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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11250-11259, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606216

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of exercise and pasture turnout on lying behavior, labor length, and cortisol concentrations around the time of parturition in dairy cows. Twenty-nine primiparous and 31 multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey × Holstein cross (n = 2) dairy cows were assigned to control (n = 20), exercise (n = 20), or pasture (n = 20) treatments at dry-off using rolling enrollment. Control cows remained in the dry cow group pen. Exercise cows were removed from the dry cow group pen 5 times per week and walked for 1.4 ± 0.1 h at 1.88 ± 0.58 km/h. Pasture cows were moved to an outdoor paddock 5 times per week for 1.8 ± 0.3 h/d. Cows were housed in deep-bedded sand freestalls in a naturally ventilated, 4-row freestall barn. Cows were moved into maternity pens on the day of projected calving or when cows displayed signs that calving was imminent (restlessness, raised or lifted tail, ruptured amniotic sac, or swollen vulva), and treatments were discontinued. Cameras continuously recorded cows from entry into the pen until farm staff noted a calf, and one observer continuously watched video for two visually observable periods throughout the calving process: time from initial observation of amniotic sac to initial observation of calf's feet, and time from initial observation of calf's feet to full expulsion of calf. Assisted calvings were excluded. Accelerometers were attached to the rear fetlocks of cows 3 d before dry-off and removed 14 d postpartum. Activity was summarized by day for the 7 d before and after delivery time recorded from video observation into lying time (hours per day), lying bout frequency (bouts per day), lying bout duration (minutes per bout), and steps (number per day). Plasma total cortisol concentration was measured on d 0 and 3 postpartum and determined by a radioimmunoassay procedure using a commercially available kit. Data were analyzed using mixed linear model. During calving, time from appearance of the amniotic sac to appearance of the calf's feet was longer for pasture cows compared with control. Control cows engaged in fewer lying bouts and less overall lying time compared with pasture and exercise cows. Cortisol concentrations were higher on the day of calving compared with 3 d later, regardless of treatment. Understanding the effects of lying alterations around calving and increases in labor period length may allow for physical activity recommendations for late-gestation dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue , Descanso
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 843-848, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056906

RESUMO

Clinical and metabolic evaluation is necessary for the monitoring of pregnant and lactating mares, as they reflect the health of the animal. The body condition of the mare is an indicator of reproductive efficiency. The study aimed to determine the possible variations in body and metabolic condition in Mangalarga Marchador mares during the transition period. Forty-eight mares distributed in two groups were used: Maintenance Group (MG), composed of non-pregnant and non-lactating mares, and Transition Group (TG), formed by pregnant mares and who after delivery became lactating. Analyzes were performed in the times T-60, T-30 and T-15 before delivery, first six hours (T0) after delivery and T15, T30 and T60 days after delivery. MG was evaluated only at one time (T-60). Body weight and fat-free mass differed (P<0.05) between the groups. The percentage of fat was lower in MG. Mares had a higher fat percentage in TG at T-60 and T-30 times. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the amount of cholesterol between MG and TG (T0, T15 and T30). Triglycerides were different between the groups. TG showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05). There was a higher amount of glucose in TG (delivery and lactation) when compared to mares in MG. Changes in body condition and metabolic constituents occurred in the animals resulting from physiological adaptations of the transition period. The energetic components are the most affected from the transition period, with intense fat mobilization to supply the body demands.(AU)


