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1.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 211, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal models and, in particular, mice models, are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases and to test potential new therapeutic drugs. Lung function measurement is a key step in such investigation. In mice, it is usually performed using forced oscillation technique (FOT), negative pressure-driven forced expiratory (NPFE) and pressure-volume (PV) curve maneuvers. However, these techniques require a tracheostomy, which therefore only allows end-point measurements. Orotracheal intubation has been reported to be feasible and to give reproducible lung function measurements, but the agreement between intubation and tracheostomy generated-data remains to be tested. METHODS: Using the Flexivent system, we measured lung function parameters (in particular, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first 0.1 s (FEV0.1), compliance (Crs) of the respiratory system, compliance (C) measured using PV loop and an estimate of inspiratory capacity (A)) in healthy intubated BALB/cJ mice and C57BL/6 J mice and compared the results with similar measurements performed in the same mice subsequently tracheostomized after intubation, by means of paired comparison method, correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. The feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by intubation was also tested. RESULTS: We identified parameters that are accurately evaluated in intubated animals (i.e., FVC, FEV0.1, Crs, C and A in BALB/cJ and FVC, FEV0.1, and A in C57BL/6 J). Repetitive lung function measurements were obtained in C57BL/6 J mice. CONCLUSION: This subset of lung function parameters in orotracheally intubated mice is reliable, thereby allowing relevant longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal , Testes de Função Respiratória/normas , Pressão do Ar , Animais , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado , Complacência Pulmonar , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traqueostomia , Capacidade Vital
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370375

RESUMO

The paper presents, for the first time, corneal buckling, during the air puff applanation, recorded with use of Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), when the cornea is deeper deformed after its applanation. Precise numerical analysis of the air pressure curve from the raw data, distinct local disturbances of the curve, which appear almost exactly at the time of the first and the second applanations. Thirty measurements taken on six eyes show clear dependencies between times of both applanations and appearances of local wave disturbances on the air pressure curve as well as between the amplitude of pressure wave disturbances and the respective height of applanation curve. These findings can be interpreted as a result of very fast corneal buckling, that produces the air pressure wave, propagating from the cornea towards the device. The quantitative dependencies measured and described in this study, enable to characterize the individual buckling during respective applanations. Due to these individual characterizations and dependencies it is possible to understand and describe better the ultrafast corneal applanation process. Such phenomena could likely be employed to increase the accuracy of measured parameters by ORA or for identifying new types of biomechanical properties of the cornea.


Assuntos
Córnea/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão do Ar , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Tonometria Ocular
3.
Int J Pharm ; 569: 118548, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374240

RESUMO

The present study demonstrated the prediction of predominant root causes of capping behavior as a function of the powder rheological and the mechanical behavior of Acetaminophen (APAP) and Ibuprofen (IBU). The authors analyzed powder rheological properties for powder blend permeability, pressure drop, and cohesion. The measured deformation properties were compact porosity, internal air pressure, Brinell hardness, and tensile strength. The data were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regression (PCR) models, respectively, to identify the effect of powder air entrapment efficiency and mechanical behavior on the tablet capping score. The PCA model indicated that pressure drop, cohesion, API amount, and compression pressure correlated positively, whereas permeability, porosity, internal air pressure, Brinell hardness, and tensile strength correlated negatively to the capping potential. APAP and IBU also showed two independent mechanisms as a function of their amount on the capping score at all compression pressures. APAP and IBU followed an exponential and linear relationship, respectively. Furthermore, the dominant powder rheological and deformation behavior affecting the capping score of each material was identified and quantified using two separate PCR models. These models showed that APAP capping was predominantly dependent on its powder properties, while that of IBU was predominantly based on its deformation properties. In conclusion, APAP and IBU compacts capping had respective air induced and deformation induced capping behavior. The proposed approach can aid in understanding the underlying mechanisms of capping and developing an effective, optimized strategy to ensure tablet quality.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Pressão do Ar , Análise Multivariada , Porosidade , Pós , Análise de Componente Principal , Reologia , Comprimidos , Resistência à Tração
4.
A A Pract ; 13(7): 257-259, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206378

