significant increases (p < .05) in plasma ADH, cholesterol, Cl- , and Na+ levels were observed in the WR group ewes, indicating intense dehydration. We conclude that the Awassi breed of sheep can endure 50% water restriction during pregnancy and maintain successful parturition, a key outcome for sustainability.


Assuntos
Secas , Placenta/fisiologia , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cloro/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Gravidez , Sódio/sangue , Vasopressinas/sangue
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2205-2212, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020411

RESUMO

With the development of standardization and scaling in the dairy farming industry, timely and accurate pregnancy diagnosis is required to improve the benefits of breeding by shortening the calving interval. However, the current pregnancy diagnostic methods cannot meet the requirements of the industry. Here, we review changes in the physiological indexes and in the function and morphological status of the reproductive organs of dairy cows at the early stages of pregnancy. In addition, the corresponding pregnancy diagnostic methods based on certain indexes are well development, and the pregnancy diagnostic approaches based on remote sensing and automation technology have become inevitable trends in the industry. These applications will reveal physiological regularities in pregnancy and benefit the detailed management of dairy cows during early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2089, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034259

RESUMO

Despite their importance in mammalian reproduction, substances in the oxytocin-prostaglandins pathways have not been investigated in the horse placenta during most of pregnancy and parturition. Therefore, we quantified placental content of oxytocin (OXT), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), and prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha during days 90-240 of pregnancy (PREG), physiological parturition (PHYS), and parturition with fetal membrane retention (FMR) in heavy draft horses (PREG = 13, PHYS = 11, FMR = 10). We also quantified OXTR and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) mRNA expression and determined the immunolocalization of OXT, OXTR, and PTGS2. For relative quantification of OXT and OXTR, we used western blotting with densitometry. To quantify the prostaglandins, we used enzyme immunoassays. For relative quantification of OXTR and PTGS2, we used RT-qPCR. For immunolocalization of OXT, OXTR, and PTGS2, we used immunohistochemistry. We found that OXT was present in cells of the allantochorion and endometrium in all groups. PTGS2 expression in the allantochorion was 14.7-fold lower in FMR than in PHYS (p = 0.007). These results suggest that OXT is synthesized in the horse placenta. As PTGS2 synthesis is induced by inflammation, they also suggest that FMR in heavy draft horses may be associated with dysregulation of inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Membranas Extraembrionárias/metabolismo , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Parto/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Membranas Extraembrionárias/fisiologia , Feminino , Cavalos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Prostaglandinas/fisiologia
5.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(4): 454-459, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957075

RESUMO

Leptin regulates body weight and several physiological processes including reproduction. We evaluated the circulating levels of leptin in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches as well as their correlation with body weight, food intake and number of foetuses. Nineteen healthy German shepherd bitches were used and divided in two groups (pregnant n = 12 and non-pregnant n = 7). Blood samples were collected every 15 days starting from ovulation (Day 0) throughout pregnancy (pregnant group, P) or throughout luteal phase (non-pregnant group, NP) In pregnant bitches, leptin concentrations increased from the day of ovulation (1.32 ± 0.06 ng/ml) up to day 45 (1.51 ± 0.06 ng/ml; p < .01) and returned to baseline values from day 60 post-ovulation. In non-pregnant bitches, leptin concentrations remained constant throughout the whole observation period (estimated marginal mean ± SE=1.33 ± 0.38 ng/ml). Pairwise comparisons showed significant differences between P and NP at day 45 post-ovulation (p < .05). Multivariable models indicated that, controlling for time and litter size, there was a positive relationship between leptin concentration and BW (p < .05) although Pearson coefficients showed that the correlation between BW and leptin was only significant in NP animals at day 45 (r = 0.76, p < .05). The multivariable approach also suggested that, holding BW and time constant, leptin concentrations tend to increase as the number of puppies increased (p = .06). Our study supports indirectly the contribution of the feto-placental unit to the circulating maternal leptin concentration.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cães/sangue , Feminino , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Placenta , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue
6.
Theriogenology ; 143: 98-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864010