Avaliações clínicas e metabólicas são necessárias para o monitoramento de éguas gestantes e lactantes, pois refletem a saúde do animal. A condição corporal da égua pode ser um indicador da eficiência reprodutiva. O estudo objetivou determinar as possíveis variações na condição corporal e metabólica em éguas Mangalarga Marchador durante o período de transição. Foram utilizadas 48 éguas distribuídas em dois grupos: Grupo em Manutenção (GM) composto por éguas não gestantes e não lactantes; Grupo em Transição (GT) formado por éguas gestantes e que após o parto tornaram-se lactantes. As análises foram realizadas nos tempos T-60, T-30 e T-15 antes do parto, primeiras seis horas (T0) após o parto e T15, T30 e T60 dias após o parto. O GM foi avaliado apenas uma vez (T-60). O peso corporal e a massa livre de gordura diferiram (P<0,05) entre os grupos. O percentual de gordura foi menor em GM. As éguas apresentaram maior porcentagem de gordura no GT no T-60 e no T-30. Houve diferença (P<0,05) na quantidade de colesterol entre GM e GT (T0, T15 e T30). Triglicérides foram diferentes entre os grupos. GT apresentou maiores concentrações de ácidos graxos não esterificados (P<0,05). Houve maior quantidade de glicose no GT (parto e lactação) quando comparada às éguas no GM. Mudanças na condição corporal e nos constituintes metabólicos ocorreram nos animais resultantes de adaptações fisiológicas do período de transição. Os componentes energéticos são os mais afetados neste período, existindo intensa mobilização de gordura para suprir demandas corporais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Prenhez/metabolismo , Prenhez/sangue , Cavalos/fisiologia , Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/sangue
3.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(3): 439-443, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560468

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine several obstetric and neonatal parameters in the Maine Coon breed. The birth data of Maine Coon breeding population were collected of 52 litters from different households using a questionnaire. Significant relationships between various outcomes and the relevant predictors were assessed by multiple linear regression or logistic regression, as appropriate. The overall mean gestation length was 65.5±1.32 days. Larger litter size was associated with shorter gestation lengths (p⟨0.01). Mean litter size was 5.3±2.3 kittens. The weight of kittens born alive (overall mean 119.6±18.4 g) increased with prolonged gestation lengths (p⟨0.01) and decreased with larger litter sizes (p⟨0.01). In the analyzed group of kittens, 12.5% were stillborn. The expulsion intervals varied widely. The duration of the first stage of labour was less than 2h in 82.9% of the cats. The interval between the birth of the first and the last kitten was less than 6h in 99.3% of the cats, and it exceeded 6 h in only 2 cats. The present results can be used to develop references values and reliable assistance protocol for assessing the parturition in the Maine Coon to protect the queen and reduce perinatal losses.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Gatos/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Gatos/classificação , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Natimorto/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405455

RESUMO

Uterine receptivity for the embryo is established and maintained through a series of precise cellular and molecular events, such as DNA methylation. There have been no studies to elucidate entire genome DNA methylation changes associated with embryo receptivity development of the endometrium (RE). In the present study, there was development of a complete genome-wide DNA methylome maps of the RE using whole-genome bisulphite sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. As many as 163.06 Gb of sequencing data averaging 81.53 Gb per sample were obtained for genome bisulphite sequencing of endometrium samples. There were distinct genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in pre-receptive endometrium (PE; Day 5 of gestation) and RE (Day 15 of gestation). There were as many as 16,467 differentially methylated regions (DMRs); 21,391 DMRs were less methylated in RE samples compared with PE samples (P-values ≤ 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)| ≥ 2). Compared with PE samples, methylation ratios of IGF2BP2, ACOX2, PTGDS, VEGFB and PTGDR2 genes were markedly less in RE samples (P-value ≤ 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)| ≥ 2). Conversely, in RE samples there was a markedly greater methylation ratio of IGFBP3 and IGF1R genes. The results of KEGG analysis indicated that these genes were involved in the signalling pathways for insulin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, which participated in differential regulation of goat endometrial development during receptive and prereceptive phases. The results of previous and the present study indicate resulting proteins of IGF2BP2, PTGDS, VEGFB, PGR, IGFBP3 and IGF1R gene expression may have important functions in regulating endometrial receptivity for the embryo.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335883

