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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3252-3264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529901

RESUMO

The continuous discharge of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) into aquatic environment and their potential threaten to ecological environment or human health has received more and more attention all over the world. Algae are primary producers in aquatic environment and play an important role in ecosystem balance and stabilization. In this review, the concentrations of PPCPs in natural waters from different countries and regions are introduced to demonstrate their characteristics of pollution in aquatic environment. Furthermore, we reviewed some progresses on the toxicity, bioaccumulation and ecological risk of PPCPs. We introduced the toxicity effect and mechanism of PPCPs to algae, the bioaccumulation of PPCPs in algae, as well as the ecological risks of PPCPs in surface water. The review will provide references for development of PPCPs related criteria and assessment of ecological risks in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cosméticos/análise , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Água Doce , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109936, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493923

RESUMO

Stomach content is a matrix often applied in post-mortem cases. It is especially important in oral intoxication cases. The main advantages are the usually high concentration of analytes and the lack of biotransformation process. Still, even with extensive sample preparation, the final extract is not always suitable for analysis. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative method using QuEChERS for the extraction of drugs and pesticides from postmortem stomach content. Sample preparation started acetonitrile with 1% of acetic acid and QuEChERS salts. Later, the initial extract was cleaned-up using the EMR-Lipid sorbent. Residual water was withdrawn with MgSO4/NaCl in the third step and a final step with MgSO4. Vigorous shaken and centrifugation was performed after each step. The final supernatant was evaporated, re-suspended, and injected into GC-MS in full scan mode. This approach was successfully applied to stomach content, resulting in clean extracts, with low lipid levels. The method was able to detected target drugs and pesticides (cocaine, tramadol, diazepam, amytriptiline, phenobarbital, prochloraz, diazinon, heptachlor, permethrin, malathion and carbaryl) at the limit of detection of 0.1 mg/g or 0.1 mg/L. Recovery was over 70% for the majority of analytes, precision and accuracy was within acceptable range. The method was also applied to real forensic cases and carbofuran, terbuphos and fluoxetine was detected likewise. This work demonstrates that this method can provide an effective clean-up in high lipids samples such as stomach content, and can be used to analyze of pesticides and drugs in forensic cases.


Assuntos
Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Ácido Acético , Acetonitrilos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Sulfato de Magnésio , Entorpecentes/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Acetato de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1083: 19-40, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493808

RESUMO

Several analytical approaches have been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants (EPs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in environmental matrices. This paper reviews the sample preparation and instrumental methods proposed in the last few years (2012-2018) to assess PPCPs in sewage sludge. Three main steps are examined: extraction, clean-up and analysis. Sample preparation is critical as target compounds are normally found at low concentrations in complex matrices. Most procedures include sewage sludge pretreatment mostly through ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) although other novel techniques such as QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) or MSPD (matrix solid-phase dispersion) have been also employed. In one report, no differences in extraction efficiency were detected among the most commonly used extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave and pressurized liquid. Clean-up usually involves a conventional method such as solid phase extraction (SPE). This step is needed to appreciably reduce matrix suppression, and is followed by an instrumental analysis using techniques of preference such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC), mostly coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). A fully automated on-line system that includes extraction, chromatographic separation, and mass spectrometry in one-stage is here presented as a novel way of determining PPCPs in sewage sludge. This review also discusses the advantages and limitations of the different techniques used. Miniaturizing analytical techniques and the use of novel solid and liquid phase materials are emerging as efficient options that fulfill the principles of so-called "green chemistry".


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cosméticos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/tendências
4.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 28-36, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398663

RESUMO

The application of forensic entomotoxicology in investigations of death by poisoning has gained popularity as insects serves as an alternative specimen (evidence) when conventional toxicological samples have degraded or are no longer available. Successful detection, identification, and quantification of drugs and toxic substances from insects have been demonstrated through various research experiments. In the present review paper, role of insects as toxicological sample, its collection and preservation, analysis using various instrumental techniques, and trends in the use of analytical techniques have been discussed. Limitations hindering the growth of this field and the way forward for future studies have been highlighted. In addition, the effect of poisons on insects used for postmortem interval estimation has been described.


