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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 913, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel Coronavirus is a global pandemic affecting all walks of life and it significantly changed the health system practices. Pharmacists are at the front line and have long been involved in combating this public health emergency. Therefore, the study was aimed to explore pharmacy preparedness and response to prevent and control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in six pharmacies in Aksum, Ethiopia in May, 2020. We conducted six in-depth interviews with purposively selected key informants. Direct observation measures were made to assess the activities made in the medicine retail outlets for the prevention and control of the pandemic. Interview data were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data and OpenCode version 4.02 software was used to facilitate the data analysis. RESULTS: The thematic analysis has resulted in seven major themes. Good preparedness measures were undertaken to control and prevent COVID-19. Study informants had good knowledge about the pandemic disease and reported they had used different resource materials to update themselves. Preparing of alcohol-based hand-rub, availing finished sanitizers and alcohol, and advising clients to maintain physical distancing were the major counseling information being delivered to prevent the disease. Some tendencies of irrational drug use and false claims of COVID-19 were observed at the beginning of the pandemic. Interview informants had reported they were working with relevant stakeholders and appropriate patient education and support were given to combat the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The study revealed necessary pharmacy services has been rendered to all clients. However, availability of drugs and medical supplies were scarce which negatively affected the optimal delivery of pharmacy services. The government and other responsible bodies should work together to solve such problems and contain the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4941, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009412

RESUMO

Methods to directly inhibit gene expression using small molecules hold promise for the development of new therapeutics targeting proteins that have evaded previous attempts at drug discovery. Among these, small molecules including the drug-like compound PF-06446846 (PF846) selectively inhibit the synthesis of specific proteins, by stalling translation elongation. These molecules also inhibit translation termination by an unknown mechanism. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and biochemical approaches, we show that PF846 inhibits translation termination by arresting the nascent chain (NC) in the ribosome exit tunnel. The arrested NC adopts a compact α-helical conformation that induces 28 S rRNA nucleotide rearrangements that suppress the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) catalytic activity stimulated by eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1). These data support a mechanism of action for a small molecule targeting translation that suppresses peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis promoted by eRF1, revealing principles of eukaryotic translation termination and laying the foundation for new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Terminação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Conformação Proteica , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4722, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948764

RESUMO

Precisely controlled deuterium labeling at specific sites of N-alkyl drugs is crucial in drug-development as over 50% of the top-selling drugs contain N-alkyl groups, in which it is very challenging to selectively replace protons with deuterium atoms. With the goal of achieving controllable isotope-labeling in N-alkylated amines, we herein rationally design photocatalytic water-splitting to furnish [H] or [D] and isotope alkanol-oxidation by photoexcited electron-hole pairs on a polymeric semiconductor. The controlled installation of N-CH3, -CDH2, -CD2H, -CD3, and -13CH3 groups into pharmaceutical amines thus has been demonstrated by tuning isotopic water and methanol. More than 50 examples with a wide range of functionalities are presented, demonstrating the universal applicability and mildness of this strategy. Gram-scale production has been realized, paving the way for the practical photosynthesis of pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aminas/metabolismo , Luz , Semicondutores , Alquilação , Aminas/farmacologia , Catálise , Deutério , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Prótons , Água , Difração de Raios X
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140486, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886987

