Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 107.020
Filtrar
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favorable influences of saffron supplementation on metabolic diseases have previously been shown. We aimed to assess the effects of saffron supplementation on blood pressure in adults. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the effect of saffron supplementation on blood pressure in adults up to March 2021. The primary search yielded 182 publications, of which eight RCTs were eligible. RESULTS: Our results showed that saffron supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference (WMD): -0.65 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.18, p = 0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: -1.23 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.64 to -0.81, p < 0.001). Moreover, saffron supplementation reduced DBP in a non-linear fashion, based on duration (r = -2.45, p-nonlinearity = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Saffron supplementation may significantly improve both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. It should be noted that the hypotensive effects of saffron supplementation were small and may not reach clinical importance.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Crocus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444956

RESUMO

Curcumin, a curcuminoid known as the main bioactive compound of turmeric, is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Amlodipine is a general antihypertensive drug used in combination with various other antihypertensive agents. To date, no studies have examined the effects of the co-administration of amlodipine with curcumin. In this study, the vasodilatory effects of curcumin, amlodipine, and the co-administration of curcumin with amlodipine on isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine were evaluated, and the hypotensive effects were evaluated using the tail cuff method. To measure blood pressure, male spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into four groups, each containing six rats, as follows: amlodipine 1 mg/kg alone treated, amlodipine 1 mg/kg with curcumin 30 mg/kg treated, amlodipine 1 mg/kg with curcumin 100 mg/kg treated, and amlodipine 1 mg/kg with curcumin 300 mg/kg treated groups. Amlodipine and curcumin were intraperitoneally injected, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after administration. The combined administration of curcumin and amlodipine induced a stronger vasorelaxant effect than amlodipine alone. However, co-administration did not significantly lower SBP and DBP compared to the single administration of amlodipine. The results of this study suggest that hypertensive patients taking amlodipine can consume curcumin or turmeric for food or other medical purposes without inhibiting the blood pressure-lowering effect of amlodipine.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371884

RESUMO

The dietary supplement, trans-resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP), induces expression of glyoxalase 1, countering the accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl glycating agent, methylglyoxal (MG), in overweight and obese subjects. tRES-HESP produced reversal of insulin resistance, improving dysglycemia and low-grade inflammation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Herein, we report further analysis of study variables. MG metabolism-related variables correlated with BMI, dysglycemia, vascular inflammation, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. With tRES-HESP treatment, plasma MG correlated negatively with endothelial independent arterial dilatation (r = -0.48, p < 0.05) and negatively with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) quinone reductase activity (r = -0.68, p < 0.05)-a marker of the activation status of transcription factor Nrf2. For change from baseline of PBMC gene expression with tRES-HESP treatment, Glo1 expression correlated negatively with change in the oral glucose tolerance test area-under-the-curve plasma glucose (ΔAUGg) (r = -0.56, p < 0.05) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) correlated positively with ΔAUGg (r = 0.59, p < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) correlated positively with change in fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and negatively with change in insulin sensitivity (r = -0.68, p < 0.01). These correlations were not present with placebo. tRES-HESP decreased low-grade inflammation, characterized by decreased expression of CCL2, COX-2, IL-8, and RAGE. Changes in CCL2, IL-8, and RAGE were intercorrelated and all correlated positively with changes in MLXIP, MAFF, MAFG, NCF1, and FTH1, and negatively with changes in HMOX1 and TKT; changes in IL-8 also correlated positively with change in COX-2. Total urinary excretion of tRES and HESP metabolites were strongly correlated. These findings suggest tRES-HESP counters MG accumulation and protein glycation, decreasing activation of the unfolded protein response and expression of TXNIP and TNFα, producing reversal of insulin resistance. tRES-HESP is suitable for further evaluation for treatment of insulin resistance and related disorders.


Assuntos
Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/terapia , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Aldeído Pirúvico/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444905

RESUMO

Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is marketed in the U.S. as a dietary supplement. USP conducted a comprehensive safety evaluation of GABA by assessing clinical studies, adverse event information, and toxicology data. Clinical studies investigated the effect of pure GABA as a dietary supplement or as a natural constituent of fermented milk or soy matrices. Data showed no serious adverse events associated with GABA at intakes up to 18 g/d for 4 days and in longer studies at intakes of 120 mg/d for 12 weeks. Some studies showed that GABA was associated with a transient and moderate drop in blood pressure (<10% change). No studies were available on effects of GABA during pregnancy and lactation, and no case reports or spontaneous adverse events associated with GABA were found. Chronic administration of GABA to rats and dogs at doses up to 1 g/kg/day showed no signs of toxicity. Because some studies showed that GABA was associated with decreases in blood pressure, it is conceivable that concurrent use of GABA with anti-hypertensive medications could increase risk of hypotension. Caution is advised for pregnant and lactating women since GABA can affect neurotransmitters and the endocrine system, i.e., increases in growth hormone and prolactin levels.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/química , Gravidez , Ratos , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Estados Unidos
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443434