RESUMO

The present study documented the expression and functional role of Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) family and their receptors (Fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFRs) in placenta (Cotyledon; COT, Caruncle; CAR) during different stages of pregnancy in water buffalo. Samples were collected from Early pregnancy 1 (EP1); Early pregnancy 2 (EP2); Mid pregnancy (MP) and Late pregnancy (LP) while diestrus stage of oestrus cycle (NP) was taken as control. In addition, modulatory role of FGF2 on mRNA expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF), Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ßHSD) and BCL2 Associated X (BAX) were studied in cultured trophoblast cells (TCC), obtained from EP2. Real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA and protein expressions, and the localization of examined factors whereas, P4 secretion was assessed by RIA. The mRNA and protein expression of FGFs and its receptors were maximum (P < 0.05) during EP (EP1 and EP2) in COT. However, FGFR1 and FGFR4 were upregulated (P < 0.05) during EP2 and MP in COT. Similarly, the mRNA and protein expression of FGFs and its receptors were upregulated (P < 0.05) during all stages of pregnancy in CAR. FGF family members were localized in the cytoplasm of trophoblast cells as well as in fetal blood vessels. At 100 ng/ml dosage, FGF2 stimulated the transcript of vWF maximally (P < 0.05). P4 secretion in trophoblast cells treated with FGF2 was maximum with the highest dose at 72 h. These findings corroborate that FGF acts locally in the trophoblast cells to modulate steroid hormone viz. progesterone synthesis, promote angiogenesis and favors cell survivability indicating that this factor may play an essential role in the regulation of placental formation and function in buffalo.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Prenhez , Animais , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1345-1349, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811509

RESUMO

The early pregnancy diagnosis allows optimizing production and timely management correction, with a greater reproductive output of livestock. The Idexx Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test® consists of an ELISA for visual reading which does not require the use of readers in the laboratory, with satisfactory pregnancy diagnoses at 28 days of pregnancy in cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate this rapid test and to verify the most appropriate day for the diagnosis of pregnancy in the ovine species. For this purpose, 98 serum samples from pregnant sheep and 36 from non-pregnant were used, with duplicate samples, and diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound examination, used as the gold standard. The numbers of positive samples obtained at 26, 28, and 30 days of pregnancy were 26, 27, and 45, respectively. The Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test correctly identified 100% of the samples as positive at pregnancy of days 26, 28, and 30. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were also 100%. The Idexx Rapid Visual Pregnancy Test, initially indicated for cattle, is effective for the detection of pregnancy in the ovine species, enabling diagnosis of pregnant sheep from the 26th day of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ovinos , Animais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16159, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695053

RESUMO

Drying-off is one important management step in commercial dairy farms and consists of ceasing milk production artificially at a specific point in time, generally 2 months before the next calving. Drying-off typically comprises dietary changes as well as gradual or abrupt changes in daily milking frequency, which may challenge the welfare of high-yielding cows. This study investigated the isolated and combined effects of different feed energy densities (normal lactation diet versus energy-reduced diet, both offered ad libitum) and daily milking frequencies (twice versus once) on the feeding motivation of dairy cows on two separate days prior to dry-off (i.e. the day of last milking) using a push-gate feeder. During both days, cows on the energy-reduced diet pushed more than five times more weight to earn the final feed reward and were nearly ten times faster to feed on the first reward than cows on the normal lactation diet. Illustrating the importance of developing more animal welfare-friendly dry-off management, these results illustrate that cows show signs of hunger prior to dry-off when provided a diet with reduced energy density, although offered for ad libitum intake.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fome/fisiologia , Lactação , Prenhez/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11250-11259, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606216

