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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 292-300, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809573

RESUMO

Nano/submicrometer red rice particles were obtained through processing a type of red rice using media-milling. The diameters of red rice were gradually reduced as processing time increased. After 4 h of processing, the particle size of milled red rice was reduced to around 692 nm. Microscopic observation and SEM analysis confirmed the presence of nano/submicrometer particles. The phytochemical contents of milled red rice were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content of red rice increased after milling process. Its phenolic and flavonoid contents were slightly decreased after the milling process. All milled red rice exhibited good ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity. The emulsifying ability of milled red rice particles with different milling time was characterized. Milled red rice starch particles with a concentration of 0.8-3.5% were able to form stable Pickering emulsions, and milled red rice particles retarded the oil oxidation process when being used as Pickering emulsions stabilizers. This pioneer study directly modifies whole grain materials to submicrometer particles that can form stable food grade Pickering emulsions with intrinsic antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões/química , Oryza/química , Preparações de Plantas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
3.
Food Chem ; 305: 125435, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494497

RESUMO

Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) of micronized and non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes were investigated based on its adsorption and activity inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) by using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and modification. Results showed that SDF2 (SDF from micronized powders of lotus root nodes) had stronger PL adsorption and enzyme activity inhibition than SDF1 (SDF from non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes). Specifically, SDF2 showed more binding sites than SDF1 in PL. There were hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions between SDF and PL, with Trp on PL probably serving as the main binding site. Carboxyl groups exhibited a stronger inhibition on PL by carboxymethyl and hydroxypropyl modification. The common mechanisms between SDF1 and SDF2 can be attributed to the combination between Trp and carboxyl groups, while the differences may be generated by the variations in structures or chemical groups induced by micronization.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lotus/química , Adsorção , Hidrólise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Solubilidade
4.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 6088-6097, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490512

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well-known for exerting numerous adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract such as bleeding, ulceration, and perforation, thereby limiting their use. Most previous studies have focused on NSAID-induced gastropathy. However, improved diagnostic techniques have recently highlighted NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcers, which have so far been underestimated. While proton pump inhibitors are prescribed to control NSAID-induced gastropathy, few preventive strategies are existent for NSAID-induced small intestinal injury, thus requiring new methods to treat these enteropathies. Numerous studies have reported the beneficial biological effects of Aloe vera, such as wound healing, anti-cancer, immune modulation, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and gastroprotective effects. A previous report on the effect of Aloe vera against NSAID-induced ulcers studied only gastric ulcers and elucidated the results as an anti-inflammatory effect of Aloe vera. However, ulcer prevention cannot be justified entirely to be due to the anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera, since NSAIDs themselves also exert an anti-inflammatory reaction. We therefore investigated the anti-ulcer effects of Aloe vera on the small intestine, especially focusing on mucin expression. Our results indicate that processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) treatment attenuates not only the severity of intestinal ulcers but also bacterial translocation, by enhancing the mucus layer in the indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage mouse model. We further confirmed that PAG positively regulates the mucin expression in the LS174T human cell line, mainly via the ERK-dependent pathway. We propose that PAG application is a potential strategy for the alleviation of NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcers.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Intestino Delgado/lesões , Mucinas/genética , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/genética , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucinas/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/química
5.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(11): 1891-1902, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415132

RESUMO

Herbal medicines frequently suffer with quality controversies because of similar species or varieties. This often leads to sophistication or admixture of the crude drug as they share various look alike physical features. Commercially, stalks of Caralluma edulis are commonly adulterated with other species because of their analogous morphology. In the present research, the microscopic standardization of the drug was performed by structural, histological, and anatomical features. Pharmacognostical characterization was carried out by physicochemical (moisture content, swelling index, pH value, ash values, and extractive values) and fluorescence analysis. The chemical characterization by UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography was also performed that disclosed the chief phytoconstituents of the herbal drug. The above mentioned constraints, being reported for the first time in C. edulis, are substantial in establishing the microscopic and pharmacopoeial standards for future identification and authentication.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/anatomia & histologia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Apocynaceae/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Farmacognosia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112147, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401319

