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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112172, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L., which is called Kudouzi in China, is a medicinal plant distributed in Western and Central Asia, especially in China, and has been used for decades to treat fever, bacterial infection, heart disease, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on S. alopecuroides, including its botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to this article was systematically collected from the scientific literature databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, published books, PhD and MS dissertations, and other web sources, such as the official website of Flora of China and Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). RESULTS: A total of 128 compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polysaccharides, were isolated from S. alopecuroides. Among these compounds, the effects of alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, were extensively studied and developed into new drugs. S. alopecuroides and its active components had a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and neuroprotective functions, as well as protective properties against pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: As an important traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that S. alopecuroides has prominent bioactivities, especially on gynecological inflammation and hepatitis B, and anticancer activities. These activities provide prospects for novel drug development for cancer and some chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the comprehensive evaluation, quality control, understanding of the multitarget network pharmacology, long-term in vivo toxicity, and clinical efficacy of S. alopecuroides require further detailed research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Agricultura , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112204, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669442

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae) has long been used as a traditional medicine in India, China, Sri Lanka, Australia, and Myanmar in the treatment of diarrhea, ulcer, anemia, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides a systematic comment on the botany, traditional uses, and phytochemical and pharmacological studies of F. hispida, with an aim to make critical update of the current knowledge and obtain opportunities for further therapeutic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was derived from scientific literature databases including PubMed, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Additional information was gathered from books, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, and unpublished materials. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: F. hispida is used especially in Chinese and Indian traditional medical systems as a remedy for skin disorders, respiratory diseases, and urinary diseases. Wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, sedative, antidiarrheal, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antineoplastic, and antidiabetic activities have been reported for crude extracts and isolated metabolites, but the methodologies in these studies often have inadequate design and low technical quality. More than 76 compounds have been isolated from F.hispida, including sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, phenylpropionic acids, benzoic acid derivatives, alkaloids, steroids, other glycosides, and alkanes, but the method of bioassay-guided fractionation is seldom applied in the isolation from F. hispida. CONCLUSION: F. hispida is used widely in traditional medicines and has multiple pharmacological effects that could support traditional uses. However, pharmacological studies should be viewed with caution because of the inappropriate experimental design. More in vitro and in vivo research is urgently needed to study the molecular mechanisms and assess the effective and safe dose of F. hispida.


Assuntos
Ficus , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112169, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425732

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel is widespread in alluvial plains and open forests in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. The fruits of P. cauliflora are used as food, and almost all parts of this species have long been used as a traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of skin irritations, flu, diarrhea, labyrinthitis, genito-urinary problems, and asthma. THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on P. cauliflora with regard to its ethnopharmacological uses, constituents, biological activities, and toxicology, all of which are useful for future research and the development of new drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information and data on P. cauliflora were collected from ethnobotanical textbooks and scientific databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Google, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The main chemical constituents in P. cauliflora preparations were depsides, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins. The main medicinal use of the species in Brazil is for the treatment of diarrhea. Although antimicrobial potential of this species has been demonstrated, data on gastrointestinal motility are still incipient and need further investigation. Studies that indicate the efficacy of its traditional use for sore throat, pelvic hemorrhage, uterine wounds, vaginal discharge, and flu are nonexistent. The scientific literature does not describe any toxic effects of its popular use. However, the available data do not allow us to conclude that the ethnomedicinal use of this species is safe, with a lack of well-designed preclinical tests and randomized clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes research on the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of P. cauliflora. Although P. cauliflora possesses significant biological activities, much of its ethnomedicinal use has not been scientifically evaluated. Well-designed pharmacological and toxicological assays and randomized clinical trials are still needed to validate its ethnopharmacological use as an herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Animais , Brasil , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112147, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401319