RESUMO

One of the many safety features of modern day anesthesia machines is the adjustable pressure limiting (APL) valve. This device regulates pressure within the anesthesia circuit during manual ventilation with the anesthesia bag. We report an unusual case where a crack in the APL valve allowed release of pressure from within the circuit resulting in ineffective bag-valve-mask ventilation of an infant. The appropriate steps to prevent such issues are reviewed, and an algorithm to quickly identify such intraoperative problems is presented.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Pressão do Ar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Lactente , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Resultado do Tratamento , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163581

RESUMO

(1) Background: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades heme and generates carbon monoxide (CO), producing various anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aimed to confirm the effects of CO on the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of donor lungs using a high-pressure gas (HPG) preservation method. (2) Methods: Donor rat and canine lungs were preserved in a chamber filled with CO (1.5 atm) and oxygen (O2; 2 atm) and were ventilated with either CO and O2 mixture (CO/O2 group) or air (air group) immediately before storage. Rat lungs were subjected to heterotopic cervical transplantation and evaluated after reperfusion, whereas canine lungs were subjected to allogeneic transplantation and evaluated. (3) Results: Alveolar hemorrhage in the CO/O2 group was significantly milder than that in the air group. mRNA expression levels of HO-1 remained unchanged in both the groups; however, inflammatory mediator levels were significantly lower in the CO/O2 group than in the air group. The oxygenation of graft lungs was comparable between the two groups, but lactic acid level tended to be higher in the air group. (4) Conclusions: The HO-1/CO system in the HPG preservation method is effective in suppressing IRI and preserving donor lungs.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Monóxido de Carbono , Pulmão , Preservação de Órgãos , Oxigênio , Animais , Biomarcadores , Gasometria , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Ratos , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15571, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145277

RESUMO

This study reports the subjective perceptions and mental state of employees working in the Erdaogou Mine, affiliated with Jiapigou Minerals Limited Corporation of China National Gold Group Corporation (CJEM); these employees are pioneers working at the deepest point below ground in China. The data represent a valuable baseline from which to assess the effects of the environmental factors in the deep-underground on human physiology, psychology, and pathology.The air pressure, relative humidity, temperature, total γ radiation dose-rate, and oxygen concentration in the CJEM in the aisles in goafs at 4 depths below ground were measured. Study subjects were administered a study-specific questionnaire that included items that targeted factors with potential to affect respondents' health and wellbeing and included the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R).Air pressure, relative humidity, and temperature rose, total γ radiation dose-rate decreased, and there was no change in oxygen concentration with increasing depth below ground. Most (97.2%) respondents had a negative impression of the ambient conditions in the deep-underground space. The most commonly perceived adverse factors included moisture (74.9%), heat (33.5%), and poor ventilation (32.4%). 93.29% of respondents associated ≥1 self-reported negative physical symptom with working in the deep-underground space; the most frequent symptoms were being easily tired (48.7%), tinnitus (47.5%), and hearing loss (44.1%). Higher SCL-90-R scores were associated with the perception of >1 adverse factor in the deep-underground, spending >8 hours continuously in the deep-underground space, or working at a depth > 1000 m below ground. >1 perceived adverse factor in the deep-underground and continuously spending >8 hours in the deep-underground space were significant predictors of high SCL-90-R scores.Adverse factors, including high temperature, humidity, and dim light, may have negative impacts on the physical and psychological health of people who spend long periods of time living and/or working in the deep-underground space.