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ilex pubescens (I. pubescens), which is well known in Chinese as Mao-Dong-Qing, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This plant is distributed in the wild in southern China, and the roots and stems are used for clearing heat, detoxifying, activating blood circulation and dispelling stasis. Moreover, it is used for treating wind-heat cold, lung-heat asthma, swelling and pain of pharynxes and gingivae, thoracic obstruction and cardiodynia with pungent, stroke, hemiplegia, thromboangiitis obliterans, burn, scald and central retinitis. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide a critical summary of the current studies on I. pubescens. The progress in research on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plant is discussed. We mainly focus on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of I. pubescens. Furthermore, perspectives for possible future studies on I. pubescens are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on the studies of I. pubescens performed during the past 40 years with resources including the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literature databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Baidu Scholar. RESULTS: To date, more than 200 compounds have been isolated and identified from the plant, a substantial proportion of which were reported to be triterpenes. Biological effects such as protective effects against cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities were also investigated in in vitro and in vivo research. Therapeutic effects are attributed to the bioactivities of the naturally occurring compounds in this herb. Furthermore, toxicological studies on I. pubescens are relatively scarce, and it is worthy of further research. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the results from current studies of I. pubescens, which is one of the valuable medicinal sources from traditional herbs. Some conventional uses have been evaluated by pharmacological investigation. In addition, unresolved issues include molecular mechanisms underlying bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, toxicology and efficacy, which are still being studied and explored before achieving integration into clinical medicines.


Assuntos
Ilex , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
7.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5768-5778, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454000

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed at investigating the antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried fruit powder of Actinidia arguta (FAA) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice and the effect of its extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. For pharmacodynamic studies, the oral administration of FAA (300 or 600 mg kg-1) could decrease the disease activity index (DAI), reduce the incidence of colon and spleen edemas (caused by inflammation), and alleviate the pathological changes in UC. For research involving biochemical indicators, FAA could decrease the expression of inflammatory markers (such as myeloperoxidase (MPO)) and attenuate the oxidative stress levels. ELISA results revealed that the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were downregulated by FAA. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammation-induced activation of p38, JNK, and ERK were decreased by FAA. Hence, it was concluded that FAA could alleviate the UC symptoms in mice and the inflammatory response of macrophages via the MAPK signal pathway. Overall, FAA might have the potential to treat UC when used as a dietary supplement.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Actinidia/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Preparações de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10185-10194, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423782

RESUMO

This research aimed to measure the impact of novel food processing techniques, i.e., pulsed electric field (PEF) and ohmic heating (OH), on carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 cell uptake from tomato juice and high-pressure processing (HPP) and PEF on the same attributes from kale-based juices, as compared with raw (nonprocessed) and conventional thermally treated (TT) juices. Lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein were quantitated in juices and the micelle fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection and in Caco-2 cells using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Tomato juice results were as follows: PEF increased lycopene bioaccessibility (1.5 ± 0.39%) by 150% (P = 0.01) but reduced ß-carotene bioaccessibility (28 ± 6.2%) by 44% (P = 0.02), relative to raw juice. All processing methods increased lutein uptake. Kale-based juice results were as follows: TT and PEF degraded ß-carotene and lutein in the juice. No difference in bioaccessibility or cell uptake was observed. Total delivery, i.e., the summation of bioaccessibility and cell uptake, of lycopene, ß-carotene, and lutein was independent of type of processing. Taken together, PEF and OH enhanced total lycopene and lutein delivery from tomato juice to Caco-2 cells as well as TT, and may produce a more desirable product due to other factors (i.e., conservation of heat-labile micronutrients, fresher organoleptic profile). HPP best conserved the carotenoid content and color of kale-based juice and merits further consideration.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Brassica/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Preparações de Plantas/química
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112169, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425732