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ilex pubescens (I. pubescens), which is well known in Chinese as Mao-Dong-Qing, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This plant is distributed in the wild in southern China, and the roots and stems are used for clearing heat, detoxifying, activating blood circulation and dispelling stasis. Moreover, it is used for treating wind-heat cold, lung-heat asthma, swelling and pain of pharynxes and gingivae, thoracic obstruction and cardiodynia with pungent, stroke, hemiplegia, thromboangiitis obliterans, burn, scald and central retinitis. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide a critical summary of the current studies on I. pubescens. The progress in research on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plant is discussed. We mainly focus on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of I. pubescens. Furthermore, perspectives for possible future studies on I. pubescens are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on the studies of I. pubescens performed during the past 40 years with resources including the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literature databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Baidu Scholar. RESULTS: To date, more than 200 compounds have been isolated and identified from the plant, a substantial proportion of which were reported to be triterpenes. Biological effects such as protective effects against cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities were also investigated in in vitro and in vivo research. Therapeutic effects are attributed to the bioactivities of the naturally occurring compounds in this herb. Furthermore, toxicological studies on I. pubescens are relatively scarce, and it is worthy of further research. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the results from current studies of I. pubescens, which is one of the valuable medicinal sources from traditional herbs. Some conventional uses have been evaluated by pharmacological investigation. In addition, unresolved issues include molecular mechanisms underlying bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, toxicology and efficacy, which are still being studied and explored before achieving integration into clinical medicines.


Assuntos
Ilex , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
6.
Drug Metab Rev ; 51(4): 453-497, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448961

RESUMO

The increase in the application of herbal medicines and dietary products over the last decades has been accompanied with a substantial increase in case reports of herb-induced toxicities. Metabolic activation of relatively inert functional groups to chemically reactive metabolites is often considered to be an obligatory event in the etiology of drug-induced adverse reactions. Circumstantial evidence suggests that several herb-induced toxicities are a result of transformation of herbal constituents to electrophilic reactive metabolites that can covalently bind to vital macromolecules in the body, exemplified by aristolochic acids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. At physiologically relevant concentrations, bioactivation of furanocoumarins and methylenedioxyphenyl compounds leads to mechanism-based inactivation of drug metabolizing enzymes and clinically manifested herb-drug interactions. Of particular interest is that several organic functional groups embedded in herbal constituents act as a toxicophore as well as a pharmacophore, resembling the electrophilic warheads in the development of targeted covalent inhibitors. The aim of this review is to provide a cataloging of bioactivation mechanisms of herbal substructures, structure-activity relationships, biological targets, and assist in circumventing the structural liability in the development of more effective and safer herb-based NCEs.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/farmacocinética , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
7.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 328-334, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057026

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Discovery of pharmacologically active natural products as starting points for drug development remains important and, for reasons of consumer safety, the identification of toxicologically relevant compounds in herbal drugs. OBJECTIVE: To explain, with the aid of relevant examples from our own research, how these goals can be achieved. METHODS: An in-house technology platform comprising pre-formatted extract libraries in 96-well format, miniaturized tracking of activity in extracts via HPLC-activity profiling, structure elucidation with microprobe NMR, and in vitro and in vivo pharmacological methods were used. RESULTS: Piperine was identified as a new scaffold for allosteric GABAA receptor modulators with in vivo activity that interacts at a benzodiazepine-independent binding site. Selectivity and potency were improved by iterative optimization towards synthetic piperine analogues. Dehydroevodiamine and hortiamine from the traditional Chinese herbal drug Evodiae fructus were identified as potent hERG channel blockers in vitro. The compounds induced torsades de pointes arrhythmia in animal models. CONCLUSIONS: The allosteric binding site for piperine analogues remains to be characterized and cardiac risks of herbal drugs need to be further evaluated to ensure consumer safety.