RESUMO

Several external factors including lunar cycle and weather conditions might be associated with calving conditions. Our objective here was to determine the effects of lunar cycle and weather conditions on calving frequency and the occurrence of preterm calving in Japanese Black cows. Calving records were obtained from 905 farms in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected from 41,116 calvings. We conducted two studies: Study 1 investigated the effects of lunar cycle and weather conditions on daily calving frequency (DCF) with the observational unit of each day and Study 2 investigated those effects on the occurrence of preterm calving with the observational unit for each calving. Preterm calving was defined by whether or not a cow calving before 280 days of gestation, lower 10th percentile of gestation length of the collected data, and by whether or not a cow calving before 289 days of gestation, median of the gestation length. For Study 1, lunar cycle was not associated with DCF in all cows, in only primiparous cows and in only multiparous cows. As well as lunar cycle, weather conditions such as temperature, diurnal temperature variation, the temperature-humidity index, precipitation amount, barometric pressure, relative humidity and solar radiation, were also not associated with DCF. For Study 2, lunar cycle phases were not associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. However, preterm calving was associated with all of the weather conditions (P < 0.05) except for precipitation amounts and solar radiation. Temperature, the temperature-humidity index and relative humidity were positively associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. In contrast, diurnal temperature variations and barometric pressure were negatively associated with the occurrence of preterm calving. In conclusion, the lunar cycle was not associated with DCF and preterm calving, but the weather conditions were associated with preterm calving.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lua , Prenhez/fisiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez
6.
Theriogenology ; 136: 166-171, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265945

RESUMO

Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, must adapt to the presence of fetal alloantigens. Prostaglandins (PGs) have diverse effects to activate or inhibit the immune response, but effects of early pregnancy on the expression of PG synthases in ovine maternal thymus are unclear. In this study, ovine thymic samples were obtained at day 16 of the estrous cycle, and days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy. The expression of PG synthases, including cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, PGE2 synthase (PTGES), and a prostaglandin F2α synthase (Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1, AKR1B1), was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, the thymus/body ratio was also calculated. Our results showed that the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein, AKR1B1 mRNA and dimer were up-regulated on day 25 of pregnancy (P < 0.05), and expression of COX-1, PTGES mRNA and protein, AKR1B1 monomer and thymus/body ratio were similar at different stages of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins were located in the stromal cells, capillaries and thymic corpuscles. This is the first study to report that expression of COX-2 and AKR1B1 dimer is up-regulated in the maternal thymus during early pregnancy, suggesting that early pregnancy exerts its effects on maternal thymus, which is involved in immunomodulation during early pregnancy in sheep.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Prenhez , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Timo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Timo/anatomia & histologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9187-9199, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351711

RESUMO

In the transition period from late gestation to early lactation, dairy cows undergo tremendous metabolic changes. Insulin is a relevant antilipolytic factor. Decreasing serum concentrations of insulin and glucose, increasing serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and changes in body condition score (BCS) reflect the negative energy balance around calving. This study investigated peripartum metabolic adaptation in 359 primiparous and 235 multiparous German Holstein cows from a commercial dairy herd under field conditions. Body condition score was recorded and blood samples were taken 10 to 1 d prepartum, 2 to 4 d postpartum, and 12 to 20 d postpartum. Generalized mixed models and generalized estimation equations were applied to assess associations between prepartum BCS; BCS changes during the transition period; insulin, glucose, NEFA, and BHB serum concentrations; and milk yield, which was taken from an electronic milk meter from d 6 of lactation. Serum insulin concentrations of multiparous postpartum cows were lower compared with prepartum, and compared with primiparous cows. In general, primiparous cows had lower postpartum NEFA and BHB concentrations than multiparous cows. In primiparous cows, we identified a positive association between prepartum BCS and prepartum serum insulin concentration. Prepartum obese multiparous cows, but not primiparous cows, were characterized by higher postpartum serum NEFA and BHB concentrations and lower milk yield than other cows in the same parity class. Primiparous cows with a smaller degree of BCS loss during the transition period had higher postpartum insulin and lower NEFA concentrations and lower milk yield than other primiparous cows. In conclusion, primiparous cows had less lipolysis and lower milk yield than multiparous cows, associated with higher insulin concentrations. Avoiding high body condition loss during the transition period is a main factor in preventing peripartal metabolic imbalances of glucose and fat metabolism.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Paridade , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Constituição Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lactação , Lipólise , Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Prenhez/sangue
8.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(2): 274-281, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238726

