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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mangosteen is a native fruit from Southeast Asia. It is rich in phenolic compounds such as xanthones, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. Mangosteen pericarp extract showed inhibitory activity towards pancreatic lipase and may have potential use for obesity treatment. However, there is limited study on the beneficial effects of mangosteen flesh against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia mangostana flesh (GMF) on biochemical and morphological changes in the liver and kidney of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into five groups (n = 8) with four groups were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks and a control group was fed with rat chow diet. Supplementation with GMF in obese rats was continued for 7 weeks starting from week 10th after the initiation of HFD at different doses (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg). The positive and negative control rats were given distilled water via oral gavage. Plasma lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory markers were determined using commercial kits. Liver and kidney structure were defined by histology. RESULTS: The rats fed with HFD for 10 weeks increased plasma LDL-cholesterol, reduced plasma glutathione peroxidase level and had significantly higher body weight compared to normal control rats (p < 0.05). Obese rats also showed elevated level of TNF-α and IL-6 after 17 weeks of HFD. Supplementation with GMF for 7 weeks in obese rats reduced their body weight, improved lipid profile, increased total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase level and lowered plasma pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) (p < 0.05). In addition, GMF supplementation attenuated the abnormalities of the liver and kidney tissue caused by high fat diet. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the findings suggest that supplementation of Garcinia mangostana flesh may help in reducing body weight and has the potential to ameliorate the biochemical changes of the high fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Further studies on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic are required before the results are translated to human.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Garcinia mangostana , Rim , Fígado , Preparações de Plantas , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Frutas/química , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 97-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is the most common renal system pathology; it affects the health of a many people. Because urolithiasis leads to severe pain, it influences the patient in many aspects. The management of urolithiasis is essential. Herein, we discuss the limitations of the management of urolithiasis with conventional drugs and the possibilities of using natural or herbal pharmacologically active agents beyond conventional drugs. PURPOSE: The drugs presently used for the treatment of urolithiasis have many adverse side effects; therefore, alternatives are needed. Traditional literature suggests that many herbal or natural medicines can be easily made available for the management of urolithiasis and its consequences. METHOD: The data used for this study were collected from various research /review articles, Internet sources, and text books. Literature regarding epidemiology and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers were taken into consideration in this review. The data from the last few decades, reported in different formats, were analyzed. CONCLUSION: The present review reveals the severity of the progression of the occurrence of urolithiasis worldwide. The epidemiology gave in this review clearly indicates that stress-related factors and dietary complications, the key factors in the development of urolithiasis. are increasing. In this review, we acknowledge the limitations of conventional therapy. Many natural drug options are abundantly available throughout the world and can be useful for the management of urolithiasis. Future Perspectives: The development of a suitable formulation of bioactive components obtained from natural sources is being widely researched. However, traditional remedies that are very helpful in the management of urolithiasis and its related complications require scientific support and appropriate standardization for the assessment of their quality and dosage.


