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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 377-381, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the hemoglobin and prevalence of anemia among 6-23 months infants at different elevations in poor rural areas in China. METHODS: The monitoring data in the year 2018 from the Children Nutrition Improvement Project in Poor Areas of China was used for the analysis, which covered 19 provinces and 42 938 infants of 6-23 months. Hemoglobin was tested by Hemoque method with blood drop from finger tips. The altitude of the residence regions was divided into eight parts. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values among the altitude groups, and chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of anaemia. RESULTS: The data from 42 938 6-23 months infants was under analysis, among them 22 207(51.7%)were boys and 20 731(48.4%)girls. 27 208(63.4%)infants and children were located in the areas under 1000 meters whose average hemoglobin was 11.8 g/dL and the prevalence of anemia was 18.7%. There were 15 730(36.6%)infants living in areas higher than 1000 meters. The anemia rate ranged from 31.3% to 83.6% in all aged groups when altitude& gt; 2500 m that were noticeable higher than that of lower altitude regions. With the increase of altitude, the adjusted anemic rate showed an obvious upward trend. 6-11 months infants showed higher anemia rate compared with other groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence of anemia among children aged 6 to 23 months in poor areas of China is severe, among which infants living at an altitude of more than 2500 meters have a higher prevalence of anemia.


Assuntos
Altitude , Anemia , Pobreza , Anemia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , População Rural
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11416, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075173

RESUMO

The first COVID-19 contagion wave caused unprecedented restraining measures worldwide. In Italy, a period of generalized lockdown involving home confinement of the entire population was imposed for almost two months (9 March-3 May 2020). The present is the most extensive investigation aimed to unravel the demographic, psychological, chronobiological, and work-related predictors of sleep disturbances throughout the pandemic emergency. A total of 13,989 Italians completed a web-based survey during the confinement period (25 March-3 May). We collected demographic and lockdown-related work changes information, and we evaluated sleep quality, insomnia and depression symptoms, chronotype, perceived stress, and anxiety using validated questionnaires. The majority of the respondents reported a negative impact of confinement on their sleep and a delayed sleep phase. We highlighted an alarming prevalence of sleep disturbances during the lockdown. Main predictors of sleep disturbances identified by regression models were: female gender, advanced age, being a healthcare worker, living in southern Italy, confinement duration, and a higher level of depression, stress, and anxiety. The evening chronotype emerged as a vulnerability factor, while morning-type individuals showed a lower predisposition to sleep and psychological problems. Finally, working from home was associated with less severe sleep disturbances. Besides confirming the role of specific demographic and psychological factors in developing sleep disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, we propose that circadian typologies could react differently to a particular period of reduced social jetlag. Moreover, our results suggest that working from home could play a protective role against the development of sleep disturbances during the current pandemic emergency.


Assuntos
59585/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , 59477 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , 59585/epidemiologia , 59585/psicologia , 59585/transmissão , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotoperíodo , Prevalência , 59565/patogenicidade , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1069-1073, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to study the ecological and hygienic situation in the living area of 6-year-old children in terms of drinking water (micro- and macroelements), to identify its relationship with the state of mineral metabolism in children's mouths, prevalence and intensity of temporary and permanent caries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods:Clinical and laboratory studies were to study the objective condition of the teeth -intensity of dental caries according to the recommendations of the WHO and the method of T.F. Vinogradova. The hygienic condition of the oral cavity was determined by the indices Silness-Loe, Stallard. RESULTS: Results: The results of our studies have shown that the proposed therapeutic and prophylactic complex, which includes drugs of endogenous (Vitafluor) and exogenous use (osteovitis, deep fluoridation, toothpastes "Splat junior" and "Lacalut fluor"), improves the hygienic state of the oral cavity, increases mineralizing the potential of the oral fluid and, as a result, helps to reduce the intensity of dental caries in children. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The data obtained indicated a high caries prophylactic efficacy of the proposed therapeutic and prophylactic complex for 6-year-old children living in the zone of hypophtorosis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dente , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretação , Humanos , Prevalência
4.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1120-1124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: A study of the impact of drinking water quality on the state of dental health in schoolchildren who permanently live in areas of biogeochemical deficiency of fluorine and iodine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The composition of the drinking water of the city of Uzhhorod and the city of Rakhiv has been investigated. The prevalence and intensity of dental caries in children is determined, drinking water is taken in accordance with Uzhhorod and Rakhiv. RESULTS: Results: The regional features of the composition of drinking water of the mountain Rakhivsky district of the Transcarpathian region are the high variety of combinations of mineral components and the frequent excess of the normative content of dry residue components, namely nitrates, sulfates, chlorides, magnesium and calcium.Water oxidation, total stiffness and total alkalinity were significantly different. The established drinking water quality indicators have a direct dependence on the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in children, that is, a significant increase in the number of carious temporary, carious and distant permanent teeth and a decrease in filled temporary and permanent teeth (p < 0. 05) were diagnosed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: One of the most pressing problems in water hygiene is the urgent need to review and improve regulations, State sanitary regulations, standards and other regulations in the field of drinking water, including through the development of regional drinking water quality standards.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Água Potável , Fluorose Dentária , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluoretos , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1229-1236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim:TostudyandanalyzeSumy region population morbidity dynamics taking into account current stage of medical reform. Sumy region here is represented as one of the main agricultural regions of Ukraine. The prevalence of ENT disorders (otolaryngologic diseases) was studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: During the study we used data of statistical report of Public Health Board, Sumy State Administration for the period from 2015 to 2019 years by administrative territories. Obtainedresults wereprocessed, usinggeneral statistics methodsandanalyzed, usingstructural-logicalanalysis. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The study found that the morbidity rates of ENT disorders in adult population during the study period increased and had levels of 2113.0 and 122.1 per 100 thousand adult population, respectively, and the prevalence rates and the prevalence rates ofENT disorders among the adult population decreased , respectively to 167.7; 2113,0; 665.1 and 389.9. All indicators have reliable differences in terms of administrative territories of the region. The results of the study should be taken into account in the process of reforming the otolaryngological service in the region.