Assuntos
Entomologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Besouros , Dípteros , Etanol/análise , Humanos , Larva , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Xenobióticos
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 509-520, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426188

RESUMO

Ten pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were determined in northern Taiwan estuarine waters and Taiwan Strait (TS) seawater. The ecological risk of these PhACs was assessed using risk quotient (RQ), which is the ratio of the measured maximum concentration to the predicted no-effect concentration. Six PhACs were detected within the estuarine waters. Caffeine concentration (130-718 ng l-1) was the highest among the analyzed PhACs. The distribution of PhACs in the Danshuei River Estuary generally exhibited addition behavior, except that caffeine showed conservative behavior. Carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, caffeine, and ketoprofen were detected in TS seawaters. Their concentrations follow the sequence: gemfibrozil > ketoprofen > caffeine > carbamazepine. The caffeine concentrations in TS seawaters were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in Danshuei estuarine waters. With few exceptions for caffeine, erythromycin, and sulfadiazine posing low risk in some estuarine waters, most of the RQ values were <0.01, suggesting no adverse effects on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , Carbamazepina/análise , Eritromicina/análise , Estuários , Genfibrozila/análise , Rios , Água do Mar , Taiwan
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133640, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377355

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant microbes, pathogenic viruses, metals, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water has become the crux of urban sustainability issues. However, vulnerability due to pollutant concurrences, source apportionment, and identification of better faecal indicators needs to be better understood. The present study focuses on the vulnerability of urban Guwahati, the largest city in Northeastern India, through analyzing the concurrence of PPCPs, enteric viruses, antibiotic resistant bacteria, metal, and faecal contamination in water. The study strives to identify a relevant marker of anthropogenic pollution for the Indian scenario. Samples from the Brahmaputra River (n = 4), tributary Bharalu River (an unlined urban drain; n = 3), and Ramsar recognized Lake (Dipor Bil; n = 1) indicate caffeine > acetaminophen > theophylline > carbamazepine > crotamiton for PPCPs and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) > aichi > hepatitis A > norovirus GII > norovirus GI for enteric viruses. PMMoV was the better indicator of faecal pollution due to its prevalence, specificity and ease of detection. Antibiotic resistance was neither correlated with the prevalence of PPCPs nor E. coli. As, Co and Mn appear to be inducing antibiotic resistance in E. coli. While the risk quotient of the urban drain (Bharalu River) indicates one order higher magnitude than reported for other Indian rivers, the Lake exhibited the least pollution and better resilience. The concurrence of pollutants and multi-drug resistant E. coli, owing to the complete absence of wastewater treatment, puts the city in a highly vulnerable state. Pollution is being regulated only by the dilution capability of the Brahmaputra River, which needs to be further researched for seasonal variation.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos , Cidades , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia , Água Doce/virologia , Índia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109497, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400719

RESUMO

A monitoring study of 71 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in tap water covered all districts of Shanghai. Nineteen PPCPs were detected in all samples, and most of them were detected with high concentration. Ten compounds were found with highest concentrations and their detection frequencies were over 80%, included thiamphenicol  (101.54 ng/L), florfenicol (84.56 ng/L), valsartan (66.84 ng/L), irbesartan (38.35 ng/L) hydrochlorothiazide (33.13 ng/L), 4-acetaminopyrine (48.16 ng/L), propylparaben (47.50 ng/L), dicyclohexylamine (42.33 ng/L), primidone (32.85 ng/L) and bisphenol A (31.51 ng/L). Only 6 PPCPs were not detected in all samples. Detection frequency of PPCPs was between 50% and 70% in most tap waters, but the total concentration of PPCPs ranged from 71.6 to 361 ng/L. Phenicols was the dominant type with average value of 100 ng/L, accounting for over 50% of most samples, followed by cardiovascular and psychotropic drugs with average value of 26.3 and 12.1 ng/L, respectively. In general, the residues of PPCPs in tap water of suburb were higher than those in central districts. The maximum residues happened in D district with the average concentration of 355 ng/L, followed by J, H and Cb districts with the average concentration of 269, 251 and 215 ng/L. In the same district, the content and distribution of PPCPs in tap waters were similar supplied by different water treatment plants. While those are some differences among tap waters inlet from the same water sources. Individual compound was expected to pose a negligible risk to human health with risk quotients (RQ) less than 1, except primidone which may pose potential risk to infants.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Medição de Risco
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1602: 350-358, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257039