Assuntos
Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 319, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChondroT is a complex herbal medicine consisting of water extracts of Ostericum koreanum (Maxim.) Kitag., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Angelica gigas Nakai, Clematis manshurica Rupr., and Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (6:4:4:4:3). Previous studies have reported that ChondroT possesses chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic, and anti-hyperuricemic activities. The study is aim to demonstrate the effects of ChondroT and its five constituent herbs on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Osteoclastogenesis was identified in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining assay, actin ring formation assay and the bone resorption assay. For the molecular mechanisms, activation of RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and the expression levels of osteoclast-specific proteins were investigated by Western blotting. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Actin ring formation and NF-κB translocation were evaluated by immunostaining. RESULTS: ChondroT and each of its constituent herbs significantly suppressed osteoclast differentiation dose dependently, and decreased actin ring formation as well as bone-resorbing capacity. Mechanistically, ChondroT and its constituent herbs downregulated the expressional levels of osteoclast-specific proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Cathepsin K, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) by suppressing NF-κB translocation to nucleus and MAPKs phosphorylation at different levels. Compared to its five constituent herbs, ChondroT exhibited the best inhibitory efficiency against osteoclastogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, ChondroT has anti-osteoclastogenesis properties by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. It could be considered as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Physiol Int ; 106(3): 207-212, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Consumption of alternative flours, such as sprouted chickpea flour, has shown increased popularity in recent years. Foods rich in antioxidants have been shown to influence brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a non-invasive test of a crucial layer of the artery called the endothelium. Partially replacing the semolina flour in pasta with sprouted chickpea flour (SCF) may acutely affect endothelial function post-digestion. We sought to determine if FMD was higher, lower, or the same post-digestion of pasta made with 60% semolina flour and 40% SCF (SCF40) vs. post-digestion of pasta made with 100% semolina flour (SEM100, i.e., control). METHODS: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) analysis was performed on the same flour samples. Healthy participants underwent a screening visit and two randomized controlled meal data collection visits (SCF40 and SEM100). At each data collection visit, participants consumed 255 g of pasta with butter. FMD was assessed 2-3 h after pasta consumption. RESULTS: TEAC results showed that SCF40 (2.031 ± 0.096 mmol trolox/100 g sample) had significantly greater antioxidant capacity than SEM100 (1.736 ± 0.046 mmol trolox/100 g sample; p = 0.02). Twenty-two healthy participants (5 men and 17 women; 26 ± 2 years, 66.6 ± 2.3 kg, BMI = 24 ± 1 kg/m2, SBP = 114 ± 3 mmHg, DBP = 75 ± 2 mmHg, HR = 74 ± 3 BPM) were studied. FMD in the SCF40 condition (10.3% ± 1.2%) was greater than the SEM100 condition (7.9% ± 0.8%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that partial substitution with sprouted chickpea flour in place of semolina flour in pasta acutely improves post-digestion FMD, which may be beneficial for cardiovascular health (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03801486).


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicer/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta , Dilatação/métodos , Feminino , Farinha , Humanos , Masculino , Amido/química
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4): 1643-1648, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608885

RESUMO

Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng (curry leaves) have traditionally been used for its various medicinal properties. The current study was conducted to assess the comparative effect of Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng (curry leaves) and market available beta blocker drug Atenolol on cardiac enzyme (CK-MB) level in male albino rats. Out of total 26 locally bred male Albino Wistar rats (180 to 200gm weight) two rats were treated with only voltral for dose adjustment. Remaining 24 rats were randomly categorized into following 1 control (C) group and 3 experimental groups Model (M), Test 1 (T1) and Test 2 (T2) containing 6 rats in each group. Rats in C group were orally fed by 0.9% saline solution while rats of M and both test groups T1 and T2 were orally treated with voltral tablet (30mg /kg body weight) for three weeks to increase the level of CK-MB heart enzyme. After voltral treatment rats in test group T1 were treated orally with Atenolol (30 mg/kg body weight) and T2 with Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng (curry leaves) extract (180 mg/kg body weight) for last three weeks. Results show that rats treated with Atenolol showed a decrease in level of heart enzyme as compare to M group, while Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng treated rats group T2 showed more significant decrease of heart enzyme (CK-MB) level as compared to M and T1 groups with significantly improved behavioral activity including increased locomotor activity, short-term memory and reduction in depression. These results demonstrate that natural herbal treatment by curry leaves extract play an effective role in lowering the cardiac enzyme (CK-MB) level to its normal range which helps reducing the risk of CVD and CHD.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Murraya/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17321, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574864

