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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 841, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigate the effects of Ginger, compared to the usual therapeutic regimen on clinical manifestations and paraclinical features in patients with confirmed COVID-19 that are moderately ill. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel group design. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria: 1. Patients admitted to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Departments at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran 2. Age ≥18 years (weight ≥35 kg) 3. Hospitalized ≤48 hours 4. Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (Positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) 5. Moderate pneumonia and lung involvement in imaging 6. Signing informed consent and willingness of study participant to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm Exclusion criteria: 1. Underlying diseases, including heart disease, chronic hypertension, severe renal failure, severe liver failure, and thyroid disorders 2. Use of warfarin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), diuretics, corticosteroids, and antiarrhythmic drugs 3. Severe and critical pneumonia 4. History of known allergy to Ginger 5. Pregnancy and breastfeeding INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention group: The standard treatment regimen for COVID-19 along with Ginger-based herbal tablets (Vomigone ®, Dineh Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of 1000 mg three times a day for a period of seven days. CONTROL GROUP: The standard treatment for COVID-19 based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol, along with Vomigone-like placebo tablets (Dineh Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of two tablets three times a day for a period of seven days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is recovery rate of clinical symptoms, including fever, dry cough, tiredness, and GI symptoms as well as paraclinical features, including thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, and C-reactive protein within seven days of randomization. Time to improvement of clinical and paraclinical features along with the incidence of serious adverse events are the secondary outcomes within seven days of randomization. RANDOMIZATION: An interactive web-based system will be used to allocate eligible participants, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, to one of the two study arms (in a 1:1 ratio) using block randomization. BLINDING (MASKING): All study participants, research coordinators, clinicians, nurses, and investigators will be blinded to the group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 84 participants will be randomized into two groups of 42 patients. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, May 23, 2020. Recruitment began July 21, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by October 30, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20200506047323N1 ". Registration date is 23 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Gengibre , Pandemias , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comprimidos
2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 171-175, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744014

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of hedyotis diffusa (injection) on mitochondrial membrane potential and expressions of apoptosis-related genes in human gastric cancer cell line MNK-45 cells. Methods: The human gastric cancer MNK-45 cells were divided into 4 groups, each group was set with 3 replicates. The control group was MNK-45 cells without added hedyotis diffusa; the 3 groups of experimental groups were treated with hedyotis diffusa at final concentrations of 20 , 30, 40 µg / ml respectively; each group was incubated for 48 h in a 5% carbon dioxide incubator, and the morphological changes of the cells were observed under a laser confocal microscope. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of Cytochrome C (Cyt c), caspase3 and caspase9 genes and proteins were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results: Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potentials of MNK-45 cells were significantly reduced in the hedyotis diffusa treated groups at final concentrations of 20, 30, and 40 µg / ml (P<0. 01). The gene expressions of Cyt c, caspase3, and caspase9 were significantly up-regulated (P<0. 01) and their protein expressions were also significantly increased (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). The 40 µg / ml hedyotis diffusa treatment group performed best. Conclusion: In the final concentration range of 20 ~ 40 µg / ml, hedyotis diffusa can reduce human gastric cancer MNK-45 cells mitochondrial membrane potential, induce apoptosis and up-regulate Cyt c, caspase3 and caspase9 gene expressions.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Hedyotis/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
3.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(5): e202000507, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a new wound dressing composed of alginate and Aloe vera gel and cross-linked with zinc ions. METHODS: The aloe-alginate film was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling profile, mechanical properties, polysaccharide content and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thirty Wistar rats were divided in two groups a) treated with aloe-alginate film and b) control (treated with sterile gauze). Wound contraction measurements and hystological analysis were performed on 7th, 14th and 21st days after wound surgery. RESULTS: The aloe-alginate film presented adequated mechanical resistance and malleability for application as wound dressing. There was no statistical difference in wound contraction between two groups. Histological assay demonstrated that aloe-alginate film presented anti-inflammatory activity, stimulated angiogenesis on proliferative phase and a more significant increased in collagen type I fibers and decreased type III fibers which promoted a mature scar formation when compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: The aloe-alginate film showed adequate physicochemical characteristics for wound dressing applications. The in vivo assay demonstrated that aloe-alginate film enhanced the healing process of incisional skin wounds.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Aloe , Cloretos , Preparações de Plantas , Cicatrização , Compostos de Zinco , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Cloretos/química , Cloretos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Zinco/química , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 129-134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669521