RESUMO

This work describes development of a quick and accurate online solid-phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of 87 emerging organic compounds, including 22 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, 58 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and 7 organophosphorus flame retardants, in diverse water matrices. Considering the wide range of physicochemical properties for the target contaminants, efficient analysis in one injection is challenging. Thus, key extraction and analytical parameters, including online SPE sorbent, mobile phase additives, sample pH, loading solvent pH and composition, injection volume, and valve-switching time, were systematically optimized. The final conditions, namely a polymeric reversed-phase column with alkaline samples and an acidic loading solvent, provided satisfactory results for all target analytes compared to conventional methods that employ acidic samples for multi-residue analysis. The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.16 to 5.13 ng L-1 with 85% of MDLs lower than 2 ng L-1 for sample volumes of just 1.8 mL. The method also demonstrated satisfactory accuracy with 82% of analytes exhibiting 70-130% recovery. Importantly, only 30 min was required per sample. The optimized method was successfully applied to investigate the removal efficiency of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant and to analyze the environmental occurrence of target analytes. The method is sensitive, reliable, labor-saving, and cost effective, and therefore has the potential to advance large-scale environmental monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Produtos Domésticos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Automação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Internet , Limite de Detecção , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 1-7, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358206

RESUMO

The novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methodology for the rapid screening of elemental impurities in solid pharmaceutical samples with the daily dose less than 2.0 g has been developed in accordance with requirements of established USP <232/233> chapters and ICH-Q3D guideline. The LA-ICP-MS methodology covering the determination of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Co, V, Ni, Tl, Au, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh, Ru, Se, Ag, Pt was successfully validated in terms of linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, intermediate precision, specificity and range. Moreover, the presented 'in-house' matrix-matched standards preparation methodology helps to overcome crucial analytical problem connected with unavailability of commercial certified matrix-matched reference material suitable for the direct elemental impurities analysis in various kinds of solid pharmaceutical products. A two step homogeneity study of prepared matrix-matched calibration standards is also reported to investigate the homogeneity of distribution of elemental impurities and internal standards across the pressed pellet. The validated LA-ICP-MS method was applied on analysis of several types of solid pharmaceutical samples (active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, placebo and final drug products). The proposed method allowed the accurate, precise and fast screening of elemental impurities without necessity of time and labour consuming solutions preparation and thus it can be used in routine practice as an alternative to conventional ICP-MS or ICP-OES for the rapid quality control of different stages of pharmaceutical production.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Calibragem , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Padrões de Referência , Selênio/análise
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 16-23, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358214