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to create a fetal heart rate (FHR) reference curve for singleton bovine fetuses in the first trimester of gestation and to determine its possible relationship with the outcome of pregnancy. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows with one fetus and five cows with twins were used. Fetal heart beatings were recorded on videotape during transrectal scanning with a 5 and/or 7.5 MHz linear array transducer on a weekly basis between Days 40 and 95 of gestation. FHR was calculated by averaging the results of five counts of the same record by the same observer. For singleton pregnancies, a reference curve was created using the mean, the standard deviation (SD) and the 5th and 95th percentiles. The FHR increased from Days 40-46 (173 beats/min) to Days 61-67 (183 beats/min). After a peak, the FHR decreased slowly until Days 89-95 (175 beats/min), while the SD increased. There was no significant difference between singleton and twin fetuses. in the aborted and lost fetuses in twin gestation due to fetal reduction, both bradycardia and tachycardia were detected compared to the singleton pregnancy reference curve.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Ultrassom Focalizado Transretal de Alta Intensidade/veterinária , Gravação de Videoteipe
9.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 149-157, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147267

RESUMO

Embryonic diapause in the European roe deer includes a period of five months from August to December in which embryonic development is extremely decelerated. Following exit from diapause, the embryo rapidly elongates and subsequently implants. In diapausing carnivores and marsupials, resumption of embryonic growth is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. In the roe deer, the role of steroid hormones is not known to date. In the present study, progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2) and total estrogens (Etot) were determined in blood plasma and endometrium of roe deer shot in the course of regular huntings between September and December. Steroid hormone concentrations were correlated to the corresponding size of the embryo derived from ex vivo uterine flushing and to the date of sampling. The mean plasma concentrations of P4 (5.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml, mean ± SE, N = 87), E2 (24.3 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 86) and Etot (21.7 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 78) remained constant over the sampling period and were not correlated to embryonic size. Likewise, endometrial concentrations of P4 (66.1 ± 6.5 ng/ml), E2 (284.0 ± 24.43 pg/ml) and, Etot (440.9 ± 24.43 pg/ml) showed no changes over time. Therefore, it was concluded that ovarian steroid hormones do not play a determining role in resumption of embryonic growth following the period of diapause in the roe deer.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Diapausa/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Prenhez , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Endométrio , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
10.
Vet J ; 249: 80-81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239170

RESUMO

Combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) has been used for many years to assess fetal well-being and placental health in the mare and most recently the combined thickness of the uterus and interplacentome region (CTUIR) in water buffalo. The aim of this study was to develop normal reference ranges in regards to the CTUIR in 25 Holstein cows throughout pregnancy. The CTUIR was measured every 30 days from 60 days of gestation until 270 days of gestation. Measurements were obtained by transrectal ultrasonography with the position of the ultrasound probe being placed cranial and lateral to the cervix. CTUIR measurements increased every month beginning with an average of 4.6mm at 60 days and culminating with an average thickness of 11.7mm at 270 days of gestation. The greatest increases in CTUIR thickness occurred during the first and second trimesters.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Theriogenology ; 136: 101-110, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254723

RESUMO

To investigate subtle pregnancy-associated changes in the lab opossum, Monodelphis domestica, an induced ovulator, we compared pregnant with non-pregnant and pseudopregnant animals with regard to serum P4 levels and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Using video-verified, time-mated lab opossums as sources of biological material, we compared ovaries, uteri and sera obtained on odd-numbered days of the 14.5-day pregnancy in this animal. Females that mated successfully but did not produce embryos were classified as pseudopregnant. P4 levels differed significantly between pregnant (N = 21) and either non-pregnant (N = 3) or pseudopregnant (N = 3) opossums, but not between the non-pregnant and pseudopregnant groups. A significant decline in serum P4 occurred between pregnancy days 3 and 5, coinciding with an elevated probability of pregnancy failure between days 5 and 9. PR was detected in the nuclei of uterine-gland epithelial cells on pregnancy days 5 and 7 as well as variably in the corpora lutea (CL) of animals on pregnancy days 3-11. PR expression in the CL suggests that P4 may be autostimulatory in lab opossums and that certain levels of this steroid are required during normal pregnancy. The significant day-3 drop in P4 may explain why pregnancy failure in this polyovular metatherian is likeliest to occur between days 5 and 9, an interval during which the extended period of blastocyst morphogenesis and expansion occurs. Taken together, these results suggest that P4 may have unrecognized signaling roles not only in pregnancy but perhaps embryonic development as well in the lab opossum.