RESUMO

The aerial part of Biebersteinia heterostemon Maxim. (Geraniaceae Biebersteiniaceae) known as ming jian na bao in Chinese, has been traditionally used in Tibetan folk medicine for treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of galegine obtained from an ethanol extract of the entire Biebersteinia heterostemon plant on the rat's cardiovascular system in order to characterize its contributions as an antihypertensive agent. The antihypertensive effect of galegine was investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized hypertensive rats at three dose levels based on the LD50 of galegine. Meanwhile a positive control group received dimaprit with the same procedure. Dimaprit infusion induced a significant hypotension which declined by an average margin of 20%. Simultaneously, single administration of galegine at the doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection induced an immediate and dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) by an average margin of 40% with a rapid increase in heart rate (HR). We demonstrated that galegine is effective in reducing blood pressure in anesthetized hypertensive rats with rapid onset and a dose-related duration of the effects. The results indicate that galegine was the bioactive compound which can be used as a pharmacophore to design new hypertensive agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Magnoliopsida/química , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dimaprit/farmacologia , Feminino , Guanidinas/química , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444711

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Berberine, a long-standing, widely used, traditional Chinese medicine, is thought to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mechanisms and effects, specifically in men, possibly via testosterone, have not been examined previously. To assess the effect of berberine on CVD risk factors and any potential pathway via testosterone in men, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial in Hong Kong. In total, 84 eligible Chinese men with hyperlipidemia were randomized to berberine (500 mg orally, twice a day) or placebo for 12 weeks. CVD risk factors (lipids, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio) and testosterone were assessed at baseline, and 8 and 12 weeks after intervention. We compared changes in CVD risk factors and testosterone after 12 weeks of intervention using analysis of variance, and after 8 and 12 weeks using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Of the 84 men randomized, 80 men completed the trial. Men randomized to berberine had larger reductions in total cholesterol (-0.39 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to -0.08) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) after 12 weeks. Considering changes after 8 and 12 weeks together, berberine lowered total cholesterol and possibly low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and possibly increased testosterone. Changes in triglycerides, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio after the intervention did not differ between the berberine and placebo groups. No serious adverse event was reported. Berberine is a promising treatment for lowering cholesterol. Berberine did not lower testosterone but instead may increase testosterone in men, suggesting sex-specific effects of berberine. Exploring other pathways and assessing sex differences would be worthwhile, with relevance to drug repositioning and healthcare.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/sangue , Tromboxano A2/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril
9.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(6): 462-471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Neurology on primary and secondary stroke prevention in patients with arterial hypertension. DEVELOPMENT: We proposed several questions to identify practical issues for the management of blood pressure (BP) in stroke prevention, analysing the objectives of blood pressure control, which drugs are most appropriate in primary prevention, when antihypertensive treatment should be started after a stroke, what levels we should aim to achieve, and which drugs are most appropriate in secondary stroke prevention. We conducted a systematic review of the PubMed database and analysed the main clinical trials to address these questions and establish a series of recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: In primary stroke prevention, antihypertensive treatment should be started in patients with BP levels >  140/90 mmHg, with a target BP of < 130/80 mmHg. In secondary stroke prevention, we recommend starting antihypertensive treatment after the acute phase (first 24 hours), with a target BP of < 130/80 mmHg. The use of angiotensin-II receptor antagonists or diuretics alone or in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is preferable.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Neurologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105959, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of continuous infusion (CIV)-labetalol compared to -nicardipine in controlling blood pressure (BP) in the acute stroke setting. MATERIALS: Patients were eligible if they had a diagnosis of an acute stroke and were administered either CIV-labetalol or CIV-nicardipine. Study outcomes were assessed within the first 24 h of the antihypertensive infusion. RESULTS: A total of 3,093 patients were included with 3,008 patients in the CIV-nicardipine group and 85 in the CIV-labetalol group. No significant difference was observed in percent time at goal BP between the nicardipine (82%) and labetalol (85%) groups (p = 0.351). There was also no difference in BP variability between nicardipine (37%) and labetalol (39%) groups (p = 0.433). Labetalol was found to have a shorter time to goal BP as compared to nicardipine (24 min vs. 40 min; p = 0.021). While CIV-nicardipine did have a higher incidence of tachycardia compared to labetalol (17% vs. 4%; p <0.001), the incidence of hypotension (13% vs. 15%; p = 0.620) and bradycardia (24% vs. 22%; p = 0.797) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CIV-labetalol and CIV-nicardipine are comparable in safety and efficacy in controlling BP for patients with acute stroke.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Labetalol/administração & dosagem , Nicardipino/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Labetalol/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicardipino/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(3): 723-732, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231218