RESUMO

The adulteration of herbal medicines by dexamethasone or prednisolone is regarded as a serious problem in many communities. Herein, a novel platform for the separation and quantification of both target steroids in herbal medicines based on electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs) has been created. The ePAD was composed of Whatman SG81 chromatography paper, 3D-printed devices and a commercial screen-printed electrode. Whatman SG81 silica-coated paper was used for the separation of dexamethasone and prednisolone based on the difference in their partition coefficients during the flow of the mobile phase. The optimal mobile phase was composed of 60% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane and required 7 min for separation. The separated steroids on the paper were then quantified by electrochemical detection using differential pulse voltammetry, in which the 3D-printed devices facilitated the measurement. Analytical detection ranges of 10-500 µg mL-1 were obtained for both dexamethasone and prednisolone (r2 = 0.988 and 0.994, respectively). The limits of detection for dexamethasone and prednisolone were 3.59 and 11.98 µg mL-1, respectively, whereas the limits of quantification were 6.00 and 20.02 µg mL-1, respectively. The amounts of both target steroids derived from real herbal medicine samples determined by the proposed method were comparable to those obtained with assays using standard high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, a simple evaporation step can be used to increase the concentration of the samples before analysis. These ePADs are simple, low-cost, rapid, and very promising for on-site quantitative detection.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Papel/métodos , Dexametasona/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Prednisolona/análise , Carbono/química , Cromatografia em Papel/instrumentação , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Papel , Impressão Tridimensional
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 165-177, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319253

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants are widely detected and persistent in environmental waters. Advanced oxidation processes are among the most effective methods for removing emerging contaminants from water; however, high energy consumption greatly increases the operating costs and limits large-scale applications. In this study, a passive treatment system consisting of four columns packed with mixtures of silica sand, zero-valent iron (ZVI), biochar (BC), and a mixture of (ZVI + BC) were evaluated for simultaneous removal of eight pharmaceuticals, four artificial sweeteners, and two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from water. Overall, the passive treatment system was more effective for removing target pharmaceuticals (almost complete removal) than artificial sweeteners and PFASs (partial removal). Columns ZVI, BC, and (ZVI + BC) exhibited similarly effective removal (>97%) of target pharmaceuticals, including carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen, from ~9 to <0.25 µg L-1; pharmaceuticals were more rapidly removed by Columns ZVI and (ZVI + BC) than Column BC, except for ibuprofen. Column ZVI was more effective for removing artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K and sucralose than Columns BC and (ZVI + BC); however, BC exhibited relatively greater removal of saccharin than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Acesulfame-K and saccharin (~110 µg L-1) were partially removed in the treatment columns. Cyclamate was not removed in any of the columns. However, >76% of input sucralose (~110 µg L-1) was removed in the three treatment columns. Reactive medium BC alone was more effective for removing target PFASs than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Input perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (~45 µg L-1) was partially removed in the columns containing BC but not ZVI alone. Between 10 and 80% of input perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (24 ̶ 90 µg L-1) was removed in Column ZVI; greater removals (57 ̶ 99%) were observed in Columns BC and (ZVI + BC).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Edulcorantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ferro
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 417-429, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323587

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical compounds sulfamethoxazole (SMX), propranolol (PRO) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are biorecalcitrant and frequently detected in waters causing negative impacts on human health and aquatic organisms. Electrochemical oxidation appears as an effective option for the removal of recalcitrant compounds and its enhancement is an important issue for the removal of emerging compounds in water. The contribution of this research lies in the comprehensive analysis of the oxygenated electro chemical oxidation of CBZ, SMX and PRO using Nb/BDD mesh anode. The effect of treatment time, current, pH and oxygen injection on the SMX, PRO and CBZ degradation was assessed using Na2SO4 as electrolyte, process optimization was performed, by-products were identified, kinetic and toxicity tests were carried out using different electrolytes. Finally, the process effectiveness was tested using real secondary effluent spiked with the mixture of the pharmaceutical compounds and the acute toxicity was determined. The obtained results indicated that the oxygenated electrochemical oxidation allows effective simultaneous SMX, PRO and CBZ degradation, which showed a significant dependence of treatment time, current and oxygen injection in Na2SO4 electrolyte. At 90 min of electrolysis the parent compounds were detected as well as eight by-products. At 150 min of treatment, further to the already determined by-products and the parent compounds, appeared phenol and p-benzoquinone. Based on the identified compounds, degradation pathways were explained as a result of two main mechanisms: transformation (hydroxylation, deamination, desulfunation) and bond rupture. The kinetic study indicated an increase of the first-order kinetic constant in the oxygenated electrochemical oxidation process using Na2SO4 and NaBr as electrolyte, nevertheless the constant decreased in the presence of NaCl. In the assays with secondary effluent spiked with SMX, PRO and CBZ, the oxygenation did not enhance the performance of the process, however; pharmaceuticals were degraded with a higher removal rates compared with the ones determined in the Na2SO4 synthetic solutions assays; the oxygenation enhanced the TOC and COD removal. The acute toxicity of spiked secondary effluent was reduced from the first few minutes of the electrochemical oxidation process.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 99-109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347043