Assuntos
Moduladores GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Moduladores GABAérgicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/toxicidade , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Canal de Potássio ERG1/antagonistas & inibidores , Moduladores GABAérgicos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Preparações de Plantas/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/química , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 142-153, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112705

RESUMO

In this study five types of herbal teas were used to quantify the effect of comminution of the leaves on resulting PA exposure. Results show that PA levels extracted from intact leaves were consistently lower than from comminuted tea leaves. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was applied to evaluate the consequences of this difference for the associated risks in the scenario of lifetime exposure. Furthermore, we considered medicinal use of these teas for shorter-than-lifetime exposure scenarios, and also analysed the risks of shorter-than-lifetime use of eight herbal medicines and 19 previously analysed plant food supplements. This analysis revealed that shorter-than-lifetime use resulted in MOE values < 10,000 upon use for 40-3450 weeks during a lifetime, with for only a limited number of herbal teas and medicines use of two weeks a year (150 weeks during a 75 year lifetime) would still raise a concern. It is concluded that taking more realistic conditions into account markedly reduces the concerns raised for these herbal preparations. These results also illustrate the need for development of a generally accepted method for taking short term exposure into account in risk assessment of compounds that are genotoxic and carcinogenic.


Assuntos
Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Chás de Ervas/análise , Chás de Ervas/toxicidade , Carcinógenos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Fatores de Risco
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 364: 68-76, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578885

RESUMO

Cortex Dictamni is extensively used as an herbal medicine worldwide, but is believed to induce hepatotoxicity and even causes mortality in many Asian and European countries. As the most abundant furoquinoline alkaloid ingredient of Cortex Dictamni, dictamnine (DIC) can be metabolically activated by CYP3A to an epoxide metabolite, which possesses the potential to induce hepatotoxicity by covalent binding with proteins. As yet, the hepatotoxicity of DIC and the role played by metabolic activation remain unknown. Here, we found that DIC caused acute liver injury in a time- and dose-dependent manner in mice. The hepatic and urinary DIC epoxide intermediates were observed in DIC-treated mice. Ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor, significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity of DIC and inhibited the formation of reactive metabolites of DIC. Moreover, treatment with 2,3-dihydro-DIC, a DIC analog synthesized by selective reduction of the furan moiety, produced no hepatotoxicity in mice, and no reactive metabolite was formed, suggesting a structural necessity of furan moiety in DIC hepatotoxicity. A time course of gradual hepatic glutathione consumption was observed in DIC-treated mice, while depletion of hepatic glutathione by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine enhanced the hepatotoxicity of DIC. Collectively, this study demonstrates that DIC induces acute hepatocellular injury in mice, and that metabolic activation of furan plays a crucial role in DIC-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Furanos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Ativação Metabólica , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/metabolismo , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fatores de Tempo , Toxicocinética
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 124: 431-438, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582954

RESUMO

Botanical-derived dietary supplements have widespread use in the general population. The complex and variable nature of botanical ingredients and reports of adverse responses have led to concern for negative human health impacts following consumption of these products. Toxicity testing of the vast number of available products, formulations, and combinations is not feasible due to the time and resource intensive nature of comprehensive testing. Methods are needed to assess the safety of a large number of products via more efficient frameworks. Identification of toxicologically-active constituents is one approach being used, with many advantages toward product regulation. Bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) is the leading approach used to identify biologically-active constituents. Most BGF studies with botanicals focus on identifying pharmacologically-active constituents for drug discovery or botanical efficacy research. Here, we explore BGF in a toxicological context, drawing from both efficacy and poisonous plant research. Limitations of BGF, including loss of mixture activity and bias toward abundant constituents, and recent advancements in the field (e.g., biochemometrics) are discussed from a toxicological perspective. Identification of active constituents will allow better monitoring of market products for known toxicologically-active constituents, as well as surveying human exposure, two important steps to ensuring the safety of botanical dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(6): 2545-2551, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473530