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel is widespread in alluvial plains and open forests in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. The fruits of P. cauliflora are used as food, and almost all parts of this species have long been used as a traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of skin irritations, flu, diarrhea, labyrinthitis, genito-urinary problems, and asthma. THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on P. cauliflora with regard to its ethnopharmacological uses, constituents, biological activities, and toxicology, all of which are useful for future research and the development of new drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information and data on P. cauliflora were collected from ethnobotanical textbooks and scientific databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Google, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The main chemical constituents in P. cauliflora preparations were depsides, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins. The main medicinal use of the species in Brazil is for the treatment of diarrhea. Although antimicrobial potential of this species has been demonstrated, data on gastrointestinal motility are still incipient and need further investigation. Studies that indicate the efficacy of its traditional use for sore throat, pelvic hemorrhage, uterine wounds, vaginal discharge, and flu are nonexistent. The scientific literature does not describe any toxic effects of its popular use. However, the available data do not allow us to conclude that the ethnomedicinal use of this species is safe, with a lack of well-designed preclinical tests and randomized clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes research on the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of P. cauliflora. Although P. cauliflora possesses significant biological activities, much of its ethnomedicinal use has not been scientifically evaluated. Well-designed pharmacological and toxicological assays and randomized clinical trials are still needed to validate its ethnopharmacological use as an herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Animais , Brasil , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426492

RESUMO

Microglial activation and the resulting neuroinflammation are associated with a variety of brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Thus, the control of microglial activation is an important factor in the development of drugs that can treat or prevent inflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders. Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (ARA) has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, gastroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ARA ethanolic extract (ARAE) on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation have not been fully elucidated. In this work, we explored the anti-neuroinflammatory properties and underlying molecular mechanisms of ARAE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. Our results showed that ARAE significantly attenuates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. ARAE treatment also inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 without causing cytotoxicity. ARAE markedly attenuated the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation, and induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that ARAE contains three main components-atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, and atractylodin-all compounds that significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory factors. These findings indicate that ARAE may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Asteraceae/química , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Preparações de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Phytomedicine ; 63: 153016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the study of marine natural products has gained interest due to their relevant biological activities. Specially, seaweeds produce bioactive compounds that could act as modulators of cell signaling pathways involved in a plethora of diseases. Thereby, the description of the molecular mechanisms by which seaweeds elicit its biological functions will certainly pave the way to the pharmacological development of drugs. AIM: This review describes the molecular mechanisms by which seaweeds act and its possible utilization in the design of new drugs. METHODS: This review was conducted according to the PRISMA-P guidelines for systematic reviews. Two independent authors searched into four different databases using combinations of keywords. Two more authors selected the articles following the eligibility criteria. Information extraction was conducted by two separated authors and entered into spreadsheets. Methodological quality and risk of bias were determined applying a 12-question Risk of Bias criteria tool. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found 2360 articles (SCOPUS: 998; PubMed: 678; Wiley: 645 and EBSCO: 39) using the established keywords, of which 113 articles fit the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. This work comprises studies in cell lines, and animal models, any clinical trial was excluded. The articles were published from 2005 up to March 31st 2018. The biggest amount of articles was published in 2017. Furthermore, the seaweeds tested in the studies were collected in 15 countries, mainly in Eastern countries. We found that the main modulated signaling pathways by seaweeds-derivate extracts and compounds were: L-Arginine/NO, TNF-α, MAPKs, PI3K/AKT/GSK, mTOR, NF-κB, extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, cell cycle, MMPs and Nrf2. Finally, the articles we analyzed showed moderate risk of bias in almost all the parameters evaluated. However, the studies fail to describe the place and characteristics of sample collection, the sample size, and the blindness of the experimental design. CONCLUSION: In this review we identified and summarized relevant information related to seaweed-isolated compounds and extracts having biological activity; their role in different signal pathways to better understand their potential to further development of cures for cancer, diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112060, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279865