Assuntos
Gambás/fisiologia , Prenhez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Aborto Animal , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Pseudogravidez
12.
Theriogenology ; 134: 24-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129478

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the role of genetic, physiologic and environmental factors in affecting gestation length, calf birth weight and time of parturition in dromedary camels. Reproductive data were collected over a 10-year period at the world's first intensively managed, large-scale camel dairy farm. We hypothesized that environmental conditions (i.e. photoperiod) have a decisive effect on these reproductive parameters. The effect of various factors was tested with linear mixed models and variance component analysis. A total of 557 (13.1%) primiparous and 3691 (86.9%) multiparous parturitions were observed in 2,123 dromedaries. Parturitions had a pronounced seasonal distribution. The mean (±SE) length of gestation and mean (±SE) birth weight were 384.5 ±â€¯0.17 days (n = 4,093, CV = 2.88%) and 34.5 ±â€¯0.09 kg (n = 3,909, CV = 16.8%), respectively. All but one fixed factors (type of breeding) affected length of gestation and calf birth weight. Month of conception (27.1%), female camel (11.2%) and live-dead status of the calf (10.6%) were responsible for close to 50% of the variation in gestation length. At the same time, female camel (30.3%), parity (11.3%), year (6.9%) and month of parturition (6.2%) had the strongest relative influence on the variation in calf birth weight. Both reproductive traits showed a pronounced circannual variation. Mean length of gestation was longer by app. 18 days in dromedaries conceiving in November compared to those becoming pregnant in May. Average new-born weight was 4.4-4.9 kg higher in December compared to that in September and April. Dromedaries gave birth throughout the 24 h period, but most of the deliveries (n = 3,117, 74.1%) occurred from sunrise to sunset. The peak of deliveries was between 2 and 3 pm. Month of the year has a strong effect on the timing of deliveries. In contrast, the time from sunrise to parturition did not differ among the months. Peak of deliveries occurred 7-9 h after sunrise and the median of time from sunrise to parturition was 8 h and 24 min. These results give strong support to the original hypothesis. Seasonal changes were independent of nutritional factors, were associated with climatic conditions (i.e. photoperiod) and may reflect an endogenous circannual rhythm in foetal development. The dromedary camel could be a useful in vivo model to study the effect of the environment on feto-maternal communication, fetal development and timing of parturition.


Assuntos
Camelus/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Relógios Circadianos , Feminino , Fotoperíodo , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 229-247, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103178

RESUMO

Maternal stressors that affect fetal development result in "developmental programming," which is associated with increased risk of various chronic pathologic conditions in the offspring, including metabolic syndrome; growth abnormalities; and reproductive, immune, behavioral, or cognitive dysfunction that can persist throughout their lifetime and even across subsequent generations. Developmental programming thus can lead to poor health, reduced longevity, and reduced productivity. Current research aims to develop management and therapeutic strategies to optimize fetal growth and development and thereby overcome the negative consequences of developmental programming, leading to improved health, longevity, and productivity of offspring.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Gado/embriologia , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prenhez/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Gado/genética , Gravidez
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 289-302, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103182

RESUMO

The greatest loss in ruminant production systems occurs during the neonatal period. The maternal environment (nutrition and physiologic status) influences neonatal mortality and morbidity as it reportedly affects (a) Dystocia, both via increasing birth weight and placental dysfunction; (b) Neonatal thermoregulation, both via altering the amount of brown adipose tissue and its ability to function via effects upon the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis; (c) Modification of the developing immune system and its symbiotic nutrient sources; (d) Modification of maternal and neonatal behavior.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Bovinos/embriologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Distocia/veterinária , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Natimorto/veterinária
15.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 331-341, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103185

RESUMO

The concept of developmental programming was established using epidemiologic studies that investigated chronic illnesses in humans, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. In livestock species, the impacts of developmental programming are important for production and welfare reasons and are used as research models for human and other animal species. Dams should be in adequate nutritional status to ensure optimal nutrient supply for fetal growth, including development of their immune system. Beef and dairy cows with insufficient nutrient intake during gestation produce calves with reduced immunity against diseases, such as scours, respiratory disease, and mastitis.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/imunologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Gado/imunologia , Gado/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez
16.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 365-378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103188