RESUMO

Herbal medicines are still most popular, abundant and affordable remedies for curing various ailments. Garlina is one of the herbal formulations of Hamdard Laboratories (waqf) Pakistan used to treat cardiovascular diseases and elevated sugar level. However, there is no scientific data available regarding the potential toxicity. Therefore, the present study was to assess the acute and sub-chronic toxicity in rats. The single dose of Garlina 5000mg/kg were administered orally and observed for 14 days. A sub-chronic toxicity test was performed at 2000mg/kg of Garlina daily for 30 days. Control rats received saline. The biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis was carried out. The acute toxicity LD50 was determined to be <5000mg/kg. The result of acute and sub-chronic toxicity revealed no mortality and sign of toxicity. Garlina did not elicit any significant change in body weight, hematological and histopathology analysis when compared to saline treated rats. The relative weight of organs was not affected by the treatment. While the daily dose of Garlina for humans is 20mg/kg. However, the sub-chronic toxicity at 2000mg/kg dose of Garlina exhibited significant increase in gamma glutamyltransferase while total protein significantly decreased. Results obtained from study demonstrated that there is wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of Garlina and significant decrease in LDL, atherogenic index, GGT and bilirubin direct at the dose of 5000mg/kg further strengthen the use as hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agent.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Hipolipemiantes/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Administração Oral , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 225: 18-30, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935346

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Salvia is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. In China, about 40 Salvia species have been used as medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases, specifically hepatic and renal diseases and those of the cardiovascular and immune systems. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review aims to provide systematically organized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of medicinal Salvia species in China to support their therapeutic potential in the treatment of human diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information on the Chinese Salvia species was obtained from scientific online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and SciFinder. Additional information was derived from other literature sources (e.g. Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition, Chinese herbal classic books, PhD and MSc thesis, etc). RESULTS: Our comprehensive analysis of the scientific literature indicates that many Chinese Salvia species are valuable and popular herbal medicines with therapeutic potentials to cure various ailments. Phytochemical analyses identified diterpenoids and phenolic acids as the major bioactive substances in Chinese Salvia species. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from the Chinese Salvia species exhibited various pharmacological activities, typically targeting the cardiovascular and immune systems and hepatic and renal diseases. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the results from current studies about basic properties of medicinal Salvia species in China, such as active constituents and their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, underlying molecular mechanisms, toxicology, and efficacy, which are still being studied and explored to achieve integration into medical practice.


Assuntos
Fitoterapia , Salvia , Animais , China , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 225: 244-270, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933016

RESUMO

ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annona species (Annonaceae) have long been used as traditional herbal medicines by native peoples in tropical areas. In different countries they are used against a large variety of illnesses, such as parasitic and infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, peptic ulcers, and mental disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the research conducted so far on the local and traditional uses, pharmacological activities, mechanism of actions of active compounds, toxicity, and possible interactions with other drugs of the Annona species. Through analysis of these findings, evidences supporting their applications in ethno-medicines are described. We discuss the possible research opportunities and stand out the weak points in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of the Annona genus was collected. The main scientific biomedical literature databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, SeCiMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, SciFinder) were consulted. The search covered all the literature available until September 2017. National and regional databases of Herbal Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine were also revised in order to explore further data. For a better understanding of the therapeutic importance of these species, we have classified the pharmacological activities within each group of disorders. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used from WHO Member States, was chosen as the reference classification. RESULTS: From among the 27 species revised, four species are highlighted for their important pharmacological activities in most of the groups of illnesses: A. muricata, A. squamosa, A. senegalensis, and A. cherimola. Many investigations have been performed with extracts from the leaves, bark, fruit and seeds and have shown a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antiprotozoal, antitumoural, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic activities. The chemistry on the annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) has been extensively investigated due to their potent antitumoural activity. Many of the assays were carried out with the isolated acetogenins in different lines of tumour culture cells and were found effective at very low doses even in multidrug-resistant tumours, and hence constitute promising compounds in the treatment of different types of cancers. No studies were found with extracts rich in acetogenins in the clinical field. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results from the pharmacological research enable the validation of their traditional uses in several of the groups of diseases in the countries of origin and reveal these plants to be a valuable source for therapeutic molecules. However, more toxicity assays and clinical trials would be necessary to establish optimal and safe doses of consumption on the application of these medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Annona , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 224: 202-229, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29842962