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of exercise and pasture turnout on lying behavior, labor length, and cortisol concentrations around the time of parturition in dairy cows. Twenty-nine primiparous and 31 multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey × Holstein cross (n = 2) dairy cows were assigned to control (n = 20), exercise (n = 20), or pasture (n = 20) treatments at dry-off using rolling enrollment. Control cows remained in the dry cow group pen. Exercise cows were removed from the dry cow group pen 5 times per week and walked for 1.4 ± 0.1 h at 1.88 ± 0.58 km/h. Pasture cows were moved to an outdoor paddock 5 times per week for 1.8 ± 0.3 h/d. Cows were housed in deep-bedded sand freestalls in a naturally ventilated, 4-row freestall barn. Cows were moved into maternity pens on the day of projected calving or when cows displayed signs that calving was imminent (restlessness, raised or lifted tail, ruptured amniotic sac, or swollen vulva), and treatments were discontinued. Cameras continuously recorded cows from entry into the pen until farm staff noted a calf, and one observer continuously watched video for two visually observable periods throughout the calving process: time from initial observation of amniotic sac to initial observation of calf's feet, and time from initial observation of calf's feet to full expulsion of calf. Assisted calvings were excluded. Accelerometers were attached to the rear fetlocks of cows 3 d before dry-off and removed 14 d postpartum. Activity was summarized by day for the 7 d before and after delivery time recorded from video observation into lying time (hours per day), lying bout frequency (bouts per day), lying bout duration (minutes per bout), and steps (number per day). Plasma total cortisol concentration was measured on d 0 and 3 postpartum and determined by a radioimmunoassay procedure using a commercially available kit. Data were analyzed using mixed linear model. During calving, time from appearance of the amniotic sac to appearance of the calf's feet was longer for pasture cows compared with control. Control cows engaged in fewer lying bouts and less overall lying time compared with pasture and exercise cows. Cortisol concentrations were higher on the day of calving compared with 3 d later, regardless of treatment. Understanding the effects of lying alterations around calving and increases in labor period length may allow for physical activity recommendations for late-gestation dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue , Descanso
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635328

RESUMO

Maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in the mare is not well defined. In a non-pregnant mare, prostaglandin F2α (PGF) is released on day 14 post-ovulation (PO) to cause luteal regression, resulting in loss of progesterone production. Equine MRP occurs prior to day 14 to halt PGF production. Studies have failed to identify a gene candidate for MRP, so attention has turned to small, non-coding RNAs. The objective of this study was to evaluate small RNA (<200 nucleotides) content in endometrium during MRP. Mares were used in a cross-over design with each having a pregnant and non-mated cycle. Each mare was randomly assigned to collection day 11 or 13 PO (n = 3/day) and endometrial biopsies were obtained. Total RNA was isolated and sequencing libraries were prepared using a small RNA library preparation kit and sequenced on a HiSeq 2000. EquCab3 was used as the reference genome and DESeq2 was used for statistical analysis. On day 11, 419 ncRNAs, representing miRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, scaRNA, and vaultRNA, were different between pregnancy statuses, but none on day 13. Equine endometrial ncRNAs with unknown structure and function were also identified. This study is the first to describe ncRNA transcriptome in equine endometrium. Identifying targets of these ncRNAs could lead to determining MRP.


Assuntos
Endométrio/metabolismo , Cavalos/genética , Prenhez/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 210: 106190, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635784

RESUMO

This study was conducted to characterise pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (caPAG) in peripheral plasma during gestation and postpartum periods of nulliparous and multiparous does with one or two foetuses using a caPAG specific two-step sandwich ELISA system. Earliest time-points for detection of pregnancy and foetal number with appropriate cut-off values were identified. Plasma samples from 15 pregnant (multiparous: n = 8; nulliparous: n = 7; during pregnancy and postpartum period) and six non-pregnant (during oestrous cycle) goats were collected and analysed. Mean caPAG concentration was greater than the threshold for pregnancy detection (S-N = 0.40) on d22, peaked on d45 and remained unchanged until parturition. From d45 until parturition, caPAG concentration in multiparous does with two foetuses was 1.4 to 1.8 fold greater (P < 0.001) than those with one foetus. For the ELISA, 0.83 (S-N) was the most appropriate cut-off to differentiate does with two from those with a single foetus with an overall sensitivity and accuracy of 88.9% and 84.7%, respectively. Circulating caPAG concentration in multiparous goats was greater (P < 0.05) compared with nulliparous goats during the early pregnancy and postpartum periods. After parturition, caPAG concentrations markedly decreased and were basal within 14 days postpartum. In conclusion, using the caPAG specific ELISA, results indicated there were unique gestational and postpartum profiles for caPAG concentrations that are affected by number of foetuses and parity of the doe. The marked decrease in concentration of caPAG following parturition indicates there would not be compromising of the detection of subsequent pregnancies in goats using this technique.