RESUMO

Eight compounds from three categories of pharmaceuticals [5 antibiotics, 2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 1 anti-epileptics] were monitored at 24 sites in the tributaries of the Han River watershed in South Korea, 2016. The seasonal occurrence, temporal-spatial variation, potential compound source(s), and a risk assessment of this watershed, which is the largest drinking water source in the country, were investigated. Clarithromycin was detected most frequently (72.2%) with the greatest median concentration (0.151 ± 0.072 µg L-1), followed by carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole. The seasonality of the pharmaceuticals was observed, with higher concentrations and detection frequencies in spring than in summer and autumn; this was possibly caused by lower levels of microbial activities associated with lower water temperatures than other seasons. In terms of geographical variation, urban areas had higher pharmaceutical concentrations than rural areas, which was attributed to the former's high population density and largest wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) regardless of season. The total concentration and detection frequency of WWTPs were 12.4 and 2.5 times higher in downstream sites than upstream sites, thereby conveying that WWTPs were the main source for the presence of pharmaceuticals in tributaries. According to the results produced from calculations of the risk quotient (RQ) of aquatic organisms, clarithromycin and sulfamethazine were identified as posing relatively high ecological risk (RQ > 1) during the spring that was identified for this study. This study can provide policymakers with scientific support for prioritizing pollutant management and collections of global data on emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Rios , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140461, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886990

RESUMO

The proliferation and possible adverse effects of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in waters and the environment is a cause for increasing concern. We investigated the dissipation of three PPCPs: ibuprofen (IBP), diclofenac (DCF) and triclosan (TCS), separately and in mixtures, in the ppm range in biopurification system (BPS) microcosms, paying special attention to their effect on bacterial ecotoxicity, as well as bacterial community structure and composition. The results reveal that BPS microcosms efficiently dissipate IBP and DCF with 90% removed after 45 and 84 days of incubation, respectively. However, removal of TCS required a longer incubation period of 127 days for 90% removal. Furthermore, dissipation of the PPCPs was slower when a mixture of all three was applied to BPS microcosms. TCS had an initial negative effect on bacterial viability by a decrease of 34-43% as measured by live bacterial cell counts using LIVE/DEAD® microscopy; however, this effect was mitigated when the three PPCPs were present simultaneously. The bacterial communities in BPS microcosms were more affected by incubation time than by the PPCPs used. Nonetheless, the PPCPs differentially affected the composition and relative abundance of bacterial taxa. IBP and DCF initially increased bacterial diversity and richness, while exposure to TCS generally provoked an opposite effect without full recovery at the end of the incubation period. TCS, which negatively affected the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Methylophilales, and Legionellales, had the largest impact on bacterial groups. Biomarker OTUs were identified in the BPS microcosms which were constrained to higher concentrations of the PPCPs and thus are likely to harbour degradation and/or detoxification mechanisms. This study reveals for the first time the effect of PPCPs on bacterial ecotoxicity and diversity in biopurification system microcosms and also facilitates the design of further applications of biomixtures to eliminate PPCPs.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Triclosan/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diclofenaco , Ibuprofeno
7.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 371-379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886634

RESUMO

In the U.S., compounding pharmacies are regulated primarily by state boards of pharmacy, which often collaborate with federal agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration or the Department of Health and Human Services. Other organizations, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Occupat ional Safety and Health Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and state departments of agriculture or labor may also have jurisdiction over compounding pharmacies and their employees. In addition, compounding pharmacies are subject to the requirements of Section 503A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Complying with requirements for training and competency and documenting adherence to various agency regulations may seem daunting, but guidance in doing so is available from independent organizations such as the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., and the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board. In this second article in a series on safety standards in pharmaceutical compounding, we discuss the roles of several of those influential federal organizations and the benefits that guidance from independent agencies provides for compounding pharmacists. Questions of interest to pharmacists who seek to comply with established agency safety standards are also answered.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 380-385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886635

RESUMO

The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in South-Central Africa. According to the United Nations World Population Prospects 2020, a full 60.5% of Zambia's 18.3 million inhabitants live below the international poverty line. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, meanwhile, rank malaria seventh among the top 10 causes of death. This article presents an American neurologist's work from a teaching hospital in Zambia to acquire versions of acetaminophen and ibuprofen liquids, and matching placebos for both, in a double-blind study aimed at malaria's infamous mile-high fevers. Success came with the essential help of a compounding pharmacist in Houston, Texas.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Texas , Zâmbia
9.
Waste Manag ; 118: 416-425, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949811