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to previous ethno-medicinal reviews, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Phoenix dactylifera are among the main palms which are often used on the American and African continents to treat infections, infestations and disorders in the digestive, respiratory, genito-urinary, dermal, endocrine, cardiovascular, muscular-skeletal, mental and neural systems, as well as neoplasms, dental issues and metabolic and nutritional disorders. In addition, one or more species of the wild genera Acrocomia, Areca, Astrocaryum, Attalea, Bactris, Borassus, Calamus, Chamaedorea, Chamaerops, Euterpe, Hyphaene, Mauritia, Oenocarpus and Syagrus have a high number of records of these ethno-medicinal uses. The most used parts of the palm tree are the fruits, followed by roots, seeds, leaves and flower sap. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review discusses the phytochemical composition and the pharmacological properties of these important ethno-medicinal palms, aiming to provide a contribution to future research prospects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Significant information was compiled from an electronic search in widely used international scientific databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley on line Library, Scielo, ACS Publications), and additional information was obtained from dissertations, theses, books and other relevant websites. RESULTS: Palms, in general, are rich in oils, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Fruits of many species are notable for their high content of healthy oils and fat-soluble bioactive compounds, mainly terpenoids, such as pigment carotenoids (and provitamin A), phytosterols, triterpene pentacyclics and tocols (and vitamin E), while other species stood out for their phenolic compounds derived from benzoic and cinnamic acids, along with flavan-3-ol, flavone, flavonol, and stilbene compounds or anthocyanin pigments. In addition to fruits, other parts of the plant such as seeds, leaves, palm heart, flowers and roots are also sources of many bioactive compounds. These compounds are linked to the ethno-medicinal use of many palms that improve human health against infections, infestations and disorders of human systems. CONCLUSIONS: Palms have provided bioactive samples that validate their effectiveness in traditional medicine. However, the intensive study of all palm species related to ethno-medicinal use is needed, along with selection of the most appropriate palm accessions, ripe stage of the fruit and /or part of the plant. Furthermore, the complete profiles of all phytochemicals, their effects on animal models and human subjects, and toxicological and clinical trials are suggested, which, added to the incorporation of improved technological processes, should represent a significant advance for the implementation of new opportunities with wide benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , África , América , Animais , Arecaceae/química , Gorduras/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Solubilidade , Água/química
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 224: 149-168, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738847

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL USAGES: Fructus Alpiniae oxyphyllae (A. oxyphylla) is an important medicinal plant that is used not only as an edible fruit, but also as an important traditional medicine for benefiting cognitive performance and alleviating a wide spectrum of diseases. Such as; warming kidney, securing essence and arresting polyuria, as well as warming the spleen and stopping diarrhea and saliva. AIMS: The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological research of A. oxyphylla in order to explore their therapeutic potential and establish a solid foundation for directing future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the available information on A. oxyphylla was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and additionally a number of unpublished resources, (e.g. books, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, government reports). RESULTS: Phytochemical research on A. oxyphylla has led to the isolation of components such as essential oils, terpenes, diarylheptanoids, flavones, nucleobases and nucleosides, steroids and others. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from A. oxyphylla showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like neuroprotective, anti-diarrheal, anti-diuretic, anti-neoplastic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, viscera protective and anti-diabetic activities. Neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-diarrheal and anti-diuretic effects are major areas of research conducted on A. oxyphylla. CONCLUSIONS: Modern pharmacological studies have supported many traditional uses of A. oxyphylla, including nervous system, urinary system and gastrointestinal system disease. There was convincing evidence in experimental animal models in support of its neuroprotection, secure essence, reduce urination, and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, all the reported pharmacological activities were carried out at pre-clinical level and the authors urge further investigation in clinical trials about these therapeutic fields of A. oxyphylla.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Fitoterapia , Alpinia/química , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 222: 34-51, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698776