RESUMO

We sought to identify genome-wide variants influencing antihypertensive drug response and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, utilizing data from four randomized controlled trials in the International Consortium for Antihypertensive Pharmacogenomics Studies (ICAPS). Genome-wide antihypertensive drug-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interaction tests for four drug classes (ß-blockers, n = 9,195; calcium channel blockers (CCBs), n = 10,511; thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics, n = 3,516; ACE-inhibitors/ARBs, n = 2,559) and cardiovascular outcomes (incident myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) were analyzed among patients with hypertension of European ancestry. Top SNPs from the meta-analyses were tested for replication of cardiovascular outcomes in an independent Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) study (n = 21,267), blood pressure (BP) response in independent ICAPS studies (n = 1,552), and ethnic validation in African Americans from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment study (GenHAT; n = 5,115). One signal reached genome-wide significance in the ß-blocker-SNP interaction analysis (rs139945292, Interaction P = 1.56 × 10-8 ). rs139945292 was validated through BP response to ß-blockers, with the T-allele associated with less BP reduction (systolic BP response P = 6 × 10-4 , Beta = 3.09, diastolic BP response P = 5 × 10-3 , Beta = 1.53). The T-allele was also associated with increased adverse cardiovascular risk within the ß-blocker treated patients' subgroup (P = 2.35 × 10-4 , odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.99). The locus showed nominal replication in CHARGE, and consistent directional trends in ß-blocker treated African Americans. rs139945292 is an expression quantitative trait locus for the 50 kb upstream gene NTM (neurotrimin). No SNPs attained genome-wide significance for any other drugs classes. Top SNPs were located near CALB1 (CCB), FLJ367777 (ACE-inhibitor), and CES5AP1 (thiazide). The NTM region is associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and less BP reduction in ß-blocker treated patients. Further investigation into this region is warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R364-R376, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259017

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a spontaneously occurring pregnancy complication diagnosed by new-onset hypertension and end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria. This pregnancy-specific syndrome contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality and can have detrimental effects on fetal outcomes. Preeclampsia is also linked to increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease throughout life. Despite intense investigation of this disorder, few treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of maternal l-citrulline supplementation on pregnancy-specific vascular dysfunction in the male C57BL/6J × female C57BL/6J C1q-/- preeclampsia-like mouse model. l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that is converted to l-arginine to promote smooth muscle and blood vessel relaxation and improve nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vascular function. To model a preeclampsia-like pregnancy, female C57BL/6J mice were mated to C1q-/- male mice, and a subset of dams was supplemented with l-citrulline throughout pregnancy. Blood pressure, systemic vascular glycocalyx, and ex vivo vascular function were investigated in late pregnancy, and postpartum at 6 and 10 mo of age. Main findings show that l-citrulline reduced blood pressure, increased vascular glycocalyx volume, and rescued ex-vivo vascular function at gestation day 17.5 in this preeclampsia-like model. The vascular benefit of l-citrulline also extended postpartum, with improved vascular function and glycocalyx measures at 6 and 10 mo of age. l-Citrulline-mediated vascular improvements appear, in part, attributable to NO pathway signaling. Taken together, l-citrulline supplementation during pregnancy appears to have beneficial effects on maternal vascular health, which may have translational implications for improved maternal cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Citrulina/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginina/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrulina/sangue , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204042