Assuntos
Otorrinolaringopatias , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Morbidade , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1357-1368, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of fibromyalgia in hospital-visiting patients. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July, 2018, to January, 2019, and comprised patients aged 18-75 years of either gender. Demographic information, comorbidities and previous medications were recorded for each patient. The modified American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria 2010-11 for fibromyalgia diagnosis. If diagnosed, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire was administered to assess its severity. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 750 hospital-visiting patients, fibromyalgia was diagnosed in 250(33.3%); 190(76%) of them being females (p<0.0001). Comorbidities, age and increased elevated body mass index were significantly associated with fibromyalgia. Severity was not influenced by comorbidities, marital status, education or economic status (p>0.05). Menarche at a later age and menstrual irregularity were associated with fibromyalgia severity (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hospital-based prevalence of fibromyalgia was found to be high, especially among females.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1455-1457, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091634

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth common cancer diagnosed and fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its incidence is on rise due to increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Pakistan is ranked second in countries burdened by hepatitis C virus in the world. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma is complex as it develops on the back of liver cirrhosis, and the risk of mortality is an accumulation of both tumour-related factors as well as liver decompensation. A multidisciplinary tumour board is an ideal approach to improve the outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma since this ensures assimilation of input from a diverse group of care-providers, including hepatobiliary and transplant surgeons, gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists, oncologists and palliative care specialists. A multidisciplinary tumour board provides tailored approach to individual cases in a timely fashion to avoid treatment delays and communication gaps to improve the overall outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1472-1475, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091637

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) with MRSA nasal colonisation pose a serious threat of passing on the infection to patients. A cross sectional study was designed to investigate the effect of ablution on MRSA nasal colonisation and was conducted at the Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University. A total of 220 nasal swab samples, 110 from ablution performing HCWs and 110 from non-ablution performing HCWs were processed for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and sensitivity testing for Cefoxitin. In the ablution performing group, 11(10%) HCW were harbouring Staphylococcus aureus in their nose, while in non-ablution performing group 32 (29%) HCWs had colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus. Frequency of MRSA colonised HCWs was 9/11 (82%) in ablution performing group, while in the non-ablution group 16/32 (55%) had MRSA in their nose. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the duration of working experience and non-performance of ablution are the potential risk factors.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência
9.
Rhinology ; 59(3): 258-266, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinitis (CR) is currently defined as the presence of at least two nasal symptoms for at least 1 hour per day for more than 12 weeks per year. Such definition lacks evidence-based foundation. CR patients are often divided into "runners" and "blockers", although the evidence supporting such subdivision is limited. The aim of the study was to define CR, to estimate its prevalence and the proportion of "runners" and "blockers". METHODS: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in a random sample of participants representing the general population of the Netherlands. RESULTS: The questionnaire was sent to 5000 residents of the Netherlands; the response rate was 27%. CR was defined as at least 1 nasal complaint present for more than 3 weeks per year. The prevalence of CR in the general population was 40%. Participants who would have been excluded by the former CR definition were shown to have a significantly higher VAS compared to the controls. The larger part of CR group was represented by non-allergic rhinitis (NAR): 70% vs 30%. There were 25% "Blockers" and 22% "Runners" in the CR group, whereas more than a half of the CR group could be classified in neither of these subgroups. CONCLUSION: Based on our data, we suggest that the current definition of CR should be revised and propose a new definition: at least one nasal complaint present for at least 3 weeks per year; although future studies are needed to further validate the proposed definition.