Assuntos
Cabras/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Prenhez , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Cabras/sangue , Paridade , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/genética , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 843-848, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056906

RESUMO

Clinical and metabolic evaluation is necessary for the monitoring of pregnant and lactating mares, as they reflect the health of the animal. The body condition of the mare is an indicator of reproductive efficiency. The study aimed to determine the possible variations in body and metabolic condition in Mangalarga Marchador mares during the transition period. Forty-eight mares distributed in two groups were used: Maintenance Group (MG), composed of non-pregnant and non-lactating mares, and Transition Group (TG), formed by pregnant mares and who after delivery became lactating. Analyzes were performed in the times T-60, T-30 and T-15 before delivery, first six hours (T0) after delivery and T15, T30 and T60 days after delivery. MG was evaluated only at one time (T-60). Body weight and fat-free mass differed (P<0.05) between the groups. The percentage of fat was lower in MG. Mares had a higher fat percentage in TG at T-60 and T-30 times. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the amount of cholesterol between MG and TG (T0, T15 and T30). Triglycerides were different between the groups. TG showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05). There was a higher amount of glucose in TG (delivery and lactation) when compared to mares in MG. Changes in body condition and metabolic constituents occurred in the animals resulting from physiological adaptations of the transition period. The energetic components are the most affected from the transition period, with intense fat mobilization to supply the body demands.(AU)


Avaliações clínicas e metabólicas são necessárias para o monitoramento de éguas gestantes e lactantes, pois refletem a saúde do animal. A condição corporal da égua pode ser um indicador da eficiência reprodutiva. O estudo objetivou determinar as possíveis variações na condição corporal e metabólica em éguas Mangalarga Marchador durante o período de transição. Foram utilizadas 48 éguas distribuídas em dois grupos: Grupo em Manutenção (GM) composto por éguas não gestantes e não lactantes; Grupo em Transição (GT) formado por éguas gestantes e que após o parto tornaram-se lactantes. As análises foram realizadas nos tempos T-60, T-30 e T-15 antes do parto, primeiras seis horas (T0) após o parto e T15, T30 e T60 dias após o parto. O GM foi avaliado apenas uma vez (T-60). O peso corporal e a massa livre de gordura diferiram (P<0,05) entre os grupos. O percentual de gordura foi menor em GM. As éguas apresentaram maior porcentagem de gordura no GT no T-60 e no T-30. Houve diferença (P<0,05) na quantidade de colesterol entre GM e GT (T0, T15 e T30). Triglicérides foram diferentes entre os grupos. GT apresentou maiores concentrações de ácidos graxos não esterificados (P<0,05). Houve maior quantidade de glicose no GT (parto e lactação) quando comparada às éguas no GM. Mudanças na condição corporal e nos constituintes metabólicos ocorreram nos animais resultantes de adaptações fisiológicas do período de transição. Os componentes energéticos são os mais afetados neste período, existindo intensa mobilização de gordura para suprir demandas corporais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prenhez/sangue , Cavalos/fisiologia , Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/sangue
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(3): 439-443, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560468

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine several obstetric and neonatal parameters in the Maine Coon breed. The birth data of Maine Coon breeding population were collected of 52 litters from different households using a questionnaire. Significant relationships between various outcomes and the relevant predictors were assessed by multiple linear regression or logistic regression, as appropriate. The overall mean gestation length was 65.5±1.32 days. Larger litter size was associated with shorter gestation lengths (p⟨0.01). Mean litter size was 5.3±2.3 kittens. The weight of kittens born alive (overall mean 119.6±18.4 g) increased with prolonged gestation lengths (p⟨0.01) and decreased with larger litter sizes (p⟨0.01). In the analyzed group of kittens, 12.5% were stillborn. The expulsion intervals varied widely. The duration of the first stage of labour was less than 2h in 82.9% of the cats. The interval between the birth of the first and the last kitten was less than 6h in 99.3% of the cats, and it exceeded 6 h in only 2 cats. The present results can be used to develop references values and reliable assistance protocol for assessing the parturition in the Maine Coon to protect the queen and reduce perinatal losses.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Gatos/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Gatos/classificação , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Natimorto/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405455