RESUMO

The aim of this randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of oral supplementation with Verbascox®, a proprietary herbal extract capable of inhibiting human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in patients with mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients in the control group (n = 50) did not undergo any treatment (watchful waiting). Patients in the Verbascox® group (n = 50) received oral supplementation (800 mg/day) with the herbal extract for 2 weeks. The final study group consisted of patients (n = 50) who received celecoxib, a known pharmacological inhibitor of COX-2, 200 mg/day for 2 weeks. Examining physicians and laboratory personnel were blinded to group assignment, whereas patients were unblinded. All participants were evaluated using standard measures of pain relief and improvement in functional capacity at baseline, after 1 week, and at the end of the 2-week treatment course. Moreover, serum levels of substance P (SP), a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides involved in pain perception, were measured at the three time points. Both Verbascox® and celecoxib reduced pain, improved functional capacity, and lowered serum SP levels at 2 weeks compared with baseline, without significant inter-arm differences. Both Verbascox® and celecoxib showed a limited number of treatment-emergent adverse events. In summary, oral supplementation with Verbascox® (800 mg/day) in patients with mild-to-moderate OA of the knee is as effective and safe as a standard therapeutic dose of celecoxib in terms of pain relief and improvement in functional capacity after a 2-week treatment course.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574178

RESUMO

The abomasal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus can influence the abomasal microbiome of the host. On the other hand, no information occurs on the influence of the parasite on the hindgut microbiome of the host. We evaluated the impact of Haemonchus contortus on the fecal microbial community of the experimentally infected lambs treated with a mixture of medicinal herbs to ameliorate the haemonchosis. Twenty-four female lambs were divided into four groups: infected animals (Inf), infected animals supplemented with a blend of medicinal herbs (Inf+Herb), uninfected control animals (Control), and uninfected animals supplemented with medicinal herbs (C+Herb). Inf and Inf+Herb lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 L3 larvae of a strain of H. contortus susceptible to anthelmintics (MHco1). Herb blend (Herbmix) consisted of dry medicinal plants of Althaea officinalis, Petasites hybridus, Inula helenium, Malva sylvestris, Chamomilla recutita, Plantago lanceolata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Solidago virgaurea, Fumaria officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, Melisa officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia absinthium. Each animal was fed meadow hay and a commercial concentrate (600 + 350 g DM/d). Inf+Herb and C+Herb lambs were fed Herbmix (100 g DM/d and animal). Treatment lasted for 50 days. The fecal microbial fermentation parameters (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and pH) were evaluated at intervals of 0, 20, 32, and 50 days. The fecal eubacterial populations were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) at day 32 when H. contortus infection was the highest. No substantial effects of the H. contortus infection and the herbal treatment on fecal microbial fermentation parameters and fecal eubacterial populations were observed. Evaluation of DGGE patterns by Principal component analysis pointed to the tendency to branch the C+Herb group from the other experimental groups on Day 32. The results indicate that hindgut microbial activity was not disturbed by H. contortus infection and herbal treatment.


Assuntos
Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/microbiologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 265-275, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223481