Assuntos
Rinite , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Nariz , Prevalência , Rinite/epidemiologia
10.
Soins Gerontol ; 26(149): 28-32, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083012

RESUMO

Anticipated directives are of great value among patients living in residential care facilities for the elderly. Their prevalence in cases of cardiac arrest was studied. It was found that this issue is not systematically addressed. This results in the inappropriate use of resuscitation manoeuvres that could be avoided. This is an area that needs to be addressed in depth.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca , Casas de Saúde , Diretivas Antecipadas , Idoso , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071098

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations in the kidney transplant recipient (KTxR) could lead to decreased quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the prevalence of these MSK manifestations is still not well-recognized. This review aimed to investigate the prevalence and outcomes of MSK manifestations in KTxR in the last two decades. Materials and Methods: Research was performed in EBSCO, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched during the years 2000-2020. Results: The PRISMA flow diagram revealed the search procedure and that 502 articles were retrieved from the initial search and a total of 26 articles were included for the final report in this review. Twelve studies reported bone loss, seven studies reported a bone pain syndrome (BPS) or cyclosporine-induced pain syndrome (CIPS), and seven studies reported hyperuricemia (HU) and gout. The prevalence of MSK manifestations in this review reported as follow: BPS/CIPS ranged from 0.82% to 20.7%, while bone loss ranged from 14% to 88%, and the prevalence of gout reported in three studies as 7.6%, 8.0%, and 22.37%, while HU ranged from 38% to 44.2%. Conclusions: The post-transplantation period is associated with profound MSK abnormalities of mineral metabolism and bone loss mainly caused by corticosteroid therapy, which confer an increased fracture risk. Cyclosporine (CyA) and tacrolimus were responsible for CIPS, while HU or gout was attributable to CyA. Late diagnosis or treatment of post-transplant bone disease is associated with lower quality of life among recipients.


Assuntos
Gota , Transplante de Rim , Dor Musculoesquelética , Adulto , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 366-371, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of 6-23 months infants by Yingyangbao(YYB) intervention in impoverished areas of Henan Province. METHODS: A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select infants aged 6-23 months from 51 project counties in Henan Province from September to November 2019. Physical anthropometric measurement and hemoglobin detection were performed, and face-to-face questionnaires surveyed with caregivers of the children. Children in 12 regions covered by YYB were defined as intervention group, and controls were selected from the baseline survey of children in 39 regions not covered by YYB according to the 1∶1 matching principle. The analysis between YYB and control groups were analyzed by χ~2 or t test. χ~2 test for trend to compare trend of children health status. RESULTS: A total of 7738 subjects were selected in the study, including 3869 in the intervention group and 3869 in the control group. The average length, weight and hemoglobin level of YYB group were 1. 1 cm, 0. 67 kg and 3. 8 g/L, respectively, which were higher than that of the control group. The anemia rate, underweight rate, stunting rate and wasting rate in intervention group were 13.1%, 1.7%, 2.1% and 1.9%, respectively, significantly lower than control group. Compared with the control group, the two-week prevalence of fever and diarrhea in the intervention group decreased by 5. 6% and 7. 2%, respectively. In addition, nutrition knowledge score of the parents, minimum dietary diversity rate, minimum meal frequency rate and minimum acceptable diet rate of intervention group were 62. 4%, 71. 1%, 73. 7% and 55. 8%, respectively, significantly better than that of control group. From 2015 to 2019, the anemia rate, underweight rate, stunting rate of children in regions covered by YYB showed a downward trend. CONCLUSION: YYB can effectively improve the nutrition, physical development and health status of 6-24 months infants. Through the implementation of the project, the knowledge and skills of scientific feeding in impoverished regions were significantly improved.