Assuntos
Espaços Confinados , Mineração , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Pressão do Ar , China , Estudos Transversais , Ouro , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Percepção , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto Jovem
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(1): 114-125, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816868

RESUMO

The water trap seal under the sanitary appliances is the primary defense against the ingress of foul gases and odors. However, research on air pressure variation in a horizontal pipe of a single-stack drainage system is very limited. Thus a physical model study was conducted to investigate the air pressure variation in a horizontal pipe. Four parameters were studied that affect the pressure variation; that is, water flow rate, inlet height, ventilation condition and outlet condition. When the top of the vertical drainage stack and the outlet were fully open to the atmosphere, the flow in the horizontal pipe changed from free surface flow to slug flow at certain times. The mean values and magnitudes of pressure fluctuation at measuring points on the horizontal pipe increased with Qw but decreased along the horizontal pipe. The inlet height had relatively small influence on the pressure variation. Three ventilation conditions; that is, top fully open, half open and sealed, were tested, and a choking flow was formed in the vertical drainage stack and the pressure in the horizontal pipe decreased under the top sealed condition. Three outlet conditions; that is, outlet fully open, half submerged and fully submerged, were tested. The pressure in the horizontal pipe increased significantly under the outlet fully-submerged condition, which should be avoided in the actual operation by careful designing.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Modelos Teóricos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Movimentos da Água , Pressão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Água
8.
Cryobiology ; 88: 92-97, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862499

RESUMO

Effects of additional physical treatments during vitrification of the bovine ovarian tissue were examined for increasing of permeability of ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). The concentrations of EG and Me2SO and histological changes in the ovarian tissue were evaluated. In the first equilibration step (7.5% EG and 7.5% Me2SO), all the 10-min physical treatments, i.e., negative (679 hPa) or positive (1347 hPa) air pressure applied with a disposable syringe, and shaking (60 rpm) applied with a laboratory shaker, were comparable to 25-min non-physical treatment (plain) vitrification. When effects of the negative air pressure were examined in the second equilibration step (20% EG and 20% Me2SO), its 10-min treatment was equivalent to 15-min plain vitrification (140-170 mg/g tissue). It was thus indicated that the negative air pressure treatment accelerates the penetration of permeable cryoprotectants into the ovarian tissue slices. Histological examination showed that the cell density and the amount of pan-cadherin in the tunica albuginea of the ovary was reduced by the vitrification, but was improved by the negative air pressure treatment. The amount of pan-cadherin in the tunica albuginea was recommended as a biomarker for evaluation of effectiveness of protocol for cryopreservation of bovine ovarian tissue and considered to be a candidate biomarker for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Crioprotetores/metabolismo , Dimetil Sulfóxido/metabolismo , Etilenoglicol/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células , Criopreservação/métodos , Feminino , Ovário/citologia , Vitrificação
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(3): 138, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868299

RESUMO

Coating of fine primary drug particles by a fluidized bed processor has been reported to be potentially challenging. This work aimed to develop a spray layering process to produce nonpareils by a side spray fluid bed with swirling air flow. The first part examined the effects of various parameters for producing lactose nonpareils by using Box-Behnken design. The factors considered were atomizing air pressure, spray rate, and fluidizing air temperature. This was followed by an in-depth investigation on the effects of inlet airflow rate, air temperature, and spray rate on properties of the product, in addition to process optimization. The results indicated a negative correlation between atomizing air pressure and D90 (particle size at 90th percentile in the cumulative undersize plot) as well as span (size distribution). Temperature had a positive correlation with D90 and span while spray rate affected span. Both atomizing air pressure and temperature correlated negatively with span. It was also found that spray rate negatively affected roundness at different coat weight gain levels across the study design space. Inlet airflow rate was found to correlate negatively with roundness at 15%, w/w coat weight gain. The mean useful yield of the optimized runs was about 91%. In the second part of this study, the metformin hydrochloride crystals as starter seeds were converted into nearly spherical shaped spheroids with 1:1 crystals to coat weight deposition over a processing time of about 3.5 h. The processor studied shows promise for direct spheronization of crystals into spherical seeds.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Pressão do Ar , Cristalização , Lactose/química , Metformina/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Nanoscale ; 11(14): 6802-6809, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907905