RESUMO

ABSRACTContext: Rhizoma Corydalis (RC) is the dried tubers of Corydalis yanhusuo (Y. H. Chou and Chun C. Hsu) W. T. Wang ex Z. Y. Su and C. Y. Wu (Papaveraceae). Traditionally, RC is used to alleviate pain such as headache, abdominal pain, and epigastric pain. Modern medicine shows that it has analgesic, anti-arrhythmia, and other effects.Objective: We provided an overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of RC as a foundation for its clinical application and further research and development of new drugs.Methods: We collected data of various phytochemical and pharmacological effects of RC from 1982 to 2019. To correlate with existing scientific evidence, we used Google Scholar and the journal databases Scopus, PubMed, and CNKI. 'Rhizoma Corydalis', 'phytochemistry', and 'pharmacological effects' were used as key words.Results: Currently, more than 100 chemical components have been isolated and identified from RC, among which alkaloid is the pimary active component of RC. Based on prior research, RC has antinociceptive, sedative, anti-epileptic, antidepressive and anti-anxiety, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect, drug abstinence, anti-arrhythmic, antimyocardial infarction, dilated coronary artery, cerebral ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) injury protection, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antigastrointestinal ulcer, liver protection, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antiviral, and anticancer effects.Conclusions: RC is reported to be effective in treating a variety of diseases. Current pharmacological studies on RC mainly focus on the nervous, circulatory, digestive, and endocrine systems, as well as drug withdrawal. Although experimental data support the beneficial effects of this drug, its physiological activity remains a concern. Nonetheless, this review provides a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Corydalis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 94, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori) is an important domesticated lepidopteran model for basic and applied research. They produce silk fibres that have great economic value. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the growth of organisms. Spermidine (Spd) is shown to be important for the growth of all living cells. The effect of spermidine feeding on the gut microbiome of 5th instar B. mori larvae was checked. The B. mori gut samples from control and spermidine fed larvae were subjected to next-generation sequencing analysis to unravel changes in the bacterial community upon spermidine supplementation. DATA DESCRIPTION: The changes in gut bacteriota after spermidine feeding is not studied before. B. mori larvae were divided into two groups of 50 worms each and were fed with normal mulberry leaves and mulberry leaves fortified with 50 µM spermidine. The gut tissues were isolated aseptically and total genomic DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA region amplified and sequenced using Illumina platform. The spermidine fed gut samples were shown to have abundance and diversity of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bombyx/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espermidina/farmacologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Larva/microbiologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/genética
8.
Talanta ; 211: 120710, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070601

RESUMO

Screening diagnostic biomarkers can be challenging due to the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and ambiguous pharmacological mechanisms. In this study, we reported an integrated strategy for accurately screening diagnostic biomarkers based on metabolomics coupled with network pharmacology. First, a feasible pharmacological model was established through systems pharmacology and based on metabolomics-based techniques to explore diagnostic biomarkers. While the components satisfying the q-value < 0.05, fold change (FC) ≥ 1.2 or FC ≤ 0.8, coefficient of variance (CV) ≤ 30%(QC) and the variable importance in the project (VIP) value > 1 are considered to be diagnostic biomarkers. Second, the ingredients were retained only when oral bioavailability (OB), Caco-2 permeability, drug half-life, TPSA and drug likeness (DL) satisfied the criteria (OB ≥ 40%; Caco-2 ≥ -0.4; HL ≥ 4 h; TPSA˂140; DL ≥ 0.18) suggested by the TCMSP database. Moreover, ingredients that exhibit extensive biological activity in TCM are also retained. Third, the effect targets of TCM were screened using the TCMSP database, Swiss Target Prediction and STICH online software. Disease targets were gathered from the therapeutic target database (TTD), PharmGkb and TCMSP database. Hub genes were screened by potential protein-protein interaction (PPI) network pharmacology analysis. Finally, a metabolic network pathway is established between the diagnostic biomarker and the hub gene. In the network analysis of metabolic pathways, most of the genes involved in this pathway are the second-step-obtained hub genes, which can explain the accuracy of the identified biomarkers. The proposed integrated strategy was successfully applied to explore the mechanism of action of Pulsatilla decoction (PD) in the treatment of acute ulcerative colitis (UC). Based on this integrated strategy, 23 potential biomarkers of acute UC treated with PD were identified. In conclusion, the integrated strategy provides novel insights into network pharmacology and metabolomics as effective tools to illuminate the mechanism of action of TCM.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Coptis , Fraxinus , Phellodendron , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Pulsatilla , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Farmacologia/métodos , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 527-538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103895