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke (Verbenaceae) is a plant traditionally used as medicine for anxiety symptoms. This activity was confirmed in preclinical studies. However, its efficacy was never studied in human clinical trials. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to test the hypothesis that the herbal medicine of A. polystachya is superior to placebo for the treatment of anxiety-related symptoms in adults after 8 weeks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase-2 clinical trial. Fifty-four adults with self-reported anxiety symptoms were randomly allocated to receive either capsules containing A. polystachya powdered leaves (300 mg, twice a day) or placebo (maltodextrin), for 8 weeks. The intensity of anxiety symptoms was assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Ranking Scale (HAM-A) at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. All analyses were adjusted for physical activity (assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ], short version) and gender. RESULTS: We confirmed the presence of acteoside (chromatographic analysis) and carvone and limonene (gas chromatography) as major constituents in our plant material. Only patients that received A. polystachya experienced a significant decrease in their HAM-A scores, with none or mild side-effects. CONCLUSION: Administration of powdered leaves of A. polystachya, rich in acteoside, carvone and limonene, to adults with anxiety symptoms was significantly superior to placebo in decreasing HAM-A scores after 8 weeks. This finding confirms the ethnopharmacological use of this plant for anxiety symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Verbenaceae , Adulto , Ansiolíticos/química , Cápsulas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química , Preparações de Plantas/química , Pós
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349548

RESUMO

Currently, hundreds of herbal products with potential hepatotoxicity were available in the literature. A comprehensive summary and analysis focused on these potential hepatotoxic herbal products may assist in understanding herb-induced liver injury (HILI). In this work, we collected 335 hepatotoxic medicinal plants, 296 hepatotoxic ingredients, and 584 hepatoprotective ingredients through a systematic literature retrieval. Then we analyzed these data from the perspectives of phylogenetic relationship and structure-toxicity relationship. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that hepatotoxic medicinal plants tended to have a closer taxonomic relationship. By investigating the structures of the hepatotoxic ingredients, we found that alkaloids and terpenoids were the two major groups of hepatotoxicity. We also identified eight major skeletons of hepatotoxicity and reviewed their hepatotoxic mechanisms. Additionally, 15 structural alerts (SAs) for hepatotoxicity were identified based on SARpy software. These SAs will help to estimate the hepatotoxic risk of ingredients from herbs. Finally, a herb-ingredient network was constructed by integrating multiple datasets, which will assist to identify the hepatotoxic ingredients of herb/herb-formula quickly. In summary, a systemic analysis focused on HILI was conducted which will not only assist to identify the toxic molecular basis of hepatotoxic herbs but also contribute to decipher the mechanisms of HILI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 114998, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320065

RESUMO

The effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5) and UV-C irradiation dose (12.8, 24.2, 35.8, and 54.6 mJ/cm2) on the physicochemical properties changes in 10% Aloe vera gel blends; in addition, the acemannan concentration and structural changes in the precipitated polysaccharides were evaluated. A thermal treatment (TT; 45 s at 90 °C) was used for comparison. In contrast to TT, a dose of 24.2 mJ/cm2 did not induce significant changes of free sugar content. Moreover, TT and UV-C irradiation did not significantly affect the content of mannose but increased those of galactose, fructose, and glucose. 1H NMR analysis revealed minimal changes in the isolated fractions of acemannan, indicating that compared to the unprocessed control sample, the acemannan deacetylation was more pronounced by TT (27%) than by UV-C irradiation (11% at 54.6 mJ/cm2), without any significant difference between the two. UV-C irradiation of Aloe vera gel blends at pH 3.5 and 24.2 mJ/cm2 was an alternative to TT and efficiently preserve the characteristics of acemannan.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Géis/química , Mananas/química , Preparações de Plantas/química , Géis/efeitos da radiação , Calefação , Hexoses/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mananas/efeitos da radiação , Peso Molecular , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Sacarose/química , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5994-6000, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) is an emerging and promising technique for continuous production of fluid foods. This study aimed to investigate the influence of DHPM and conventional homogenization (CH) on the quality of peach juice. Processing was performed by passing peach juice through CH at 20 MPa and DHPM at 20-160 MPa for one or three passes. The effect of DHPM pressure and passing number were also assessed. RESULTS: The results indicate that DHPM could maintain the antioxidant activity of peach juice much better than CH processing. Total phenolic compounds were decreased by 11.7% and 7.9%-15.8% through CH and DHPM processing in different conditions. Moreover, particle size, non-enzymatic browning index and turbidity decreased significantly under DHPM and CH processing, and decreased more and more with the increasing of DHPM pressure and treatment times. However, vitamin C content and zeta-potential did not reveal remarkable variation before and after these two types of processing. CONCLUSION: Taken together, DHPM is able to maintain the quality and stability of peach juice, which can be a reliable technological alternative to CH to produce fresh-like peach juices. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Prunus persica/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Fenóis/química , Pressão
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234321