RESUMO

Production and use of pharmaceuticals in the United States is high and continues to grow. This, combined with poor wastewater removal rates for drugs in excreted waste, and improper pharmaceutical disposal leads to the presence of pharmaceuticals in fresh- and marine waters and wildlife. In the United States, safe drug take-back boxes, or dropboxes, were established in pharmacies after federal legislation passed in 2014, allowing for year-round safe collection of leftover pharmaceuticals. The overarching objective of this work was to identify opportunities for improving access to proper pharmaceutical disposal. We assessed consumer behavior regarding drug disposal choices and knowledge of dropboxes at pharmacies, investigated pharmacist attitudes toward and recommendations about leftover drug disposal, and compared responses at locations with and without dropboxes. We also explored obstacles to dropbox adoption and usage. We found that customer awareness of dropboxes as well as knowledge about risks of improper disposal are low, however awareness was greater at pharmacies with dropboxes. Additionally, pharmacists at dropbox locations were more consistent in their messaging to customers, more likely to recommend proper disposal methods, and more supportive of drug take-back programs. Through a focus group, we learned that further consumer education would overwhelm the capacity of the existing dropboxes. Based on our findings, we recommend solutions to improper disposal focus on legislation mandating dropboxes at pharmacies and pressure on the pharmaceutical industry to fund proper disposal of unused pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Farmacêuticos , Atitude , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4575, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917868

RESUMO

A central issue in drug risk-benefit assessment is identifying frequencies of side effects in humans. Currently, frequencies are experimentally determined in randomised controlled clinical trials. We present a machine learning framework for computationally predicting frequencies of drug side effects. Our matrix decomposition algorithm learns latent signatures of drugs and side effects that are both reproducible and biologically interpretable. We show the usefulness of our approach on 759 structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs and 994 side effects from all human physiological systems. Our approach can be applied to any drug for which a small number of side effect frequencies have been identified, in order to predict the frequencies of further, yet unidentified, side effects. We show that our model is informative of the biology underlying drug activity: individual components of the drug signatures are related to the distinct anatomical categories of the drugs and to the specific drug routes of administration.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Probabilidade
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 4004-4008, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893601

RESUMO

In this paper, we reviewed the history of the registration and classification changes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) since the establishment of China's drug regulatory agency, and put forward relevant suggestions. Although China's drug regulatory agency has gone through 22 years, the whole regulatory system was gradually built on the basis of the generic pharmaceutical industry at that time and through continuous exploration and summary of simply experience from foreign regulatory agencies. To a certain extent, the supervision of TCM drugs was also affected by some immature supervision ideas during this period. Based on the newly issued Drug Administration Law and Provisions for Drug Registration, the author puts forward some personal thoughts on the classifications of TCM drug registration. It is hoped that experts in the industry and regulatory agencies will work together to explore and improve the relevant system of TCM registration administration.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , China , Legislação de Medicamentos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
12.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52782