RESUMO

Stimuli experienced in utero can have a lasting impact on livestock growth, reproduction, and performance. Variations in environment, production system, and management strategies lead to discrepancies in the literature regarding how specific treatments influence animal performance. Studies comparing the influence of maternal undernutrition to well-fed counterparts typically result in decreased productivity of offspring. Via adaptation to nutritional or environmental stressors, dams may develop mechanisms to ensure proper nutrient supply to the fetus. It appears nutrient deprivation must be severe for consistent results. Potential mechanisms for altered performance in grazing systems and overnutrition settings are discussed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Gado/fisiologia , Gravidez , Reprodução
17.
Theriogenology ; 133: 144-148, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100558

RESUMO

Besides chemical testing, thermographic imaging is a possible method to determine pregnancy in some animals. Hilsberg (2001) defined the unilateral warming at the end of a pregnancy, caused by the metabolizing fetus and the uterus near the outer skin, as the pregnancy field. Its appearance was observed in various species at the end of the gestation period. No studies were yet carried out to investigate the changing of thermal patterns during pregnancy. This study monitored the thermographic changes of one pregnant babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) sow and one babirusa male by taking thermal images once a week from the estimated 3rd pregnancy week until parturition in the 23rd pregnancy week. Images were searched manually for heat areas correlated to pregnancy as well as analysed automatically for median and maximum temperatures of the animal's side. Additionally, the locations of all pixels, which were not more than 2 K below the maximum temperature, were evaluated. In the female, there was a positive correlation between maximum temperatures of left and right side to pregnancy weeks (R = 0.61, R = 0.66, respectively; p < 0.05). The female's median temperatures and all temperatures of the male were not correlated to pregnancy weeks. Differences between median and maximum temperatures were significantly different during the 2nd, and 3rd trimester in the female, but not in the male. Temperature differences between 1st and 2nd trimester were not significant in both animals. The location of the warmest areas in the female shifted from thorax and flank to be mainly localised on the teats. In the male, the warmest areas remain localised on thorax and flank. No distinct pregnancy field was observed, but the warming of the teats could be seen in the images and the evaluated data. The teats are less insulated in most animals. Contraindications for thermal imaging like insulation could therefore become less important, allowing thermal pregnancy diagnosis for a larger range of animals than before. Based on these findings we suggest that the warming of the teats could be used for thermal pregnancy diagnosis when a pregnancy field is not observable.


Assuntos
Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez/fisiologia , Gravidez , Suínos/fisiologia , Temperatura , Termografia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Termografia/métodos
18.
Theriogenology ; 134: 11-17, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108432

RESUMO

The measurement of fecal progesterone metabolites (fPM) by enzyme immunoassay analysis is a non-invasive technique that permits gathering reproductive information from wildlife without the stress associated with restraint. In the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), a high correlation between serum progesterone and fPM levels (r2 = 0.783) suggests that fPM can be used to monitor their reproductive function. We monitored fPM during the estrous cycle of 15 collared peccary females. Estrous cycles averaged 27.9 ±â€¯4.5 days (n = 28), ranging from 21 to 36 days. The luteal phase was 22.2 ±â€¯4.8 days and the inter-luteal phase was 4.3 ±â€¯1.4 days. Mean concentration of fPM across pregnancy were not different from those found during the luteal phase (1230 ±â€¯718 and 1265 ±â€¯584 ng/100 mg dried feces, respectively), however, significant differences were found when luteal phase concentrations were compared only against fPM concentrations during late pregnancy. In addition, late pregnancy fPM concentrations (1893 ±â€¯551 ng/100 mg) were also significantly higher than those in the early (639 ±â€¯339 ng/100 mg) and mid (1134 ±â€¯449 ng/100 mg) pregnancy. For females during the early post-partum period, fPM concentrations were significantly increased (243 ±â€¯118 ng/100 mg) than those of non-cycling females (103 ±â€¯89 ng/100 mg). The analysis of fPM is a simple, non-invasive methodology to detect the ovarian activity in the collared peccary; moreover, it provides a husbandry tool, which may be used to help understand how social structure may impact reproduction.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Prenhez/fisiologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Gravidez
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(5): 304-307, May 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012745

