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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

RESUMO

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fosfatos , Potássio , Radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/fisiopatologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Cuidados Críticos , Hematologia , Medicina Interna , Oncologia
2.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 10 20.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107585

RESUMO

The prescription of medicines is one of the most common acts performed by physicians. Yet, several studies have shown that junior doctors are not well prepared for the task. The teaching of basic and clinical pharmacology varies greatly between universities, both within Sweden and in Europe. National prescribing exams have been introduced in the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium, and there is an on-going project to develop a European exam, focusing on a list of essential medicines and patient safety. With the new six year curriculum for medical education in Sweden, the license to prescribe could be linked to a national prescribing exam, to ensure good knowledge of both therapeutics and Swedish drug regulation.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Farmacologia Clínica , Currículo , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Farmacologia Clínica/educação , Suécia
3.
Tex Med ; 116(10): 38-39, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126269

RESUMO

Now that Texas prescribers must check a patient's history in the state's prescription monitoring program (PMP) before prescribing opioids, plus three other drug classes, the errors are becoming more apparent.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Prescrições , Humanos , Texas
4.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 1001-1007, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055313

RESUMO

Objectives The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy, especially in Lombardy and Bergamo city, represented probably nowadays one of the first major clusters of COVID-19 in the world. The aim of this report is to describe the activity of Bergamo Teratology Information Service (TIS) in supporting the public and health-care personnel in case of drug prescriptions in suspected/confirmed COVID-19 pregnant and lactating patients during COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Methods All Bergamo TIS requests concerning COVID-19 pregnant and lactating women have been retrospectively evaluated from 1 March to 15 April 2020. Type of medications, drug's safety profile and compatibility with pregnancy and lactation are reported. Results Our service received information calls concerning 48 (9 pregnant, 35 lactating) patients. Among pregnant and lactating women, the requests of information were related to 16 and 60 drugs prescriptions respectively. More than half concerned drugs prescriptions during the first and second trimester (13/16) and during the first six months of lactation (37/60). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were the most involved. Conclusions Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin at dosages used for COVID-19 may be considered compatible and reasonably safe either in pregnancy and lactation. Antivirals may be considered acceptable in pregnancy. During lactation lopinavir and ritonavir probably exhibit some supportive data from literature that darunavir and cobicistat do not. Tocilizumab may be considered for COVID-19 treatment because no increased malformation rate were observed until now. However caution may be advised because human data are limited and the potential risk of embryo-fetal toxicity cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Adulto , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Congênitas , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Itália , Troca Materno-Fetal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Teratologia
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 111-118, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119574