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Amyloid beta (Aß) peptide is known to be a major cause of AD pathogenesis. However, recent studies have clarified that mitochondrial deficiency is also a mediator or trigger for AD development. Interestingly, red ginseng (RG) has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on AD pathology. However, there is no evidence showing whether RG extract (RGE) can inhibit the mitochondrial deficit-mediated pathology in the experimental models of AD. The effects of RGE on Aß-mediated mitochondrial deficiency were investigated in both HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells and the brains of 5XFAD Aß-overexpressing transgenic mice. To examine whether RGE can affect mitochondria-related pathology, we used immunohistostaining to study the effects of RGE on Aß accumulation, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis in hippocampal formation of 5XFAD mice. In vitro and in vivo findings indicated that RGE significantly improves Aß-induced mitochondrial pathology. In addition, RGE significantly ameliorated AD-related pathology, such as Aß deposition, gliosis, and neuronal loss, and deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in brains with AD. Our results suggest that RGE may be a mitochondria-targeting agent for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Panax/química , Preparações de Plantas/química
17.
Food Chem ; 297: 124975, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253324

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the formation of tryptophan derivatives in the kynurenine pathway during wort fermentation using a multi-response kinetic model and an empirical modified logistic model. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 88 (ale yeast) and S. pastorianus NCYC 203 (lager yeast) were used to understand the effect of fermentation type on tryptophan derivatives. According to the modified logistic model, tryptophan concentration was critical for the maximum production rate of kynurenic acid, a neuroprotective compound. The results indicated that utilization of tryptophan and kynurenic acid formation were faster in wort fermented with S. cerevisiae than with S. pastorianus. The reaction rate constants implied that the kynurenic acid formation stage was minor compared to other enzymatic reactions leading to NAD+ synthesis. Multi-response kinetic modeling of kynurenine pathway provided insights into tryptophan derivative formation, which can facilitate improved beer fermentation processing.


Assuntos
Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/química , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Cerveja/análise , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação , Cinética , Modelos Logísticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
19.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 370-375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222477

RESUMO

The flash vacuum-expansion process (FVE) consists of two stages. In the first, the raw material is heated by a steam flow in a chamber at 101.325 kPa; in the second, the plant material passes into an expansion chamber (2 to 5 kPa), where the disintegration of the tissues occur. The puree obtained from the avocado pulp subjected to the first stage of the process was evaluated sensorial and instrumentally (T1), in the same way the puree obtained from fruits that were subjected to the whole process (T2) was evaluated, these were compared with avocado puree obtained by means of a food processor (control). The parameters shiny, avocado-like, luminosity, stretching and hue are more significant to describe the puree control, while boiled vegetable and homogeneity to describe T1; grainy texture, adhesiveness and fibrous are more significant to describe T2.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Persea/química , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Cor , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Paladar , Vácuo , Volatilização
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 142-153, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112705

RESUMO

In this study five types of herbal teas were used to quantify the effect of comminution of the leaves on resulting PA exposure. Results show that PA levels extracted from intact leaves were consistently lower than from comminuted tea leaves. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was applied to evaluate the consequences of this difference for the associated risks in the scenario of lifetime exposure. Furthermore, we considered medicinal use of these teas for shorter-than-lifetime exposure scenarios, and also analysed the risks of shorter-than-lifetime use of eight herbal medicines and 19 previously analysed plant food supplements. This analysis revealed that shorter-than-lifetime use resulted in MOE values < 10,000 upon use for 40-3450 weeks during a lifetime, with for only a limited number of herbal teas and medicines use of two weeks a year (150 weeks during a 75 year lifetime) would still raise a concern. It is concluded that taking more realistic conditions into account markedly reduces the concerns raised for these herbal preparations. These results also illustrate the need for development of a generally accepted method for taking short term exposure into account in risk assessment of compounds that are genotoxic and carcinogenic.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Chás de Ervas/análise , Chás de Ervas/toxicidade , Carcinógenos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Fatores de Risco
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