RESUMO

Three outbreaks of osseous malformation in claves born of cows fed apple pomace throughout pregnancy are described. This study was carried out from historical surveys on properties where apple pomace was used in cattle feeding. The outbreaks occurred in the municipalities of Lages, Santa Catarina state, from 2007 to 2012, and Ipê, Rio Grande do Sul state, from 2011 to 2012. These calves presented bone deformity characterized mainly by arthrogryposis and chondrodysplasia of the anterior limbs. At necropsy, the observed changes were restricted to bending and thickening of the anterior limbs and skull. Microscopically, a disorganized, irregular, misaligned hypertrophic zone was observed in the humeral-radio-ulnar joints, in addition to absence of growth zone, thin bone trabeculae, and closed epiphyseal growth plate.(AU)


Descrevem-se 3 surtos de malformações ósseas em bezerros, nascidos de vacas prenhes alimentadas com bagaço de maçã. Estudos foram realizados a partir de levantamento de históricos em propriedades onde bagaço de maçã foi utilizado na alimentação de bovinos. Os surtos ocorreram nos municípios de Lages em Santa Catarina, de 2007 a 2012, e Ipê em Rio Grande do Sul, de 2011 a 2012. Dentre 20 e 69,2% dos bezerros apresentavam deformidade de membros, caracterizada principalmente por membros anteriores curvos e curtos. Na necropsia as alterações observadas restringiam-se ao encurvamento e engrossamento dos membros e do crânio. Microscopicamente nas articulações úmero-radio-ulnar, foi observado zona hipertrófica desorganizada, irregular e sem alinhamento, além de ausência da zona de crescimento e trabéculas ósseas finas e placa epifisária fechada.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Lactente , Prenhez/fisiologia , Bovinos/anormalidades , Lepidium
20.
Theriogenology ; 132: 118-127, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022601

RESUMO

Regulation of the expression of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase (FUT) genes and their enzymatic products, including the H-type 1 antigen (HT1), on the luminal surface of the uterus is believed to be critical for establishment of pregnancy in mammals. The FUT1 gene is a marker for conception rates in dairy cows and HT1 is a marker for uterine receptivity in rodents. To determine the spatiotemporal expression patterns of FUT1 and FUT2 genes in goats, endometrial tissues were obtained on six days spanning the estrous cycle (Days 5, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19) and seven days spanning early pregnancy (Days 5, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 25). In all data, we found no effect of status (cyclic or pregnant; P > 0.1) and pooled data where appropriate. We cloned FUT1 cDNA from goat endometrium and made probes from it for Northern and slot blot analyses. The analyses indicated that FUT1 gene expression was high until Day 13, and then declined. In situ hybridization revealed a change in the cell-specificity of FUT1 gene expression over the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. In situ hybridization signal intensity scores indicated that FUT1 expression by uterine epithelium was high on Day 5, moderate on Day 11, and minimal on subsequent days. In situ hybridization signals in uterine glandular epithelial cells remained high from Day 5 to Day 13, with weaker signals thereafter. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were used for quantitation of FUT1 and FUT2 mRNAs. Quantitative RT-qPCR data were generated from endometrium collected from cyclic and pregnant animals on Days 5, 11 and 17. Relative levels of FUT1 mRNA were high on Days 5 and 11, but then fell 5-fold by Day 17 (P < 0.01). FUT2 mRNA concentrations were below the accurate detectable limit of the assay. High levels of HT1 were observed on the apical surface of uterine luminal epithelia on Days 5, 15, 17 and 19, with much lower levels on Days 11 and 13. Thus, data suggests that FUT1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the high levels of HT1 antigen present on the uterine luminal epithelium between Days 5 and 11 of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. But changes in the expression of the FUT1 gene does not directly correlate to HT1 staining, which increased from Day 13-15. Future studies are required to understand the regulation of the HT1 antigen on the luminal surface of endometrium.


Assuntos
Endométrio/enzimologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Prenhez , Animais , Endométrio/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
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