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common endocrine disorder in women and can lead to serious social burdens associated with various reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Existing therapy is controversial in its effectiveness including side effects. In traditional Korean Medicine, Cangfu Daotan Decoction (CDD), also known as Changbudodam-tang, is used for PCOS patients who are in the type of stagnation of phlegm and dampness. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDD for PCOS as alternative treatment. METHODS: Two researchers will search the following databases from their inception to February 2019 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs): The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and 5 Korean medical databases (Korean Studies Information Service System, KoreaMed, DBPIA, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, and Research Information Service System). The primary outcome will be the scales that assessed drug efficacy including total response rate, sex hormone level (LH, FSH, Testosterone, LH/FSH ratio), BMI, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate. Adverse events will be assessed as the secondary outcome. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias will be conducted by 2 researchers independently. Statistical analysis will be performed by using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This review will provide the latest knowledge and evidence on the efficacy and safety of CDD for PCOS women through the analysis of various evaluation scales. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review does not require ethical approval and will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134270.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(3): 326-330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In addition to current therapeutic strategies, a lot of work is being done on nutraceutical management of this condition. This study was designed to assess the effect of date seed powder on lipid profile of diet induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. METHODS: Thirty male rabbits were divided into five groups, having six animals in each. One group was given normal rabbit chow throughout the study period of eight weeks. The remaining four groups were fed high fat diet (4% coconut oil and 1% cholesterol powder) for first four weeks in order to induce hyperlipidemia. After first four weeks, 2% date seed powder of three Pakistani varieties namely Dhakki, Khudrawi and Desi was added to the diet of three experimental hyperlipidemic groups for the next four weeks. Body weight and blood samples were taken at zero, 4th and 8th week of study. Serum was analyzed for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. LDL/HDL ratio and AIP were calculated. RESULTS: It was observed that date seed powder of the three varieties significantly decreased total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and AIP. There was no significant change in body weight, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio. LDL cholesterol was decreased significantly only by Khudrawi date seed powder. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that date seed powder has marked antihyperlipidemic properties. However, the difference in appearance, taste and price of different dates does not affect their lipid lowering capacity.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Phoeniceae/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Masculino , Paquistão , Coelhos , Sementes
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 155-174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493227

RESUMO

Skin aging is a complex process induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and causes alterations to the structural and functional aspects of the skin. Skin aging affects patients physically and physiologically. Understanding the process of skin aging can provide new knowledge on how to attenuate or reduce skin disorder symptoms. Herbs have been used for ages to prevent and treat skin aging, yet there are growing interests by researchers in this field globally. Various strategies have been developed for improving the quality and effectivity of herbal skin care products, both for topical and oral applications. This review will provide an overview of the relationship between herbal skin care products and the skin aging process.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas , Regeneração , Envelhecimento da Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Higiene da Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 51(3): 150-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study the adaptogenic effect of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) on physical performance when exposed to accustomed activity (AA) and unaccustomed activity (UA) and the effect of CB on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in the presence of UA and the effect on muscle strength in comparison with placebo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study was initiated after ethics committee approval in healthy volunteers with fixed-dose regimen. Consented volunteers (n = 60) were assigned randomly into two groups of study drug (3 g/day) or placebo (3 g/day) for 2 months. They were evaluated at days 0, 30, and 60 with physical stressors (6-min walk test [6MWT] - distance, HR, and BP; 6-min exercise test [6ETC] - distance, maximum and average speed; and fixed workload test [FWT] - systolic BP, diastolic BP [DBP], and HR on cycle ergometer) and Jammar's dynamometer test for handgrip strength test on each visit. RESULTS: In 6MWT in CB group, distance on day 30 (456 ± 42.1) and day 60 (468.3 ± 0.4) was significantly increased when compared with day 30 (422.6 ± 45.7) and day 60 (419.6 ± 45.1) of the placebo group. On day 60, distance in 6ETC in CB group was 2.92 ± 0.6 which was significantly more than that of placebo group 2.4 ± 0.6. On day 60, in FWT, DBP in the CB group was 75.8 ± 4.4 which was significantly low compared to the placebo group 82.4 ± 7.4 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CB increased physical performance when exposed to AA even after one month and in case of UA increase in performance was seen when CB was administered for two months thus validating its adaptogenic (anti-stress) potential.