RESUMO

This article discusses the three types of nurse prescriber currently registered in New Zealand (nurse practitioners, registered nurse prescribers (RNP) in primary health and specialty teams and registered nurse prescribers (RNPCH) in community health). It also provides an overview of the evolution of each group, as well as a summary of the current legislation, prescribing restrictions and models of supervision required for each type of prescriber.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Regulamentação Governamental , Legislação de Medicamentos , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/história , Nova Zelândia , Profissionais de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
8.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e372-e374, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the change in the daily number of patients receiving buprenorphine and buprenorphine prescribers during the early phase of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Texas. METHODS: Counts of the number of patients filling and number of providers prescribing buprenorphine were calculated for each weekday between November 4, 2019 and May 12, 2020. The change in daily patients and prescribers between March 2, 2020 and May 12, 2020, was modeled as a change in slope compared to the baseline period using autoregressive, interrupted time series regression. RESULTS: The rate of change of daily buprenorphine prescriptions (ß = -1.75, 95% CI = -5.8-2.34) and prescribers (ß = -0.32, 95% CI = -1.47-0.82) declined insignificantly during the COVID-19 period compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a 57% decline in ambulatory care utilization in the south-central US during March and April of 2020, health services utilization related to buprenorphine in Texas remained robust. Protecting access to buprenorphine as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold will require intensive efforts from clinicians and policy makers alike. While the presented results are promising, researchers must continue monitoring and exploring the clinical and humanistic impact of COVID-19 on the treatment of substance use disorders.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Texas
9.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1353-1354, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021666
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Is national healthcare performance associated with country-level characteristics, and if so what are the implications for international health policy? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared Hofstede's six cultural dimensions against relative health systems performance of 35 countries. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified best-matched groupings of countries. Performance was measured by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD's) Health at a Glance indicators data framework (five dimensions with 57 indicators) and the United Nations' (UNs') Sustainability Development Goals (SDG) data set (15 indicators). Three country clusters emerged: Collective-Pyramidal (n = 9: comprising Slovak Republic, Mexico, Poland, Greece, Spain, Turkey, Portugal, Chile, and Slovenia); Collaborative-Networked (n = 12: UK, Canada, Australia, USA, Ireland, New Zealand, Netherlands, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden); and Orderly-Future Orientated (n = 14: Korea, Estonia, Latvia, Austria, Israel, Japan, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland). The Collaborative-Networked cluster had significantly better performing health systems measured by both the Health at a Glance and SDG performance data, followed by the Orderly-Future Orientated cluster, followed by the Collective-Pyramidal cluster. The Collaborative-Networked Cluster was characterized by low power distance (e.g., greater levels of equity), low uncertainty avoidance (e.g., toleration of others' opinions), individualism (e.g., self-reliance) and indulgence (e.g., drives and norms to enjoy life and have fun). CONCLUSIONS: National cultures are associated with healthcare performance on two key international measures. In national and international efforts to improve health system performance, cultural characteristics play an important role. This information may be of value to regulators, policymakers, researchers and clinicians examining the practical impact of culture on healthcare performance.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise por Conglomerados , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos
12.
Med J Aust ; 213(7): 316-320, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the level of dispensing of oral corticosteroids (OCS) for managing asthma in Australia, with a particular focus on the cumulative dispensing of doses associated with long term toxicity (≥ 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; analysis of 10% random sample of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing data. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: People aged 12 years or more treated for asthma during 2014-2018, according to dispensing of controller inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of people dispensed OCS for managing asthma during 2014-2018; proportion who were cumulatively dispensed at least 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent. The secondary outcome was the number of people dispensed at least 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent during 2018, stratified by inhaler controller dose and use. RESULTS: 124 011 people had been dispensed at least two prescriptions of ICS during 2014-2018 and met the study definition for asthma, of whom 64 112 (51.7%) had also been dispensed OCS, including 34 580 (27.9% of the asthma group) cumulatively dispensed 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent or more. Of 138 073 people dispensed OCS at this level, 68 077 (49%) were patients with airway diseases. Dispensing of diabetes and osteoporosis medications was more common for people cumulatively dispensed 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent or more. During 2018, 4633 people with asthma using high dose ICS controllers were dispensed 1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent or more, for 2316 of whom (50%) controller use was inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative exposure to OCS in Australia reaches levels associated with toxicity in one-quarter of patients with asthma using ICS. Cumulative dispensing of potentially toxic OCS amounts often accompanies inadequate inhaler controller dispensing. Better approaches are needed to improve adherence to controller therapy, improve outcomes for people with asthma, and to minimise the use and toxicity of OCS.