RESUMO

Uterine receptivity for the embryo is established and maintained through a series of precise cellular and molecular events, such as DNA methylation. There have been no studies to elucidate entire genome DNA methylation changes associated with embryo receptivity development of the endometrium (RE). In the present study, there was development of a complete genome-wide DNA methylome maps of the RE using whole-genome bisulphite sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. As many as 163.06 Gb of sequencing data averaging 81.53 Gb per sample were obtained for genome bisulphite sequencing of endometrium samples. There were distinct genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in pre-receptive endometrium (PE; Day 5 of gestation) and RE (Day 15 of gestation). There were as many as 16,467 differentially methylated regions (DMRs); 21,391 DMRs were less methylated in RE samples compared with PE samples (P-values ≤ 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)| ≥ 2). Compared with PE samples, methylation ratios of IGF2BP2, ACOX2, PTGDS, VEGFB and PTGDR2 genes were markedly less in RE samples (P-value ≤ 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)| ≥ 2). Conversely, in RE samples there was a markedly greater methylation ratio of IGFBP3 and IGF1R genes. The results of KEGG analysis indicated that these genes were involved in the signalling pathways for insulin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, which participated in differential regulation of goat endometrial development during receptive and prereceptive phases. The results of previous and the present study indicate resulting proteins of IGF2BP2, PTGDS, VEGFB, PGR, IGFBP3 and IGF1R gene expression may have important functions in regulating endometrial receptivity for the embryo.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9187-9199, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351711

RESUMO

In the transition period from late gestation to early lactation, dairy cows undergo tremendous metabolic changes. Insulin is a relevant antilipolytic factor. Decreasing serum concentrations of insulin and glucose, increasing serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and changes in body condition score (BCS) reflect the negative energy balance around calving. This study investigated peripartum metabolic adaptation in 359 primiparous and 235 multiparous German Holstein cows from a commercial dairy herd under field conditions. Body condition score was recorded and blood samples were taken 10 to 1 d prepartum, 2 to 4 d postpartum, and 12 to 20 d postpartum. Generalized mixed models and generalized estimation equations were applied to assess associations between prepartum BCS; BCS changes during the transition period; insulin, glucose, NEFA, and BHB serum concentrations; and milk yield, which was taken from an electronic milk meter from d 6 of lactation. Serum insulin concentrations of multiparous postpartum cows were lower compared with prepartum, and compared with primiparous cows. In general, primiparous cows had lower postpartum NEFA and BHB concentrations than multiparous cows. In primiparous cows, we identified a positive association between prepartum BCS and prepartum serum insulin concentration. Prepartum obese multiparous cows, but not primiparous cows, were characterized by higher postpartum serum NEFA and BHB concentrations and lower milk yield than other cows in the same parity class. Primiparous cows with a smaller degree of BCS loss during the transition period had higher postpartum insulin and lower NEFA concentrations and lower milk yield than other primiparous cows. In conclusion, primiparous cows had less lipolysis and lower milk yield than multiparous cows, associated with higher insulin concentrations. Avoiding high body condition loss during the transition period is a main factor in preventing peripartal metabolic imbalances of glucose and fat metabolism.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Paridade , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Constituição Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lactação , Lipólise , Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue
16.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335883

RESUMO

Several external factors including lunar cycle and weather conditions might be associated with calving conditions. Our objective here was to determine the effects of lunar cycle and weather conditions on calving frequency and the occurrence of preterm calving in Japanese Black cows. Calving records were obtained from 905 farms in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected from 41,116 calvings. We conducted two studies: Study 1 investigated the effects of lunar cycle and weather conditions on daily calving frequency (DCF) with the observational unit of each day and Study 2 investigated those effects on the occurrence of preterm calving with the observational unit for each calving. Preterm calving was defined by whether or not a cow calving before 280 days of gestation, lower 10th percentile of gestation length of the collected data, and by whether or not a cow calving before 289 days of gestation, median of the gestation length. For Study 1, lunar cycle was not associated with DCF in all cows, in only primiparous cows and in only multiparous cows. As well as lunar cycle, weather conditions such as temperature, diurnal temperature variation, the temperature-humidity index, precipitation amount, barometric pressure, relative humidity and solar radiation, were also not associated with DCF. For Study 2, lunar cycle phases were not associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. However, preterm calving was associated with all of the weather conditions (P < 0.05) except for precipitation amounts and solar radiation. Temperature, the temperature-humidity index and relative humidity were positively associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. In contrast, diurnal temperature variations and barometric pressure were negatively associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. In conclusion, the lunar cycle was not associated with DCF and preterm calving, but the weather conditions were associated with preterm calving.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lua , Prenhez/fisiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez
17.
Placenta ; 84: 14-27, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301865