RESUMO

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with the primary objective of assessing the effect of a natural extract of Sclerocarya birrea on glucose metabolism in subjects with prediabetes. The duration of the study was 90 days. Thirty-three subjects assigned to the experimental group (daily ingestion of 100 mg of the nutraceutical product) and 34 assigned to the placebo group completed the study. There were 36 men and 31 women with a mean age of 32.3 ± 14.1 years. In the area under the curve (AUC) of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), statistically significant decreases in the experimental group at 40 and 90 days as compared with baseline were found, whereas significant changes in the placebo group were not observed. Within-group differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group for glucose peak at OGTT, serum insulin, insulin resistance markers, and flow-mediated dilation. Changes in lipid and anthropometric parameters were not observed, although there was a trend for lower cholesterol levels and a decrease in body weight in the experimental group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were also higher among subjects in the experimental group. This exploratory study confirms the antidiabetic activity of Sclerocarya birrea in prediabetes. Further studies using better measurements of beta-cell function are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the hypoglycemic effect of this natural compound.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are key immunomodulatory factors that can markedly ameliorate or exacerbate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We recently demonstrated that central infusion of the TLR7 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) following asphyxia was highly neuroprotective after 3 days but not 7 days of recovery. We hypothesize that this apparent transient neuroprotection is associated with modulation of seizure-genic processes and hemodynamic control. METHODS: Fetuses received sham asphyxia or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion (20.9 ± 0.5 min) and were monitored continuously for 7 days. GDQ 3.34 mg or vehicle were infused intracerebroventricularly from 1 to 4 h after asphyxia. RESULTS: GDQ infusion was associated with sustained moderate hypertension that resolved after 72 h recovery. Electrophysiologically, GDQ infusion was associated with reduced number and burden of postasphyxial seizures in the first 18 h of recovery (p < 0.05). Subsequently, GDQ was associated with induction of slow rhythmic epileptiform discharges (EDs) from 72 to 96 h of recovery (p < 0.05 vs asphyxia + vehicle). The total burden of EDs was associated with reduced numbers of neurons in the caudate nucleus (r2 = 0.61, p < 0.05) and CA1/2 hippocampal region (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that TLR7 activation by GDQ modulated blood pressure and suppressed seizures in the early phase of postasphyxial recovery, with subsequent prolonged induction of epileptiform activity. Speculatively, this may reflect delayed loss of early protection or contribute to differential neuronal survival in subcortical regions.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Terapias Fetais/métodos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Convulsões/etiologia , Ovinos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204250

RESUMO

Supplementation with anthocyanins, which are a type of flavonoids mainly found in various berries, is hypothesized to be a promising approach to lower the risk of developing cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of dietary intervention trials describing effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance in humans, while also addressing potential underlying mechanisms. A total of 1197 articles were identified through a systematic search, and 49 studies reporting effects on cognitive performance (n = 18), vascular function (n = 22), or cardiometabolic risk markers (n = 32) were included. Significant improvements were observed on memory, while some of the studies also reported effects on attention and psychomotor speed or executive function. Vascular function markers such as brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also affected and consistent evidence was provided for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on endothelial function. Finally, studies reported improvements in blood pressure, but effects on metabolic risk markers (e.g. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism) were less consistent. In conclusion, this review provides evidence for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance as memory improved. Whether observed anthocyanin-induced improvements in vascular function and blood pressure underlie beneficial effects on cognitive performance warrants further study.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105914, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of early recurrent cerebral infarction (RCI) is high in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (IAD). We sought to determine the relationship between risk factor control and early RCI risk among patients with symptomatic IAD. METHODS: We analyzed participants with symptomatic IAD in the multi-center prospective observational MYRIAD study. Risk factor control was assessed at 6-8-week follow-up. Optimal risk factor control was defined by target systolic blood pressure, being non-smoker, target physical activity, and antiplatelet and antilipidemic therapy compliance. Age-adjusted associations were calculated between risk factor control and RCI determined by MRI-evident new infarcts in the territory of the stenotic vessel at 6-8 weeks from the index event. RESULTS: Among 82 participants with clinical and brain MRI information available 6-8 weeks after the index event (mean age 63.5 ±12.5 years, 62.2% men), RCI occurred in 21 (25.6%) cases. At 6-8-week follow-up, 37.8% had target systolic blood pressure, 92.7% were non-smokers, 51.2% had target physical activity, and 98.8% and 86.6% were compliant with antiplatelet and antilipidemic therapy, respectively. Optimal risk factor control increased from 4.9% at baseline to 19.5% at 6-8-week follow-up (p=0.01). None of the participants with optimal risk factor control at follow-up had RCI (0% vs. 31.8%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only one-fifth of MYRIAD participants had optimal risk factor control during early follow-up. Approximately half and two-thirds had physical inactivity and uncontrolled systolic blood pressure, respectively. These risk factors may represent important therapeutic targets to prevent early RCI in patients with symptomatic IAD.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Infarto Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26412, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a kind of cardiovascular syndrome with the main clinical manifestation of continuous increase of systemic arterial blood pressure. Hypertension coexists with other cardiovascular risk factors and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Acupuncture is an important part of Traditional Chinese Medicine intervention. The antihypertensive effect of acupuncture on hypertension is based on the neuroendocrine system, characterized by multichannel and multitarget. This study aims to provide latest and updated proof of systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for hypertension. METHODS: We will systematically search 9 databases from their inceptions to February 2021. Only randomized controlled trials of acupuncture combined with western medicine in the treatment of hypertension will meet the inclusion criteria. The main outcome measures we focus on include clinical efficacy, syndrome efficacy, Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome score, diastolic and systolic blood pressure changes, blood pressure variability, heart rate variability, pulse rate variability, and adverse reactions. The research screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be employed by 2 reviewers independently, and disagreement will be decided by a third senior reviewer. The Revman 5.3 software will be used for meta-analysis. The confidence of proof will be rated adopting grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation tool and methodological quality of this research will be assessed using assessment of multiple systematic reviews-2 and risk of bias in systematic reviews. The publication quality will be evaluated by preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: This systematic review (SR) will provide evidence-based medical evidence for hypertension therapy by acupuncture combined with western medicine and we will submit the findings of this SR for peer-review publication. CONCLUSIONS: This SR will provide latest and updated summary proof for assessing the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for hypertension. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY 202150047.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063969