RESUMO

Introduction: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may contribute to podocyte dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Aiming to identify novel therapeutic options, we investigated the protective effects of Panax notoginseng (PN) on podocyte EMT in diabetic rats and explored its mechanisms. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats with streptozotocin (STZ) by intraperitoneal injection at 55 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with beraprost sodium (BPS) at 0.6 mg/kg/d or PN at 0.4 g/kg/d p.o., for 12 weeks. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), biochemical parameters, renal histopathology, and podocyte morphological changes were evaluated. Protein expression of EMT markers (desmin, α-SMA, and nephrin) as well as components of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway (wnt1, ß-catenin, and snail) was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Results: In diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were detected. Moreover, mesangial expansion and podocyte foot process effacement were found markedly increased in diabetic kidneys. Increased protein expression of wnt1, ß-catenin, snail, desmin, and α-SMA, as well as decreased protein expression of nephrin was detected in diabetic kidneys. All these abnormalities found in DN rats were partially restored by PN treatment. Conclusion: PN ameliorated albuminuria and podocyte EMT in diabetic rats partly through inhibiting Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. These findings provide experimental arguments for a novel therapeutic option in DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Epoprostenol/análogos & derivados , Epoprostenol/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Podócitos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(10): 884-896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000642

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals are dietary supplements, utilized to ameliorate health, delay senescence, prevent diseases, and support the proper functioning of the human body. Currently, nutraceuticals are gaining substantial attention due to nutrition and therapeutic potentials. Based on their sources, they are categorized as dietary supplements and herbal bioactive compounds. The global market for nutraceutical is huge i.e. approximately USD 117 billion. Herbal nutraceutical helps in maintaining health and promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. Studies have shown promising results of nutraceuticals to treat several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, etc. In the present review, an overview of various bioactive ingredients that act as nutraceuticals (carbohydrates, lipids, edible flowers, alkaloids, medicinal plants, etc.) and their role in health benefits, has been discussed. Further application of nutraceuticals in the prevention of various diseases has also been discussed.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Preparações de Plantas/química , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
11.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 138-145, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967924

RESUMO

Context: Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) preparations (PNP) are traditional Chinese medicines used as adjuvant therapeutics for diabetic kidney disease (DKD).Objective: To systematically review the efficacy of PNP as adjunct DKD therapy, including their effects on kidney function, serum lipid levels and fasting blood glucose levels.Methods: The databases PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang, VIP and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were systematically searched from the date of their inception until May 2019. Panax notoginseng, Panax notoginseng saponins, Lulutong, Xueshuantong and Xuesaitong were the key terms searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the combined use of PNP and conventional medicines (CM) versus CM for DKD were included. Data were pooled using random or fixed effect models depending on heterogeneity.Results: In total, 24 RCTs involving 1918 participants were analysed. Adjunct PNP with CM was associated with reduction of albuminuria (MD -26.89 mg, 95% CI: -33.35 to -20.42), proteinuria (MD -0.32 g/24 h, 95% CI: -0.36 to -0.27), serum creatinine (MD -4.52 µmol/L, 95% CI: -8.71 to -0.32), total cholesterol (MD -1.56 mmol/L, 95% CI: -2.33 to -0.78), triglycerides (TG) (MD -0.56 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.80 to -0.31) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD -0.94 mmol/L, 95% CI: -1.49 to -0.40) compared with CM.Conclusions: This is the first meta-analysis investigating adjuvant PNP therapy for DKD. PNP apparently exerted beneficial effects on kidney function and improved the metabolism of serum lipids by CM. Further, well-conducted, high-quality trials on DKD patients are needed to provide high-quality evidence.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4795, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967660