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/toxicidade , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/toxicidade , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This comprehensive review examined sex differences in prescription rates and efficacy or effectiveness of pharmacotherapy treatment in girls and women with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while identifying gaps in the scientific knowledge on this topic. METHOD: A rigorous electronic database search was carried out in order to identify all published studies on female-specific effects of stimulants and non-stimulants in the treatment of ADHD. In total, 2672 studies were screened of which 21 studies (seven on prescription rates, 14 on effects of pharmacotherapy) met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. RESULTS: In all seven studies on ADHD prescription rates, girls received significantly less prescriptions than boys, a difference however no longer seen in adults with the exception of one study. Each of the 14 studies on effectiveness / efficacy found at least one sex-difference in the effects of ADHD pharmacotherapy. CONCLUSION: Several sex-differences are demonstrated in the prescription, usage and efficacy /effectiveness of both stimulant and non-stimulant ADHD pharmacotherapy. A single daily use of MPH may possibly not be optimal for girls with ADHD and ATX may be a promising medication for girls and women with ADHD. The robustness of this result requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sports Health ; 12(6): 528-533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid prescribing patterns play an important role in the opioid epidemic in the United States. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends and geographic variation in opioid prescribing patterns after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS: Regional differences in opioid prescribing patterns after ACL reconstruction are present. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: The Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims database was used to analyze all patients with perioperative private insurance coverage who underwent ACL reconstruction from January 1, 2010, to November 31, 2017. Total number and morphine milligram equivalents per day (MMED) of opioid prescriptions were examined, and regional and statewide variation was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 90,068 ACL reconstruction patients who underwent surgery between 2010 and 2017 were included in the study. Overall, 67% received an opioid prescription within 30 days of surgery and 17% received an opioid prescription ≥90 MMED. The West (20%) had the highest proportion of patients with an opioid prescription ≥90 MMED and the Northeast had the lowest (12%), P < 0.001. The number of opioid prescriptions as well as proportion of opioid prescriptions ≥90 MMED varied significantly by state, P < 0.001. There was a significant increase in number of opioid prescriptions from 2010 to 2017 (62% in 2010 and 83% in 2017; P < 0.001). A significant change in the proportion of patients being prescribed ≥90 MMED was also present (P = 0.04; 15% in 2010, 17% in 2011, 17% 2012, 17% in 2013, 15% in 2014, 20% in 2015, 18% in 2016, and 15% in 2017). CONCLUSION: This study shows a trend of increasing opioid prescriptions and geographic variations in the amount and MMED of opioid prescriptions for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. These data highlight several areas of improvement that state officials and national entities can use to help curb the opioid epidemic and underscore the importance of national guidelines for opioid prescribing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge of prescribing patterns after specific procedures may help provide more direct insight and guidance to surgeons and patients regarding postoperative pain management.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/efeitos adversos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(4): 734-741, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current rates of opioid prescribing have deleterious consequences on both patient and societal levels. This study aims to evaluate responsible opioid prescribing and predictors of opioid consumption in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing consultation for immediate, implant-based breast reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective, cohort survey study. A survey was administered at the preoperative and postoperative appointment to collect data on pain expectations and opioid use. A medical record review was performed. RESULTS: Of 100 enrolled patients, 97 (97.0 percent) underwent surgery and 85 (85.0 percent) completed the postoperative survey. Preoperatively, 27 patients (27.0 percent) had a history of a chronic pain syndrome, 34 (34.0 percent) had a history of a mental health comorbidity, and nine (9.0 percent) had a history of active preoperative opioid use. A total of 85 tissue expander (87.6 percent) and 12 direct-to-implant (12.4 percent) reconstructions were completed. Patients were prescribed an average of 36.0 5-mg oxycodone tablets postoperatively. Patients reported consuming an average of 20.6 tablets, or 57.0 percent of the average prescription amount. The majority of patients (75.3 percent) reported taking an opioid less than once per day at the time of survey completion, and 24 patients (28.2 percent) reported that they did not use any opioids postoperatively. Preoperative opioid use (p = 0.004), inpatient opioid consumption (p < 0.0001), and patient-reported anxiety related to pain control (p < 0.05) were predictors of opioid consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing mastectomy and implant-based breast reconstruction are prescribed nearly twice as many opioid tablets as consumed, and one in three patients report not using any opioids postoperatively. Clinical factors may help guide prescribing practices. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Implante Mamário , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastectomia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003308, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns over the safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been raised. We studied whether use of NSAIDs was associated with adverse outcomes and mortality during SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using Danish administrative and health registries. We included individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period 27 February 2020 to 29 April 2020. NSAID users (defined as individuals having filled a prescription for NSAIDs up to 30 days before the SARS-CoV-2 test) were matched to up to 4 non-users on calendar week of the test date and propensity scores based on age, sex, relevant comorbidities, and use of selected prescription drugs. The main outcome was 30-day mortality, and NSAID users were compared to non-users using risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs). Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and acute renal replacement therapy. A total of 9,236 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive individuals were eligible for inclusion. The median age in the study cohort was 50 years, and 58% were female. Of these, 248 (2.7%) had filled a prescription for NSAIDs, and 535 (5.8%) died within 30 days. In the matched analyses, treatment with NSAIDs was not associated with 30-day mortality (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.82, p = 0.95; RD 0.1%, 95% CI -3.5% to 3.7%, p = 0.95), risk of hospitalization (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.53, p = 0.31; RD 3.3%, 95% CI -3.4% to 10%, p = 0.33), ICU admission (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.02, p = 0.90; RD 0.2%, 95% CI -3.0% to 3.4%, p = 0.90), mechanical ventilation (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.56 to 2.30, p = 0.72; RD 0.5%, 95% CI -2.5% to 3.6%, p = 0.73), or renal replacement therapy (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.24 to 3.09, p = 0.81; RD -0.2%, 95% CI -2.0% to 1.6%, p = 0.81). The main limitations of the study are possible exposure misclassification, as not all individuals who fill an NSAID prescription use the drug continuously, and possible residual confounding by indication, as NSAIDs may generally be prescribed to healthier individuals due to their side effects, but on the other hand may also be prescribed for early symptoms of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Use of NSAIDs was not associated with 30-day mortality, hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or renal replacement therapy in Danish individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies EUPAS34734.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dinamarca , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22023, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or combined with western medicine in the treatment of pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy has been widely used in clinical practice, but the overall efficacy and safety is still unclear. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety analysis of TCM or combined with western medicine for pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy. METHODS: PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and China biomedical literature database (CBM) were searched for randomized controlled trials of TCM or combined with western medicine for pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy from the date of establishment to July 2020, and Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR) were searched for unpublished grey literature. Two researchers independently applied RevMan 5.3 software for data extraction and risk assessment of bias. RESULTS: The effectiveness and safety of TCM or combined with western medicine for pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy is evaluated by means of the Adenoid (A) /(Nasopharyngeal (N) ratio, clinical efficacy, integral score of TCM syndromes, clinical single symptom score, disease specific quality of life for children with obstructive sleep apnea 18 items survey (OSA-18), Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and adverse reaction incidence. CONCLUSION: This study will provide theoretical support for the clinical application of TCM or combined with western medicine for pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/J76AG.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hipertrofia/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-4/sangue , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Segurança , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22039, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies found that the combination of traditional Chinese herbal formula, and western medicine therapy are better in shrinking fibroids and improve other symptoms. This study aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine in the treatment of uterine fibroids. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine for uterine fibroids patients will be searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, Chinese Biological and Medical database (CMB), and Wanfang database from inception to August 2020. Two researchers will perform data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently. Statistical analysis will be conducted in RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: This study will summarize the present evidence by exploring the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine in the treatment of uterine fibroids CONCLUSIONS:: The findings of the study will help to determine potential benefits of traditional Chinese herbal formula combined with western medicine in the treatment of uterine fibroids. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also will not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval is not required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/XUA8V.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 84-95, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994619

RESUMO

AIMS: Global trends show an increase in medication dispensing for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young people over time. The current study aimed to examine whether similar trends were observed in New Zealand youth over the period of 2007/08 to 2016/17. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence in ADHD medication dispensing using national pharmaceutical data for each fiscal year from 2007/08 to 2016/17 in approximately 2.4 million New Zealand youth aged 1-24 years. We also examined whether trends varied by sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: The total dispensing prevalence almost doubled from 516 per 100,000 to 996 per 100,000 over the study period. Males had a consistently higher dispensing prevalence relative to females. Young people aged 7-17 years had the highest dispensing prevalence. The most deprived quintile had a slightly lower dispensing prevalence relative to other quintiles. Ethnic differences in dispensing prevalence were apparent, with deprivation differences also existing within most ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study showed an increase in ADHD medication use by young people in New Zealand, similar to international findings. Further research is needed into why disparities in dispensing prevalence occur across ethnic and socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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