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloysia citrodora Paláu (Lippia citriodora Kunth), commonly known as "lemon verbena" is a medicinal plant native to South America, North Africa, and South of Europe which is used by native people for several indications such as diarrhea, flatulence, insomnia, and rheumatism. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Despite the wide biological activities of lemon verbena, there is no current review summarizing medicinal properties of the plant; thus, this paper aims to discuss current state of the art regarding the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic applications of A. citrodora considering in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scifinder, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Science direct were searched with the scientific name of the plant and its synonyms, as well as the common name. All studies on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical application of the plant until October 2017 were included in this review. RESULTS: Despite the few number of studies on the ethnopharmacology of the plant, A. citrodora is widely assessed regarding its phytochemistry and biological activities. Neral and geranial are the main ingredients of the essential oil; whereas verbascoside is the most significant component of the extract. Biological activities such as antioxidant, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, anticancer, anesthetic, antimicrobial, and sedative effects are proved in cell cultures, as well as animal studies. CONCLUSIONS: Several pharmacological activities have been reported for A. citrodora; however, the plant is not fully assessed regarding its safety and efficacy in human. Future well-designed human studies are essential to confirm the therapeutic benefits of this plant in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Verbenaceae , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Verbenaceae/química
17.
J Appl Toxicol ; 38(10): 1274-1281, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603306

RESUMO

Epidemic dropsy is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from the ingestion of argemone oil derived from the seeds of Argemone mexicana Linn. Exposure to argemone oil is usually inadvertent, arising from mustard cooking oil adulteration. Sanguinarine, an alkaloid present in argemone oil, has been postulated as a causative agent with the severity of epidemic dropsy correlating with plasma sanguinarine levels. Cases of epidemic dropsy have also been reported following the topical application of argemone containing massage oil. Black salve, a topical skin cancer therapy also contains sanguinarine, but at significantly higher concentrations than that reported for contaminated massage oil. Although not reported to date, a theoretical risk therefore exists of black salve inducing epidemic dropsy. This literature review explores the presentation and pathophysiology of epidemic dropsy and assesses the risk of it being induced by black salve.


Assuntos
Argemone/química , Benzofenantridinas/toxicidade , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Isoquinolinas/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Animais , Benzofenantridinas/sangue , Benzofenantridinas/isolamento & purificação , Edema/sangue , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Isoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
18.
Reprod Toxicol ; 77: 143-153, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522798

RESUMO

Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose. At non-lethal doses, AYA enhanced embryolethality and the incidence of foetal soft-tissue and skeleton anomalies. This study suggested that AYA is developmentally toxic and that its daily use by pregnant women may pose risks for the conceptus.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Bebidas/toxicidade , Alucinógenos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anormalidades , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Esqueleto/anormalidades , Esqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/anormalidades , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureter/anormalidades , Ureter/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/anormalidades , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(4): 516-555, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). METHODS: Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. RESULTS: Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. CONCLUSION: The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Caulophyllum/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Humanos , Pausinystalia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , Withania/toxicidade
20.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(4): 556-581, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981366

RESUMO

A current listing of potentially life-threatening, cancer-related dietary supplements (DSs; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports was summarized in online tables that can now be updated continually to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and DS companies. Documented PubMed case reports were used to create a "Toxic Table" related to cancer (1966 to April 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "cancer" as well as the specific herb "name" combined with "cancer" and sometimes "toxicity." Excluded were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, fungi (mycotoxins from molds and mushrooms), poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herb interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases related to cancer. Also included were a few foods related to cancer. Over the past 50+ years, PubMed case reports revealed an increased risk of cancer related to approximately one herb (guang fang ji), no dietary supplements (except those containing guang fang ji or aristolochic acid), and two foods (bracken fern, which is sometimes sold as an herbal supplement, and hot maté). This online "Toxic Table" can now be continually updated to assist researchers and clinicians in preventing serious adverse events from DSs related to cancer.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Aloe/toxicidade , Animais , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/toxicidade , Confrei/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
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