RESUMO

Human biomechanical energy is considered as a potential solution for providing electricity to wearable electronics due to its fluctuating amplitude and low frequency. Here, we present a waterproof and high-performance triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-based insole to scavenge human motion energy for the sustainable working of portable devices. In the protocol, an airtight-cavity-airbag structural insole based on a TENG was designed to collect mechanical energy. An elastic airbag was used to drive the contact and separation of triboelectric layers through their corresponding expansion and contraction. Owing to these structural innovations, this TENG-based insole performs with outstanding electrical output, is able to generate an alternating current with a maximum power of 5.47 mW under human walking, and can charge a 960 µF capacitor to 1.5 V in 9 min. With this novel structure, the designed insole can be a great wearable energy harvesting device for driving wearable electronics with energy converted from human motion. The results suggest broad potential applications ranging from powering personal sensing devices to the Internet of Things.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Pressão do Ar , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletricidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 29, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent analyses of patient data in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) showed that a lower ventilator driving pressure was associated with reduced relative risk of mortality. These findings await full validation in prospective clinical trials. METHODS: To investigate the association between driving pressures and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), we calibrated a high fidelity computational simulator of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology against a clinical dataset, capturing the responses to changes in mechanical ventilation of 25 adult ARDS patients. Each of these in silico patients was subjected to the same range of values of driving pressure and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) used in the previous analyses of clinical trial data. The resulting effects on several physiological variables and proposed indices of VILI were computed and compared with data relating ventilator settings with relative risk of death. RESULTS: Three VILI indices: dynamic strain, mechanical power and tidal recruitment, showed a strong correlation with the reported relative risk of death across all ranges of driving pressures and PEEP. Other variables, such as alveolar pressure, oxygen delivery and lung compliance, correlated poorly with the data on relative risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a credible mechanistic explanation for the proposed association between driving pressure and relative risk of death. While dynamic strain and tidal recruitment are difficult to measure routinely in patients, the easily computed VILI indicator known as mechanical power also showed a strong correlation with mortality risk, highlighting its potential usefulness in designing more protective ventilation strategies for this patient group.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Complacência Pulmonar , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle
12.
J Clin Anesth ; 55: 52-66, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597453

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To review all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on supraglottic airway devices (SADs) used in laparoscopy and compare their oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) before and after pneumoperitoneum, and success rate of gastric tube insertion rate. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs. SETTING: Laparoscopic surgeries using SADs. PATIENTS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases to detect all relevant RCTs on SADs for laparoscopic surgery published until March 2018. INTERVENTIONS: Use of different SADs. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was OLP before and after pneumoperitoneum. The secondary endpoints were PIP before and after pneumoperitoneum and gastric tube insertion success rate. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-six studies involving 2142 patients with eight different SADs were evaluated. According to surface under the cumulative ranking curve value, the OLP before pneumoperitoneum was the highest in Ambu AuraGain (95.7%), followed by Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal (77.3%) and Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (75.6%); after pneumoperitoneum, the pressure was the highest in i-gel (95.8%). PIP was the highest in Ambu AuraGain (80.9%) before pneumoperitoneum and i-gel (69.4%) after pneumoperitoneum. CONCLUSION: Although all SADs available were not evaluated, and further studies are needed to establish our results, OLP was the highest in Ambu AuraGain before pneumoperitoneum and i-gel after pneumoperitoneum.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Máscaras Laríngeas , Pressão do Ar , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Orofaringe , Pneumoperitônio Artificial , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Testes de Função Respiratória
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 124: 573-581, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500502