RESUMO

In this study, we focused on studying the changes in urine metabolites in hyperlipidemic rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and metabolomics, as well as the effect of Citri Reticulatae Chachiensis Pericarpium (CRCP) on hyperlipidemia. These urine samples were examined by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS to obtain MS data. The MS data were analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis to identify the differential metabolites. CRCP reduced the body weight and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and abnormally decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipidemic rats, which were significantly raised by a high-fat diet. Twenty-seven potential biomarkers were identified within the complex sample matrix of urine. Fourteen biomarkers increased in the hyperlipidemia rats compared with normal rats. Meanwhile, 13 biomarkers decreased. CRCP reversed abnormal changes in biomarkers, including 5-l-glutamyl-taurine, 5-aminopentanoic acid, cis-4-octenedioic acid and 2-octenedioic acid. These biomarkers show that hyperlipidemia is related to the metabolic pathways of taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and arginine and proline metabolism. CRCP mainly prevents hyperlipidemia by intervening in these metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas , Substâncias Protetoras , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Frutas/química , Masculino , Metabolômica , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 4, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cola nitida is commonly chewed in many West African cultures to ease hunger pangs and sometimes for their stimulant and euphoriant qualities. Metoclopramide is a known substrate for P-gp, SULT2A1 and CYP2D6 and studies have revealed that caffeine- a major component of Cola nitida can induce P-glycoprotein (P-gp), SULT2A1 and SULT1A1, hence a possible drug interaction may occur on co-administration. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions of Cola nitida and metoclopramide in rabbits. METHODS: The study was performed in two stages using five healthy male rabbits with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Stage one involved oral administration of metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg) alone while in the second stage, metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg) was administered concurrently with Cola nitida (0.7 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected after each stage at predetermined intervals and analyzed for plasma metoclopramide concentration using HPLC. RESULTS: Compared with control, the metoclopramide/Cola nitida co-administration produced a decrease in plasma concentration of metoclopramide at all the time intervals except at the 7th hour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (51%), peak plasma concentration (39%), half-life (51%); while an increase in elimination rate constant (113%) and clearance rate (98%) were noted indicating rapid elimination of the drug. A minimal decrease in absorption rate (10%) was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction between Cola nitida and metoclopramide.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/farmacocinética , Cola , Metoclopramida/farmacocinética , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antieméticos/sangue , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Masculino , Metoclopramida/sangue , Coelhos
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 122: 109713, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918282

RESUMO

Guatteria megalophylla Diels (Annonaceae) is an 8-10 m tall tree that grows near streams and is widely spread throughout Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Brazilian and Guianese Amazon rainforest. Herein, we investigated for the first time the chemical composition and in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemia potential of G. megalophylla leaf essential oil (EO) using human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells as model. EO was obtained by a hydrodistillation clevenger-type apparatus and characterized quali- and quantitatively by GC-MS and GC-FID, respectively. In vitro cytotoxic potential of EO was evaluated in human cancer cell lines (HL-60, MCF-7 CAL27, HSC-3, HepG2 and HCT116) and in human non-cancer cell line (MRC-5) by Alamar blue method. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cell cycle distribution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry for HL-60 cells treated with EO. In vivo efficacy of EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) was evaluated in C.B-17 SCID mice with HL-60 cell xenografts. Chemical composition analyses showed spathulenol, γ-muurolene, bicyclogermacrene, ß-elemene and δ-elemene as main constituents of assayed sample. EO displayed in vitro cytotoxicity, including anti-leukemia effect with IC50 value of 12.51 µg/mL for HL-60 cells. EO treatment caused augment of phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation without increasing of ROS in HL-60 cells. In vivo tumor mass inhibition rates of EO was 16.6-48.8 %. These data indicate anti-leukemia potential of G. megalophylla leaf EO.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Guatteria/química , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HCT116 , Células HL-60 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos SCID
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999896

RESUMO

Increased use of the opioid-related plant kratom as an alternative treatment for opioid withdrawal symptoms has raised concerns regarding its potential for abuse and severe adverse effects. A review of the literature was performed to characterize kratom's pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects to increase understanding and evaluate potential use as an alternative treatment for opioid dependence. Kratom use initiated as self-medication for an opioid use disorder or pain syndrome in the absence of effective alternatives is associated with a risk of kratom dependence, withdrawal, and life-threatening toxicity. The potential for a serious adverse reaction should discourage unregulated use of kratom products.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Mitragyna/química , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mitragyna/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
16.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 106-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377923