Assuntos
Asparagaceae , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Força da Mão , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Raízes de Plantas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398447

RESUMO

Herbal medicines (HMs) have attracted widespread attention because of their significant contributions to the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. Recently, gut microbiota has become an important frontier to understand the therapeutic mechanisms of medicines. Gut microbiota-mediated transformation is a microbial metabolic form after oral administrations of HMs compounds. A great number of studies showed that gut microbiota could transform some HMs compounds by the variation of chemical structures into several active metabolites, which exerted better bioavailabilities and therapeutic activities than their parent compounds. Among these HMs compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids were the representative ones. However, there is no systemic review focusing on the potential improved therapeutic activities of these natural compounds caused by gut microbial transformation. Here, this review summarizes the therapeutic activities that are more potent in microbial transformed metabolites than in their parent compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids) from HMs. We hope this review will be conducive to deepening the understanding of the relationship between gut microbial transformation and therapeutic activities of HMs compounds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387167

RESUMO

With the elderly population rapidly growing, the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quickly increasing because neurodegenerative disorders are usually late-onset. Herbal medicines and formula are adjuvant therapies of conventional PD agents, which result in serious side effects with long-term use. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of DA-9805, a standardized herbal formula that consists of an ethanolic extract of Moutan Cortex Radix, Angelica Dahuricae Radix, and Bupleuri Radix against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In PC12 cells, DA-9805 at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL ameliorated cell viability, which was reduced by 6-OHDA. In addition, DA-9805 activated the extracellular-regulated kinase-nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, subsequently stimulating antioxidative enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and catalase and suppressing apoptosis. Furthermore, DA-9805 prevented 6-OHDA-induced movement impairment, as well as a decrease of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine transmission in rodents. Taken together, these results suggest that the mixed herbal formula DA-9805 may be a pharmaceutical agent for preventing or improving PD.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NADP/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109083, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important mechanism of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Developing mitochondrial regulators/nutrients from natural products to remedy mitochondrial dysfunction represent attractive strategies for NAFLD therapy. In China, Polygonatum kingianum (PK) has been used as a herb and food nutrient for centuries. So far, studies in which the effects of PK on NAFLD are evaluated are lacking. Our study aims at identifying the effects and mechanism of action of PK on NAFLD based on mitochondrial regulation. METHODS: A NAFLD rat model was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and rats were intragastrically given PK (1, 2 and 4 g/kg) for 14 weeks. Changes in body weight, food intake, histological parameters, organ indexes, biochemical parameters and mitochondrial indicators involved in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and apoptosis were investigated. RESULTS: PK significantly inhibited the HFD-induced increase of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum, and TC and triglyceride in the liver. In addition, PK reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol and liver enlargement without affecting food intake. PK also remarkably inhibited the HFD-induced increase of malondialdehyde and the reduction of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ATP synthase, and complex I and II, in mitochondria. Moreover, mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and uncoupling protein-2 was significantly up-regulated and down-regulated after PK treatment, respectively. Finally, PK notably inhibited the HFD-induced increase of caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bax expression in hepatocytes, and the decrease of expression of Bcl-2 in hepatocytes and cytchrome c in mitochondria. CONCLUSION: PK alleviated HFD-induced NAFLD by promoting mitochondrial functions. Thus, PK may be useful mitochondrial regulators/nutrients to remedy mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviate NAFLD.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Polygonatum/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , China , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112176, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446074