RESUMO

Potassium (K), the main cation inside cells, plays roles in maintaining cellular osmolarity and acid-base equilibrium, as well as nerve stimulation transmission, and regulation of cardiac and muscle functions. It has also recently been shown that K has an antihypertensive effect by promoting sodium excretion, while it is also attracting attention as an important component that can suppress hypertension associated with excessive sodium intake. Since most ingested K is excreted through the kidneys, decreased renal function is a major factor in increased serum levels, and target values for its intake according to the degree of renal dysfunction have been established. In older individuals with impaired renal function, not only hyperkalemia but also hypokalemia due to anorexia, K loss by dialysis, and effects of various drugs are likely to develop. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to K management tailored to individual conditions. Since abnormalities in K metabolism can also cause lethal arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death, it is extremely important to monitor patients with a high risk of hyper- or hypokalemia and attempt to provide early and appropriate intervention.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/metabolismo , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(1): H185-H196, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114892

RESUMO

We assessed the efficacy of oral supplementation with the flavanoid apigenin on arterial function during aging and identified critical mechanisms of action. Young (6 mo) and old (27 mo) C57BL/6N mice (model of arterial aging) consumed drinking water containing vehicle (0.2% carboxymethylcellulose; 10 young and 7 old) or apigenin (0.5 mg/mL in vehicle; 10 young and 9 old) for 6 wk. In vehicle-treated animals, isolated carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), bioassay of endothelial function, was impaired in old versus young (70% ± 9% vs. 92% ± 1%, P < 0.0001) due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Old mice had greater arterial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress (higher nitrotyrosine) associated with greater nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (oxidant enzyme) and lower superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (antioxidant enzymes); ex vivo administration of Tempol (antioxidant) restored EDD to young levels, indicating ROS-mediated suppression of EDD. Old animals also had greater aortic stiffness as indicated by higher aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, 434 ± 9 vs. 346 ± 5 cm/s, P < 0.0001) due to greater intrinsic aortic wall stiffness associated with lower elastin levels and higher collagen, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and proinflammatory cytokine abundance. In old mice, apigenin restored EDD (96% ± 2%) by increasing NO bioavailability, normalized arterial ROS, oxidative stress, and antioxidant expression, and abolished ROS inhibition of EDD. Moreover, apigenin prevented foam cell formation in vitro (initiating step in atherosclerosis) and mitigated age-associated aortic stiffening (PWV 373 ± 5 cm/s) by normalizing aortic intrinsic wall stiffness, collagen, elastin, AGEs, and inflammation. Thus, apigenin is a promising therapeutic for arterial aging.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence that oral apigenin supplementation can reverse two clinically important indicators of arterial dysfunction with age, namely, vascular endothelial dysfunction and large elastic artery stiffening, and prevents foam cell formation in an established cell culture model of early atherosclerosis. Importantly, our results provide extensive insight into the biological mechanisms of apigenin action, including increased nitric oxide bioavailability, normalization of age-related increases in arterial ROS production and oxidative stress, reversal of age-associated aortic intrinsic mechanical wall stiffening and adverse remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and suppression of vascular inflammation. Given that apigenin is commercially available as a dietary supplement in humans, these preclinical findings provide the experimental basis for future translational studies assessing the potential of apigenin to treat arterial dysfunction and reduce cardiovascular disease risk with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espirostanos/farmacologia , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...