RESUMO

The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Grah. ex Benth. (Fabaceae), commonly known as white Kwao Krua, are used to relieve menopausal symptoms in Thai traditional medicine because they contain phytoestrogens. Black and red Kwao Krua crude drugs exist as well, but they have different botanical origins and pharmacological activities. There is a high demand for white Kwao Krua products, but because of the limited availability of the plant material, it is suspected that the adulteration and misidentification of white Kwao Krua crude drugs and products occur. In this study, we authenticated white Kwao Krua products collected from Thai herbal markets by molecular, chemical, and microscopic analyses. The nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and trnH-psbA regions of 23 samples of authentic P. candollei were analyzed, and both regions were found to have intraspecific DNA polymorphisms. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ITS1 region, species-specific primer sets of P. candollei were designed to authenticate white Kwao Krua and differentiate it from red and black Kwao Krua. Only the PCR products of KWP02 were not amplified by the primer sets. Isoflavonoid contents and microscopic features were used to support the results of molecular analysis to clarify the botanical origin of white Kwao Krua. Molecular, chemical and microscopic methods confirmed that all the Thai Kwao Krua products examined in this study contained authentic "white Kwao Krua" as claimed on their labels.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pueraria/química , Pueraria/classificação , DNA Intergênico/genética , Fitoestrógenos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pueraria/genética , Tailândia
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109635, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739165

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Therefore, discovery of new and effective drugs with fewer side effects is necessary to treat it. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organosulfur compound obtained from cruciferous plants, such as broccoli and mustard, and it has the potential to treat breast cancer. Hence, it is vital to find out how SFN targets certain genes and cellular pathways in treating breast cancer. In this review, molecular targets and cellular pathways of SFN are described. Studies have shown SFN inhibits cell proliferation, causes apoptosis, stops cell cycle and has anti-oxidant activities. Increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) produces oxidative stress, activates inflammatory transcription factors, and these result in inflammation leading to cancer. Increasing anti-oxidant potential of cells and discovering new targets to reduce ROS creation reduces oxidative stress and it eventually reduces cancer risks. In short, SFN effectively affects histone deacetylases involved in chromatin remodeling, gene expression, and Nrf2 anti-oxidant signaling. This review points to the potential of SFN to treat breast cancer as well as the importance of other new cruciferous compounds, derived from and isolated from mustard, to target Keap1 and Akt, two key regulators of cellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112172, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L., which is called Kudouzi in China, is a medicinal plant distributed in Western and Central Asia, especially in China, and has been used for decades to treat fever, bacterial infection, heart disease, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on S. alopecuroides, including its botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to this article was systematically collected from the scientific literature databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, published books, PhD and MS dissertations, and other web sources, such as the official website of Flora of China and Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). RESULTS: A total of 128 compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polysaccharides, were isolated from S. alopecuroides. Among these compounds, the effects of alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, were extensively studied and developed into new drugs. S. alopecuroides and its active components had a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and neuroprotective functions, as well as protective properties against pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: As an important traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that S. alopecuroides has prominent bioactivities, especially on gynecological inflammation and hepatitis B, and anticancer activities. These activities provide prospects for novel drug development for cancer and some chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the comprehensive evaluation, quality control, understanding of the multitarget network pharmacology, long-term in vivo toxicity, and clinical efficacy of S. alopecuroides require further detailed research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Agricultura , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112204, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669442

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae) has long been used as a traditional medicine in India, China, Sri Lanka, Australia, and Myanmar in the treatment of diarrhea, ulcer, anemia, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides a systematic comment on the botany, traditional uses, and phytochemical and pharmacological studies of F. hispida, with an aim to make critical update of the current knowledge and obtain opportunities for further therapeutic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was derived from scientific literature databases including PubMed, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Additional information was gathered from books, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, and unpublished materials. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: F. hispida is used especially in Chinese and Indian traditional medical systems as a remedy for skin disorders, respiratory diseases, and urinary diseases. Wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, sedative, antidiarrheal, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antineoplastic, and antidiabetic activities have been reported for crude extracts and isolated metabolites, but the methodologies in these studies often have inadequate design and low technical quality. More than 76 compounds have been isolated from F.hispida, including sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, phenylpropionic acids, benzoic acid derivatives, alkaloids, steroids, other glycosides, and alkanes, but the method of bioassay-guided fractionation is seldom applied in the isolation from F. hispida. CONCLUSION: F. hispida is used widely in traditional medicines and has multiple pharmacological effects that could support traditional uses. However, pharmacological studies should be viewed with caution because of the inappropriate experimental design. More in vitro and in vivo research is urgently needed to study the molecular mechanisms and assess the effective and safe dose of F. hispida.


Assuntos
Ficus , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
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