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMALOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases globally, with over 200 million new cases and nearly 500,000 deaths reported annually. It is estimated that approximately half of the world's population lives in malaria endemic areas. Malaria is substantially less prevalent in South Africa than in other African regions and the disease is limited to some regions of the Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. However, it still has a significant impact on the health of the populations living in those regions. Traditional medicines have long been used in South Africa by multiple ethic groups and many people continue to rely on these natural therapies for their healthcare. The usage of South African medicinal plants in several traditional healing systems to treat malaria have been documented (particularly for Zulu and Venda traditional medicine), although ethnobotanical investigations of other ethnic groups living in endemic malaria areas remains relatively neglected. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the use of South African medicinal plants known to be used traditionally to treat Plasmodium spp. infections. We also critically reviewed the literature on the therapeutic properties of these and other South African plants screened against Plasmodium spp. parasites with the aim of highlighting neglected studies and fostering future research in this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Books and ethnobotanical reviews were examined for medicinal plants used specifically for fever. Exclusion criteria were studies not involving southern African medicinal plants. Furthermore, while fever is a common symptom of malaria, if not accompanied by the term "malaria" it was not considered. Databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar were used to source research relevant to southern African plants and malaria. Exclusion criteria were those publications where full articles could not be accessed. RESULTS: Eighty South African plant species were identified as traditional therapies for malaria. The majority of these species were documented in Zulu ethnobotanical records, despite malaria occurring in only a relatively small portion of the Zulu's traditional territory. Surprisingly, far fewer species were reported to be used by Venda, Ndebele, northern Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana, and Pedi people, despite them living in endemic malaria areas. Interestingly many of the identified species have not been investigated further. This review summarises the available ethnobotanical and laboratory research in this field, with the aim of promoting and focusing research on priority areas. CONCLUSION: Although malaria remains a serious disease affecting millions of people, medicinal plants while used extensively, have not been given the attention warranted for further investigation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , África do Sul
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 224, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) marketed as immune boosters are gaining wide popularity in South Africa, in the absence of control and regulatory guidelines. These commercially packaged and labelled herbal preparations, acquired in various retail outlets, are used without consulting either a conventional health provider or a traditional health practitioner. Although they are indicated for immune-boosting purposes, they might exert many other beneficial and unwanted effects on physiological systems. Platelets are crucial in haemostasis and important for the immunological system. The aim was to investigate the effect of the CHMs used to strengthen the immune system on the activity of human platelets. METHODS: Six CHMs commonly used as African traditional medicines in Pretoria, South Africa, were tested for their effects on healthy, isolated human platelets, using a bioluminescence method. The tested herbal medicines were Intlamba Zifo™, Maphilisa™ Herbal medicine, Matla™ African medicine for all diseases, Ngoma™ Herbal Tonic Immune Booster, Stametta™ Body Healing Liquid, and Vuka Uphile™ Immune Booster and serial-diluted standards of each from 10 to 10,000 times. The luminol-enhanced luminescence activity of the platelets was measured after incubation with the herbal medicines and activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). RESULTS: Five herbal medicines, namely Intlamba Zifo™, Maphilisa™ Herbal medicine, Matla™ African medicine for all diseases, Stametta™ Body Healing Liquid, and Vuka Uphile™ Immune Booster exerted comparable weak inhibitory effects on both PMA and fMLP-induced platelets, which were concentration dependent at high doses, and inversely related to concentration at low doses. Intlamba Zifo™, Matla™ African medicine for all diseases, Stametta™ Body Healing Liquid, and Vuka Uphile™ exhibited weak, but non-systematic stimulatory effects at low doses, which were not statistically significant. Ngoma™ Herbal Tonic Immune Booster had weak, inhibitory effects at high doses and weak stimulatory effects that were inversely related to concentration at low doses. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest a potential beneficial role of the CHMs in the suppression of platelets' reactivity and in enhancing the immune system. Caution, however, should be exercised as platelet inhibition and stimulation predispose to the risk of bleeding and thrombosis, respectively.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol , Adulto Jovem
16.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(9): 702-709, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364917

RESUMO

Leukopenia is the early clinical manifestation of benzene poisoning. The aim of our research was to evaluate the preventive effects of three kinds of garlic preparations on benzene induced leukopenia. The mouse model of Leukopenia was established with benzene orally. At the same time, mice were administrated with garlic homogenate (GH), garlic oil (GO) or diallyl trisulfide (DATS) as preventional measures. The counts of white blood cells (WBC), the organ indexes, pathological examinations, blood biochemical parameters, weight gains, and food intakes were evaluated to observe the protective effect and potential adverse events. The results demonstrated that the counts of WBC increased by 144.04%, 140.07%, and 148.34%, respectively, after intervention by GH (400 mg/kg), GO (60 mg/kg) and DATS (30 mg/kg), compared with that in the model group. The spleen and thymus indexes in the benzene model group were 44.99% and 54.04% lower than those in the blank control group, the number of spleen nodules reduced and the thymus atrophy, which were restored by three garlic preparations at different degree. The results suggested that the three preparations all could prevent the leukopenia and protect the organ injuries induced by benzene. However, the spleen index and weight gains revealed that GH and GO brought more adverse events than DATS.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Benzeno/toxicidade , Alho/química , Leucopenia/prevenção & controle , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucopenia/sangue , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(8): 1295-1302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366865