RESUMO

The investigation aims to microencapsulate anthocyanin extract from purple rice bran with modified glutinous rice starch to provide stable anthocyanin powder. The modified glutinous rice starch was used as wall material where anthocyanin extract was a core material for microencapsulation. The microencapsulation was carried out in a spray dryer, and the process was optimized using a rotatable central composite design. The effect of independent parameters, viz., starch concentration, inlet air temperature, and atomizer pressure, on the dependent parameters, such as encapsulation efficiency, anthocyanin content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, true density and water activity were investigated. The optimum values of the spray drying process parameters were 6.01% of starch concentration, 168.78 °C inlet air temperature and 4.96 MPa atomizer pressure. The physical characteristics of spray-dried powders were investigated in term of water activity (0.51), solubility (51.83%), bulk density (1.404 g/cm3), porosity (0.20), and diameter (6.44 µm) and the Hausner ratio (1.020). The thermal, crystallinity and surface morphology of the microencapsulated particles were also comprehensively studied using DSC, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. The storage stability of microencapsulated anthocyanin showed more stability at 4 °C than at 25 °C for 90 days. The microencapsulated particles also have an effect on the steady-shear rheology of the rice dough.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Oryza/química , Amido , Pressão do Ar , Fenômenos Químicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
15.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 46(3): 360-364, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if vestibular irritation after stapes surgery may be provoked by pressure changes across the tympanic membrane, which consecutively results in displacements of the ossicular chain and the piston prosthesis suspended to it. METHODS: In this prospective study 15 patients (13 female, 2 male) received unilateral stapes surgery (4 left, 11 right ear) with stapedotomy (n=14) or stapedectomy (n=1) at an academic tertiary referral center. Surgery was performed under local anesthesia via a transmeatal approach with a piston prosthesis 0.4×4.5mm. The fixation of the stapes, the exclusion of a malleus head fixation, and the gliding capacity of the malleus-incus joint were examined intraoperatively. A pure tone audiogram at four frequencies, a tympanometry with simultaneous video-oculography (VOG), caloric testing, and posturography with and without simultaneous tympanometry were performed six days before surgery, six weeks and three months after surgery, respectively. RESULTS: The mean air bone gap improved significantly from 25 (±8) dB preoperatively to 10 (±6) dB after surgery. In the tympanometry with simultaneous VOG only two patients showed nystagmus beats into the operated ears during only one of the two follow-up appointments. All other patients did not show any vestibular symptoms or nystagmus during any of the follow-up appointments. In the combined testing of posturography and tympanometry no patient showed any pathological findings. CONCLUSION: In patients who underwent stapes surgery with a piston prosthesis no vestibular symptoms can be provoked by pressure changes in the external auditory canal.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Nistagmo Patológico/epidemiologia , Otosclerose/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cirurgia do Estribo , Testes de Impedância Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Testes Calóricos , Meato Acústico Externo , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prótese Ossicular , Testes de Função Vestibular , Gravação em Vídeo
16.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 260: 53-57, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to dyscoordination of upper airway dilator muscles activity, sleep may also alter the pattern of intra-muscular activation of single motor units (SMUs). Such changes should be identifiable by a state dependent change in EMG power spectrum, i.e., a shift in centroid frequency (ƒc) during sleep. METHODS: EMGs of the genioglossus and four other peri-pharyngeal muscles were recorded in OSA patients (n = 8), age-matched healthy subjects (n = 7), and 5 young healthy subjects, and ƒc was calculated for wakefulness and sleep periods. RESULTS: ƒc decreased with the onset of sleep and returned to baseline levels after arousal. ƒc of all muscles decreased similarly and significantly during sleep in the OSA and the age-matched healthy subjects, but not in the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of decrease in ƒc is compatible with altered synchronization of SMUs during sleep. We speculate that these changes may contribute to the failure of dilator muscles to improve flow limitation during sleep in older subjects.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Músculos Faríngeos/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Análise Espectral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Vigília
17.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 118: 31-35, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present a novel approach for the emergent, pre-hospital management of life-threatening aerodigestive tract foreign body aspiration using a portable, non-powered, suction-generating device (PNSD), in the context of a literature review of emergent pre-hospital management of patients with foreign body airway obstruction. METHODS: The PubMed and MEDLINE databases were comprehensively screened using broad search terms. A literature review of pre-hospital management and resuscitative techniques of foreign body airway obstruction was performed. Further, independent measurements of PNSD pressure generation were obtained. Application of a PNSD in cadaveric and simulation models were reviewed. A comparative analysis between a PNSD and other resuscitative techniques was performed. RESULTS: Physiologic data from adult and pediatric human, non-human, and simulation studies show pressure generation ranging from 5.4 to 179 cm H2O using well-established resuscitative maneuvers. Laboratory testing demonstrated that a protypic PNSD demonstrated peak airway pressures of 434.23 ±â€¯12.35 cm H2O. A simulation study of a PNSD demonstrated 94% reliability in retrieving airway foreign body, while a similar cadaveric study demonstrated 98% reliability, with both studies approaching 100% success rate after multiple attempts. Several case reports have also shown successful application of PNSD in the emergent management of airway foreign body in elderly and disabled patients. CONCLUSION: PNSDs may play an important role in the emergent, non-operative, pre-hospital management of upper aerodigestive tract foreign body aspiration, particularly in settings and populations with high choking risk. Further characterization of effectiveness and safety in larger cadaveric or simulation studies mimicking physiologic conditions is indicated.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Evento com Aparente Risco de Vida Infantil/terapia , Sistema Respiratório , Pressão do Ar , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Cadáver , Humanos , Manequins , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sucção/instrumentação
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 117: 48-50, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579087