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess all the incidents of substandard, falsified and unregistered medicines in 2017 and 2018 in Latin America, determining the types of products affected, stages of the supply chain in which incidents were detected, quality deviations identified in tested samples, and regulatory measures taken by authorities. Methods. A comprehensive search of the websites of the Latin American national regulatory authorities was conducted, identifying all eligible incidents during 2017-2018. Standardized values were collected from each incident for pre-determined variables: country, year, type of incident, therapeutic group, supply chain, regulatory measures and laboratory data. Results. A total of 596 incidents in 13 countries were included (236 substandard, 239 falsified, 116 unregistered and 5 stolen). The therapeutic categories with the highest incidents were: anti-infectives, medicines for pain/palliative care, hormones/contraceptives, medicines for the respiratory tract, and medicines for mental/behavioural disorders. The most common places where incidents were detected were commercial establishments, pharmacies, health services and manufacturers. The most recurrent quality deviations were failure in parameters (appearance or physicochemical), incorrect labelling, different quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient, presence of unknown particles, and microbiological contamination. The most frequent regulatory measures identified were alerts, withdrawals, seizures, and prohibition of marketing/distribution/use. Conclusions. In Latin America, substandard, falsified and unregistered medicines persist as a highly prevalent problem. An advanced degree of regulatory development in countries is associated with higher incident detection/reporting rates and a more comprehensive set of measures. The pharmaceutical supply chain is more vulnerable in its final node. Quality deviations identified in tested samples pose serious risks to public health.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar todos los incidentes de medicamentos de calidad subestándar, falsificados y no registrados en 2017 y 2018 en América Latina, y determinar los tipos de productos afectados, los puntos de la cadena de suministro en los que se detectaron incidentes, las desviaciones de calidad identificadas en las muestras analizadas y las medidas regulatorias adoptadas por las autoridades. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en los sitios web de las autoridades regulatorias nacionales de América Latina y se identificaron todos los incidentes elegibles publicados durante 2017 y 2018. Se recogieron valores estandarizados de cada incidente conforme a variables predeterminadas: país, año, tipo de incidente, grupo terapéutico, cadena de suministro, medidas regulatorias, y datos de laboratorio. Resultados. Se incluyeron en total 596 incidentes de 13 países (236 relacionados con calidad subestándar, 239 falsificados, 116 no registrados y 5 robados). Las categorías terapéuticas con mayor número de incidentes fueron los agentes antiinfecciosos, los medicamentos para el dolor/cuidados paliativos, las hormonas/anticonceptivos, los medicamentos para las vías respiratorias y los medicamentos para trastornos mentales/del comportamiento. Los lugares más comunes en los que se detectaron incidentes fueron los establecimientos comerciales, las farmacias, los servicios de salud y los fabricantes. Las fallas de calidad más recurrentes fueron deficiencia de los parámetros (fisicoquímicos, o el aspecto), etiquetado incorrecto, cantidad diferente del principio activo, presencia de partículas desconocidas y contaminación microbiológica. Las medidas regulatorias identificadas con más frecuencia fueron las alertas, los retiros e incautaciones del producto, y la prohibición de su comercialización, distribución o uso. Conclusiones. En América Latina, los medicamentos de calidad subestándar, falsificados y no registrados continúan siendo un problema frecuente. Un desarrollo regulatorio avanzado se asocia con tasas más altas de detección y notificación de incidentes, y un conjunto más amplio de medidas en los países. La cadena de suministro farmacéutico es más vulnerable en su último eslabón. Las desviaciones de calidad identificadas en las muestras analizadas plantean graves riesgos para la salud pública.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Falsificados , Medicamentos Fora do Padrão , Controle de Qualidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Comercialização de Medicamentos , América Latina , Medicamentos Falsificados , Medicamentos Fora do Padrão , Controle de Qualidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Comercialização de Medicamentos , América Latina
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 41-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965355

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, the disease was later officially named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), quickly spreading globally. Pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable during disasters and emergencies. Comprehensive and applicable emergency preparedness and response are definitely important methods to prevent and contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The rational allocation of pharmaceutical resources plays an important role in the medical emergency plan. This paper aimed to share experiences for the allocation of pharmaceutical resources in hospitals focusing primarily on women and children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): 234-239, agosto 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118171