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Pós , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112147, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401319

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ilex pubescens (I. pubescens), which is well known in Chinese as Mao-Dong-Qing, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This plant is distributed in the wild in southern China, and the roots and stems are used for clearing heat, detoxifying, activating blood circulation and dispelling stasis. Moreover, it is used for treating wind-heat cold, lung-heat asthma, swelling and pain of pharynxes and gingivae, thoracic obstruction and cardiodynia with pungent, stroke, hemiplegia, thromboangiitis obliterans, burn, scald and central retinitis. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide a critical summary of the current studies on I. pubescens. The progress in research on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plant is discussed. We mainly focus on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of I. pubescens. Furthermore, perspectives for possible future studies on I. pubescens are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on the studies of I. pubescens performed during the past 40 years with resources including the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literature databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Baidu Scholar. RESULTS: To date, more than 200 compounds have been isolated and identified from the plant, a substantial proportion of which were reported to be triterpenes. Biological effects such as protective effects against cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities were also investigated in in vitro and in vivo research. Therapeutic effects are attributed to the bioactivities of the naturally occurring compounds in this herb. Furthermore, toxicological studies on I. pubescens are relatively scarce, and it is worthy of further research. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the results from current studies of I. pubescens, which is one of the valuable medicinal sources from traditional herbs. Some conventional uses have been evaluated by pharmacological investigation. In addition, unresolved issues include molecular mechanisms underlying bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, toxicology and efficacy, which are still being studied and explored before achieving integration into clinical medicines.


Assuntos
Ilex , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
19.
Drug Metab Rev ; 51(4): 453-497, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448961

RESUMO

The increase in the application of herbal medicines and dietary products over the last decades has been accompanied with a substantial increase in case reports of herb-induced toxicities. Metabolic activation of relatively inert functional groups to chemically reactive metabolites is often considered to be an obligatory event in the etiology of drug-induced adverse reactions. Circumstantial evidence suggests that several herb-induced toxicities are a result of transformation of herbal constituents to electrophilic reactive metabolites that can covalently bind to vital macromolecules in the body, exemplified by aristolochic acids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. At physiologically relevant concentrations, bioactivation of furanocoumarins and methylenedioxyphenyl compounds leads to mechanism-based inactivation of drug metabolizing enzymes and clinically manifested herb-drug interactions. Of particular interest is that several organic functional groups embedded in herbal constituents act as a toxicophore as well as a pharmacophore, resembling the electrophilic warheads in the development of targeted covalent inhibitors. The aim of this review is to provide a cataloging of bioactivation mechanisms of herbal substructures, structure-activity relationships, biological targets, and assist in circumventing the structural liability in the development of more effective and safer herb-based NCEs.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/farmacocinética , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
20.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2652-2657, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449334

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of mung bean protein hydrolysate (MBPH) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells and discuss the possible immune regulatory mechanism. MBPH was prepared by alcalase, trypsin, neutrase, and flavourzyme. The 3-h alcalase-hydrolyzed hydrolysate with a molecular weight less than 1,450 Da was selected for the immunological tests. Results showed that MBPH possessed strong suppressing activity to proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the LPS alone group, MBPH (200 µg/mL) significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß secretion levels by 52.6%, 53.2%, 48.4%, and 49.7%, respectively, in LPS-induced macrophages. It also enhanced IL-10 secretion from 789 to 3,678 pg/mL. MBPH blocked nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation in LPS-induced macrophages through the prevention of IκBα phosphorylation, and this process further prevented p65 translocation into the nucleus. A possible mechanism of MBPH is that it regulated the expression of inflammatory factors via the NF-κB pathway, thus inhibiting inflammatory reactions. The results suggested that MBPH is of application potential in the development of immunomodulatory functional food to ameliorate immunosuppression.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Vigna , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
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