RESUMO

We describe the case of a child with an isolated penetrating trauma to the mastoid tip. Nasal blowing consequently induced air bubbles coming through the mastoid cutaneous fistula and causing extensive subcutaneous neck emphysema. A computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a right mastoid tip bone fracture with extensive cervical subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics and did not require operative intervention. His subsequent course was uncomplicated. This case emphasizes the importance of taking seriously even what seems to be a minor skin laceration.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Processo Mastoide/lesões , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Processo Mastoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço , Nariz , Fraturas Cranianas/etiologia , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(49): e13600, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A gastrointestinal endoscopy unit is frequently exposed to gastrointestinal gas expelled from patients and electrocoagulated tissue through carbonation for the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms or hemostasis of gastrointestinal bleeding. This can be potentially harmful to the health of not only the healthcare personnel but also patients who undergo endoscopic examinations. However, there has been scarce data on air quality in the endoscopy unit. This study aimed to measure the air quality in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. METHODS: This is a prospective study using conventional portable passive air quality monitoring sensors in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. We will check the 6 main indoor air quality indices, as well as the atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity in the endoscopy unit of a single hospital in Korea. These indices are as follows: carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter that has a diameter of <2.5 µm, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone. The indices will be checked in the endoscopy unit, including the procedural area, recovery area, and area for disinfection and cleansing of equipment, at 1-minute intervals for at least 1 week, and the type and number of endoscopic procedures will also be recorded. The primary outcome of this study is to determine whether the air quality indices exceed safety thresholds and whether there is any association between ambient air pollution and the type and number of endoscopic procedures. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will provide evidence for health-related protective strategies for medical practitioners and patients in the endoscopy unit.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Hospitais , Pressão do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Umidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Projetos de Pesquisa , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206651, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383810

RESUMO

Quality by Design (QbD), a current trend employed to develop and optimise various critical pharmaceutical processes, is a systematic approach based on the ethos that quality should be designed into the product itself, not just end tested after manufacture. The present work details a step-wise application of QbD principles to optimise process parameters for production of particles with modified functionalities, using dry particle coating technology. Initial risk assessment identified speed, air pressure, processing time and batch size (independent factors) as having high-to-medium impact on the dry coating process. A design of experiments (DOE) using MODDE software employed a D-optimal design to determine the effect of variations in these factors on identified responses (content uniformity, dissolution rate, particle size and intensity of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) C = O spectrum). Results showed that batch size had the most significant effect on dissolution rate, particle size and FTIR; with an increase in batch size enhancing dissolution rate, decreasing particle size (depicting absence of coated particles) and increasing the FTIR intensity. While content uniformity was affected by various interaction terms, with speed and batch size having the highest negative effect. Optimal design space for producing functionalised particles with optimal properties required maximum air pressure (40psi), low batch size (6g), speed between 850 to 1500 rpm and processing times between 15 to 60 minutes. The validity and predictive ability of the revised model demonstrated reliability for all experiments. Overall, QbD was demonstrated to provide an expedient and cost effective tool for developing and optimising processes in the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , Pressão do Ar , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Celulose/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Ibuprofeno/química , Ibuprofeno/farmacocinética , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Medição de Risco , Software , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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