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of tissue samples is a promising analytical tool that has quickly become associated with biomedical and pharmacokinetic studies. It eliminates several labor-intensive protocols associated with more classical imaging techniques, and provides accurate, histological data at a rapid pace. Because mass spectrometry is used as the readout, MSI can be applied to almost any molecule, especially those that are biologically relevant. Many examples of its utility in the study of peptides and proteins have been reported; here we discuss its value in the mass range of small molecules. We explore its success and potential in the analysis of lipids, medicinals, and metal-based compounds by featuring representative studies from mass spectrometry imaging laboratories around the globe.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Metais/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Humanos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 683-695, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301508

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are known as an emerging class of water contaminants due to their potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we conducted the first nationwide survey to understand the distribution and environmental risk of 72 PPCPs in surface waterways of Sri Lanka. Forty-one out of 72 targeted compounds were detected with total concentrations ranging between 5.49 and 993 ng/L in surface waterways in Sri Lanka. The highest level of PPCP contamination was detected in an ornamental fish farm. Sulfamethoxazole was found with the highest concentration (934 ng/L) followed by N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (202 ng/L) and clarithromycin (119 ng/L). Diclofenac, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, and erythromycin were detected ubiquitously throughout the country. Our data revealed that hospital and domestic wastewater, and aquaculture activities potentially contribute to the presence of PPCPs in Sri Lankan waterways. The calculated risk quotients indicated that several locations face medium to high ecological risk to aquatic organisms from ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, tramadol, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclocarban, and triclosan. The aforementioned compounds could affect aquatic organisms from different trophic levels like algae, crustacean and fish, and also influence the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. These findings emphasize that a wide variety of pharmaceuticals have become pervasive environmental contaminants in the country. This data will serve to expand the inventory of global PPCP pollution. Further monitoring of PPCPs is needed in Sri Lanka in order to identify PPCP point sources and to implement strategies for contaminant reduction in wastewater to protect the aquatic ecosystem, wildlife, and human health.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aquicultura , Medição de Risco , Sri Lanka , Sulfametoxazol , Triclosan , Águas Residuárias
15.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1476-1482, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265958

RESUMO

The process of embalming human remains as part of the funeral home industry, entails replacing blood with embalming fluid. Typically the unused/excess fluids are disposed of directly to the sewershed or septic system. The presence of select contaminants in sewer discharges from 8 funeral homes (facilities) in York Region, Ontario during active embalming processes was studied. A wide range of contaminants including embalming fluids (formaldehyde and triclosan); metals, conventional parameters, persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and polychlorinated byphenyls), nonyl phenols and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were measured in the final embalming effluent and compared to regulatory sewer limits where available. Two main constituents of embalming fluids-formaldehyde and triclosan-were detected at maximum concentrations of 561,000 µg/L and 505 µg/L respectively. Other persistent organic pollutants detected in embalming effluent included banned pesticides lindane (83 ng/L) and metabolites of DDT (DDE; 2,300 ng/L). Elevated APIs found in over-the-counter drugs and products were also frequently detected at elevated concentrations (oxybenzone, hydrocortisone, lidocaine, naproxen, ibuprofen, ciprofloxacin and DEET). Most contaminants did not exceed regulatory sewer limits where available, however others including biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) and conventional parameters were consistently above regulatory limits. Large amounts of formaldehyde and triclosan may pose a risk to receiving sewersheds and receiving sewage treatment plants due to their antimicrobial activities.