RESUMO

This review explores eight aspects of placentation in multiple mammalian. 1) Specialities of gestational trophoblastic disease. 2) Clinical significance of single umbilical artery (SUA) syndrome. 3) Pulmonary trophoblast embolism in pregnant chinchillas and DIC in pregnant giant panda. 4) Genetics status and placental behaviors during Japanese serow and related antelopes. 5) Specific living style and placentation of the Sloth and Proboscis monkey. 6) Similarities of placental structures between human and great apes. 7) Similarities of placental forms in elephants, manatees and rock hyrax with different living styles. 8) Specialities of placental pathology in Himalayan mountain people. CONCLUSIONS: It was taught that every mammalian species held on placental forms applied to different environmental life for their infants, even though their gestational lengths were different.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Doenças Placentárias/etiologia , Placenta/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , Feminino , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/etiologia , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/patologia , Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/veterinária , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Placentárias/veterinária , Placentação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Neoplasias Uterinas/etiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/veterinária
18.
Theriogenology ; 136: 166-171, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265945

RESUMO

Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, must adapt to the presence of fetal alloantigens. Prostaglandins (PGs) have diverse effects to activate or inhibit the immune response, but effects of early pregnancy on the expression of PG synthases in ovine maternal thymus are unclear. In this study, ovine thymic samples were obtained at day 16 of the estrous cycle, and days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy. The expression of PG synthases, including cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, PGE2 synthase (PTGES), and a prostaglandin F2α synthase (Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1, AKR1B1), was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, the thymus/body ratio was also calculated. Our results showed that the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein, AKR1B1 mRNA and dimer were up-regulated on day 25 of pregnancy (P < 0.05), and expression of COX-1, PTGES mRNA and protein, AKR1B1 monomer and thymus/body ratio were similar at different stages of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins were located in the stromal cells, capillaries and thymic corpuscles. This is the first study to report that expression of COX-2 and AKR1B1 dimer is up-regulated in the maternal thymus during early pregnancy, suggesting that early pregnancy exerts its effects on maternal thymus, which is involved in immunomodulation during early pregnancy in sheep.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Prenhez , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Timo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Timo/anatomia & histologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
19.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 149-157, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147267

RESUMO

Embryonic diapause in the European roe deer includes a period of five months from August to December in which embryonic development is extremely decelerated. Following exit from diapause, the embryo rapidly elongates and subsequently implants. In diapausing carnivores and marsupials, resumption of embryonic growth is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. In the roe deer, the role of steroid hormones is not known to date. In the present study, progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2) and total estrogens (Etot) were determined in blood plasma and endometrium of roe deer shot in the course of regular huntings between September and December. Steroid hormone concentrations were correlated to the corresponding size of the embryo derived from ex vivo uterine flushing and to the date of sampling. The mean plasma concentrations of P4 (5.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml, mean ± SE, N = 87), E2 (24.3 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 86) and Etot (21.7 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 78) remained constant over the sampling period and were not correlated to embryonic size. Likewise, endometrial concentrations of P4 (66.1 ± 6.5 ng/g), E2 (284.0 ± 24.43 pg/g) and, Etot (440.9 ± 24.43 pg/g) showed no changes over time [corrected]. Therefore, it was concluded that ovarian steroid hormones do not play a determining role in resumption of embryonic growth following the period of diapause in the roe deer.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Diapausa/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Prenhez , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Endométrio , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
20.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(2): 274-281, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238726

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to create a fetal heart rate (FHR) reference curve for singleton bovine fetuses in the first trimester of gestation and to determine its possible relationship with the outcome of pregnancy. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows with one fetus and five cows with twins were used. Fetal heart beatings were recorded on videotape during transrectal scanning with a 5 and/or 7.5 MHz linear array transducer on a weekly basis between Days 40 and 95 of gestation. FHR was calculated by averaging the results of five counts of the same record by the same observer. For singleton pregnancies, a reference curve was created using the mean, the standard deviation (SD) and the 5th and 95th percentiles. The FHR increased from Days 40-46 (173 beats/min) to Days 61-67 (183 beats/min). After a peak, the FHR decreased slowly until Days 89-95 (175 beats/min), while the SD increased. There was no significant difference between singleton and twin fetuses. in the aborted and lost fetuses in twin gestation due to fetal reduction, both bradycardia and tachycardia were detected compared to the singleton pregnancy reference curve.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Ultrassom Focalizado Transretal de Alta Intensidade/veterinária , Gravação de Videoteipe
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...