Assuntos
Anemia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , População Rural
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 454-459, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic risk factors among 12-18 years old children and adolescents in Yinchuan City. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 12-18 years old middle school students in Yinchuan from September 2017 to September 2019. A total of 1956 subjects were collected by using convenient sampling method, with an average age of(14. 4±1. 4) years. Boys and girls accounted for 52. 1% and 47. 9%, respectively, The Han and Hui nationalities accounted for 77. 7% and 16. 4%, respectively. Basic data such as age and gender were collected through questionnaire survey, and physical examination was used to measure height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) were measured by laboratory blood pressure biochemistry. RESULTS: The detection rates of obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, high TG, high LDL-C, low HDL-C, high LDL-C and dyslipidemia among 12-and 18-year-olds in Yinchuan City were 8. 3%, 17. 9%, 12. 4%, 1. 9%, 13. 2%, 2. 4%, 18. 6%, 1. 9% and 30. 1%, respectively. The detection rates of obesity, hyperglycemia, low HDL-C, high TG and dyslipidemia in boys were significantly higher than those in girls. Obesity, abdominal obesity and hypertension in 12-15-year-old group were higher than those in 16-18-year-old group, and the detection rates of high TC, low HDL-C, high LDL-C and dyslipidemia were lower than those in 16-18-year-old group(P& lt; 0. 05). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in different age groups of boys and girls were compared. The detection rates of obesity, abdominal obesity and hypertension in the 12-15 age group were higher than those in the 16-18 age group, while the rates of high TG, low HDL-C, high LDL-C and dyslipidemia were higher in the 12-15 age group, but these differences were only significant in boys. Among girls, the detection rate of high TC and high LDL-C was higher in the age group of 12 to 15 years old(P& lt; 0. 05). The detection rate of metabolic syndrome in 12-18-year-old adolescents was 7. 9%. The detection rate of metabolic syndrome in boys(10. 1%) was higher than that in girls(5. 5%). The detection rates of metabolic syndrome in 12-15 years old and 16-18 years old were 9. 1% and 4. 9% respectively, and the differences were statistically significant(P& lt; 0. 05). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic risk factors in 12-18 years old adolescents in Yinchuan City is at a high level, boys are higher than girls, and the prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity and hypertension are higher in 12-15 years old group. Dyslipidemia varies greatly in different gender and age groups.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Síndrome Metabólica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , HDL-Colesterol , Cidades , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(6): 1350-1360, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are of great epidemiological importance of controlling tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Identification in high-risk population on dialysis and treatment with 12-week weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) help improve prevention outcomes effectively. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, nonrandomized follow-up study on end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was used for the diagnosis of LTBI. Participants were treated with 3HP, and treatment responses were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 123 of the 641 patients showed positive IGRA results. The male sex, age >60 years, low serum albumin level (<4.0 g/dL), and hypercalcemia (serum calcium level > 10.2 mg/dL) were associated with IGRA positivity. Seventy-five patients were treated with 3HP, with a completion rate of 66.67%. The male sex, albumin level >4.0 g/dL, and absence of adverse drug reaction were associated with increased completion rates. Adverse drug reactions included dizziness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, fever, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for LTBI in dialysis patients were identified to prioritize LTBI screening and initiate early treatment. The completion rate in dialysis patients were approximately 2 of 3 patients with mild adverse drug reaction, leading to discontinuation of the treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 35(suppl 01): e052, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076076

RESUMO

Robust epidemiological data allow for logical interventions taken in the interest of public health. Dental caries is a major public health problem driven by increased sugar consumption and various biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors, and is known to strongly affect an individual's quality of life. This study aims to critically review epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC) and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the population. Although the majority of national surveys did not include all age groups and several countries reported a reduction in the prevalence of cavitated carious lesions, most nations still exhibited a high burden of decayed teeth. OHRQoL evaluation was limited to children and older adults only, and was not included in any national survey. Study heterogeneity and methodological issues hindered comparison of evidence between studies and over time, and updating national level data on caries prevalence and its impact on OHRQoL should be prioritized in LACCs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 35(suppl 01): e056, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076080