Assuntos
Embalsamamento/métodos , Formaldeído/análise , Esgotos/química , Triclosan/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Funerárias , Humanos , Ontário , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
16.
Acta Pharm ; 69(2): 217-231, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259724

RESUMO

The study presents the application of multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) with a correlation constraint for simultaneous resolution and quantification of ketoprofen, naproxen, paracetamol and caffeine as target analytes and triclosan as an interfering component in different water samples using UV-Vis spectrophotometric data. A multivariate regression model using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was developed and calculated. The MCR-ALS results were compared with the PLSR obtained results. Both models were validated on external sample sets and were applied to the analysis of real water samples. Both models showed comparable and satisfactory results with the relative error of prediction of real water samples in the range of 1.70-9.75 % and 1.64-9.43 % for MCR-ALS and PLSR, resp. The obtained results show the potential of MCR-ALS with correlation constraint to be applied for the determination of different pharmaceuticals in complex environmental matrices.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Espectrofotometria/métodos
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6625-6635, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352502

RESUMO

The presence of parabens and pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment has been widely evaluated in the last years. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the occurrence of their metabolites and/or degradation products in spite of the fact that they can be more toxic or more concentrated than their parent compounds. One of the main drawbacks for their monitoring is the lack of simple and reliable analytical methods for their routine determination. In this work, an analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction and determination of the main metabolites of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and caffeine and of the parabens methylparaben and propylparaben and their parent compounds in wastewater and tap water samples. Sample extraction was carried out by conventional solid-phase extraction with OASIS HLB cartridges. Analytical determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Average accuracy was in the range from 66 to 120% in wastewater and from 86 to 120% in tap water. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 17% for all the compounds. Method quantification limits were in the range from 1.0 to 33 ng L-1 in wastewater and from 0.5 to 28 ng L-1 in tap water. The method was applied to wastewater and tap water samples. None of the target compounds was detected in tap water whereas all of them were detected in wastewater. Concentrations of the metabolites were similar or higher than those of the parent compounds. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Parabenos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 299-316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347055

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical and clinical industries are imperative for the maintenance of global health and welfare and require accurate, reproducible, and high throughput analyses. Technological advancements, such as the development and implementation of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), have allowed for improvements in these areas, however there is still room for development. One way in which current analyses may be improved is by the implementation of ion mobility technology. Ion mobility has the capability to produce much more comprehensive data sets, by providing separation of isomers, as well as improving throughput, with separations being performed as fast as 60 ms. Here we will discuss the potential for ion mobility to assist in the two specific areas of glycosylation monitoring of biological drugs, and vitamin D analysis, as representatives of ion mobility's potential in both the pharmaceutical and clinical industries, respectively, as well as the current hurdles of ion mobility adoption in both fields.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Glicosilação , Isomerismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Vitamina D/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294678

RESUMO

The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 653-663, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254831

RESUMO

Due to the lack of wastewater treatment facility in Pakistan, the wastewater is directly discharged via urban drains, which might cause a high load of contaminants of emerging concerns and potential environmental risks. The present study focused on the occurrence and risk assessment of 52 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) of diversified classes in the water and sediment samples of urban drains and canal of Lahore, Pakistan. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the predominant PPCPs detected in the wastewater of urban drains and surface water of canal. The highest concentration was observed for acetaminophen, with median concentration of 13,880 ng/L followed by caffeine with median concentration of 6200 ng/L. Antibiotics were the predominant PPCPs in the sediment samples with highest concentration of ofloxacin (median value of 1980 µg/kg) followed by ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline. Spatial variation showed that the population density has significant correlation with the level of many PPCPs in surface water while one of the drainage systems is affected by the direct wastewater discharge from the nearby industrial area. Ecological risk assessment in terms of risk quotient revealed that most of the PPCPs may cause high risk to the aquatic community. This high risk may lead to further contamination of food and crops, therefore enforcement of environmental legislations for treatment of wastewater is recommended.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias/química
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