RESUMO

Introducción. El abordaje de las emergencias pediátricas requiere recursos especializados y son frecuentes los errores relacionados con la medicación.Objetivos. Describir el contenido de los carros de emergencia (CE) en un hospital pediátrico y compararlo luego de una intervención educativa.Métodos. Se incluyeron CE de 9 salas de internación. Se elaboró una lista de cotejo con 30 drogas. Se relevaron los CE determinando presencia o ausencia de drogas y si las cantidades eran suficientes. Luego se realizó una intervención educativa y relevamientos 30 y 90 días posintervención.Resultados. La medición basal arrojó una proporción global de drogas adecuadas del 43,9 % (intervalo de confianza ­IC­ del 95 %: 38,4-49,4) con una variación entre CE del 29 % al 54,8 % y del 15 % al 85 % en los grupos de drogas. A los 30 días, la proporción correcta alcanzó el 70,3 % (IC 95 %: 65,2-75,4), con amplia variación entre los diferentes CE y grupos de drogas (del 51,6 % al 93,5 % y del 50 % al 95 %, respectivamente). A los 90 días, los porcentajes fueron similares. La comparación entre la primera y segunda medición mostró mejoría en todos los CE (rango: del 3,2 % al 45,1 %), odds ratio 3,73 (IC 95 %: 2,5-5,6), p < 0,001. Los resultados fueron similares entre la segunda y tercera medición.Conclusiones. En la medición inicial, se evidenció bajo nivel de adecuación de drogas de los CE. Luego de la intervención, mejoró significativamente y se mantuvo durante el período evaluado.


Introduction. The approach to pediatric emergencies requires specialized resources, and medication errors are common.Objectives. To describe the contents of emergency trolleys (ETs) in a children's hospital and compare them after an educational intervention.Methods. The ETs from 9 hospitalization wards were included. A checklist of 30 drugs was developed. ETs were assessed by determining whether drugs were present or absent and their amount. An educational intervention was conducted and assessments were repeated 30 and 90 days after the intervention.Results. The baseline measurement indicated an overall ratio of adequate drugs of 43.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 38.4-49.4) with a variation among ETs from 29 % to 54.8 %, and from 15 % to 85 % among drug groups. At 30 days, the adequate ratio reached 70.3 % (95 % CI: 65.2-75.4), with a wide variation among the different ETs and drug groups (from 51.6 % to 93.5 % and from 50 % to 95 %, respectively). At 90 days, the percentages were similar. The comparison between the first and second measurementshowed an improvement in all ETs (range: 3.2 %-45.1 %), odds ratio: 3.73 (95 % CI: 2.5-5.6), p < 0.001. Results were similar between the second and third measurement.Conclusions. The baseline measurement showed a low level of adequate ET drugs. After the intervention, this improved significantly and was maintained during the studied period


Assuntos
Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Equipamentos e Provisões , Lista de Checagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140848, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758731

RESUMO

At the end of August 2019, in Warsaw, the sewage collection system of the Wastewater Treatment Plant malfunctioned. During the subsequent 12 days, over 3.6 million m3 of untreated sewage was introduced from the damaged collector directly into the Vistula River. It is one of the biggest known failures of its kind in the world so far. In this study we investigated to what extent the incident contributed to the increased discharge of anti-inflammatory drugs into the environment. The study covered the section from the point of discharge to the city of Torun (ca. 170 km downstream). It was found that in the river waters downstream of the damaged collector, the concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals increased considerably in comparison with the waters upstream of the collector. The highest concentrations were observed for paracetamol (102.9 µg/L), ibuprofen (5.3 µg/L) and diclofenac (4.8 µg/L). We also measured to what extent and at what rate these pollutants were distributed along the river. The effects of the incident were observed in further parts of the river after 16 days. In the study we also detected elevated concentrations of ibuprofen and diclofenac in the bottom sediments collected 6 weeks after the failure. Measurements of the levels of pharmaceuticals in estuarial and marine waters in the vicinity of the mouth of the Vistula River indicate that the incident did not significantly increase the load of these pollutants in the waters of the southern Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos
17.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127479, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758777

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in natural water resources due to incomplete removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a serious environmental concern at present. In this work, the effects of three pharmaceuticals (propranolol, triclosan, and nimesulide) on Gammarus pulex metabolic profiles at different doses and times of exposure have been investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The complex data sets generated in the different exposure experiments were analyzed with the ROIMCR procedure, based on the selection of the MS regions of interest (ROI) data and on their analysis by the Multivariate Curve-Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics method. This approach, allowed the resolution and identification of the metabolites present in the analyzed samples, as well as the estimation of their concentration changes due to the exposure experiments. ANOVA Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were then conducted to assess the changes in the concentration of the metabolites for the three pharmaceuticals at the different conditions of exposure. The three tested pharmaceuticals changed the concentrations of metabolites, which were related to different KEGG functional classes. These changes summarize the biochemical response of Gammarus pulex to the exposure by the three investigated pharmaceuticals. Possible pathway alterations related to protein synthesis and oxidative stress were observed in the concentration of identified metabolites.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Propranolol/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141011, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763601

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in water supply systems has been generating great concern about their effects on the environment and human health. Twenty-eight PhACs were monitored during one year in four Brazilian water sources, aiming to understand the factors that influence their occurrence and removal in conventional drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and to assess the environmental and human health risks. Trace levels of PhACs were detected in surface and drinking water in all assessed water sources. Effects of seasonality and socioeconomic aspects were observed in PhACs occurrence, like their higher concentrations during winter and in locales with higher values of gross domestic product per capita and human development index. Betamethasone, prednisone, and fluconazole were the most commonly detected PhACs, and also presented the highest concentrations. However, they were not related to toxicological risks. Nonetheless, all surface waters were subject to toxicological risk owing to at least one PhAC. PhACs related to the highest toxicological risks were loratadine, atorvastatin, norfloxacin, caffeine, and ranitidine, however, all these PhACs presented low quantification frequency. DWTPs capacity to remove PhACs was only partial, so treated water was still contaminated with these compounds. Furthermore, atorvastatin presented a margin of exposure below 100, indicating possible risk for public health. Thus, additional advanced treatment steps should be considered to improve PhACs removal during drinking water treatment.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140166, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758957

RESUMO

Simulated pharmaceutical wastewater was treated by moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and total reflux sludge reactor process (STR) system. By cultivating specific bacterial groups, optimizing reactor process parameters, and comparatively analyzing the pollutant removal efficiency under stable operating conditions of the system, the treatment efficiency of the two systems under the combined impact load of organic pollutants on the target pollutants indole and naphthalene was studied. The optimal operation parameters of reactors: hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 8 h, aeration was 0.12 m3/h. The effect was better in 25 ± 1 °C than that in 20 ± 2 °C. During stable operation, the average removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) of the MBBR system was significantly higher than that of STR, and the two kinds of target pollutants concentration in water was lower than the detection limit. In the combined impact test of organic pollutants, the dominant bacterial group obtained by domestication had a high degradation ability, so the combined impact of indole and naphthalene had little effect on the two reactors. But in the fourth stage, the residual naphthalene concentration in the STR system effluent exceeded the target value. Therefore, the MBBR process has a stronger treatment effect on pharmaceutical wastewater than the STR system during the stable period and the impact load stage.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 21-32, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819696

RESUMO

The degradation of pharmaceutical micropollutants is an intensifying environmental problem and synthesis of efficient photocatalysts for this purpose is one of the foremost challenges worldwide. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop novel plasmonic Ag/Ag2O/BiVO4 nanocomposite photocatalysts by simple precipitation and thermal decomposition methods, which could exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for mineralized pharmaceutical micropollutants. Among the different treatments, the best performance was observed for the Ag/Ag2O/BiVO4 nanocomposites (5 wt.%; 10 min's visible light irradiation) which exhibited 6.57 times higher photodegradation rate than the pure BiVO4. Further, the effects of different influencing factors on the photodegradation system of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) were investigated and the feasibility for its practical application was explored through the specific light sources, water source and cycle experiments. The mechanistic study demonstrated that the photogenerated holes (h+), superoxide radicals (•O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) participated in TC-HCl removal process, which is different from the pure BiVO4 reaction system. Hence, the present work can provide a new approach for the formation of novel plasmonic photocatalysts with high photoactivity and can act as effective practical application for environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Bismuto , Catálise , Luz , Óxidos , Compostos de Prata , Vanadatos
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