RESUMO

Dental caries can be effectively managed and prevented from developing into cavitated lesions while preserving tooth structure at all levels. However, the strong correlation between caries and socioeconomic factors may compromise the efficacy of preventive strategies. The high prevalence of persistent inequalities in dental caries in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC) is a matter of concern. The estimates of the burden of disease in some countries in this region are outdated or absent. This paper aims to summarize and present the final recommendations of a regional Consensus for Dental Caries Prevalence, Prospects, and Challenges for LACC. This consensus is based on four articles that were written by a team of Latin American experts, reviewed by dental associations, and presented and discussed in two consensus events. The following domains were explored: epidemiology, risk factors, prevention strategies, and management of dental caries with a focus on restorative procedures. Dental caries can manifest throughout the lifespan of an individual, making it a matter of concern for infants, children, adults, and older people alike. The prevalence rates of untreated caries in deciduous and permanent teeth are high in many parts of the world, including LACCs. Previous evidence suggests that the prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-olds is moderate to high in most Latin American countries. Moreover, the prevalence of treatment needs and dental caries in the adult and elderly population can also be regarded as high in this region. The risk/protective factors (e.g., sugar consumption, exposure to fluoride, and oral hygiene) probably operate similarly in all LACCs, although variations in the interplay of these factors in some countries and within the same country cannot be ruled out. Although salt and water fluoridation programs are implemented in many countries, there is a need for implementation of a surveillance policy. There is also room for improvement with regard to the introduction of minimal intervention techniques in practice and public health programs. Dental caries is a marker of social disadvantage, and oral health promotion programs and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of dental caries in LACCs must consider the complexity of the socioeconomic dynamics in this region. There is an urgent need to promote engagement of stakeholders, policymakers, medical personnel, universities, dental associations, community members, and industries to develop regional plans that enhance the oral health agenda for LACCs. A list of recommendations has been presented to underpin strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence and severity of dental caries and improving the quality of life of the impacted LACC population in the near future.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adulto , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Criança , Consenso , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1070-1077, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058865

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate unexpected positive cultures in total hip arthroplasty (THA) revisions for presumed aseptic loosening, to assess the prevalence of low-grade infection using two definition criteria, and to analyze its impact on implant survival after revision. METHODS: A total of 274 THA revisions performed for presumed aseptic loosening from 2012 to 2016 were reviewed. In addition to obtaining intraoperative tissue cultures from all patients, synovial and sonication fluid samples of the removed implant were obtained in 215 cases (79%) and 101 cases (37%), respectively. Histopathological analysis was performed in 250 cases (91%). Patients were classified as having low-grade infections according to institutional criteria and Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) International Consensus Meeting (ICM) 2013 criteria. Low-grade infections according to institutional criteria were treated with targeted antibiotics for six weeks postoperatively. Implant failure was defined as the need for re-revision resulting from periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic reasons. The mean follow-up was 68 months (26 to 95). RESULTS: Unexpected positive intraoperative samples were found in 77 revisions (28%). Low-grade infection was diagnosed in 36 cases (13%) using institutional criteria and in nine cases (3%) using MSIS ICM 2013 criteria. In all, 41 patients (15%) had single specimen growth of a low-virulent pathogen and were deemed contaminated. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and anaerobes were the most commonly isolated bacteria. Implant failure for PJI was higher in revisions with presumed contaminants (5/41, 12%) compared to those with low-grade infections (2/36, 6%) and those with negative samples (5/197, 3%) (p = 0.021). The rate of all-cause re-revision was similar in patients diagnosed with low-grade infections (5/36, 14%) and those with presumed contaminants (6/41, 15%) and negative samples (21/197, 11%) (p = 0.699). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the presumption of culture contamination in aseptic revision hip arthroplasty may increase the detection of PJI. In this cohort, the presence of low-grade infection did not increase the risk of re-revision. Further studies are needed to assess the relevance of single specimen growth and the benefits of specific postoperative antibiotic regimens. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1070-1077.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 276, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare prevalence and risk factors of somatization (SOM) between health care workers and non-health care workers during COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: From 14 February to 29 March 2020, an online survey was performed in both 605 health care workers and 1151 non-health care workers. Based on the somatization dimension score of the Symptom Checklist-90, participants were divided into non-SOM group and SOM group. RESULTS: Health care workers had higher prevalence rate of SOM (p < 0.001) than non-health care workers, with an OR of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.22-2.36, p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that in non-health care workers, the risk factors of SOM included other ethnicities, insomnia, and suicide, while in health care workers, the risk factors included working 6-8 h per day, and working ≥10 h per day during COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggests that both non-health care workers and health care workers have a relatively high prevalence of somatization. However, the related factors for somatization in both groups are significantly different, showing that medical service-related factors are associated with somatization in health care workers, while demographic and clinical factors are associated with somatization in non-health care workers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065637

RESUMO

Sensitivity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a positive assignment out of all subjects who are actually positive for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly have the outcome of interest. Specificity, which denotes the proportion of subjects correctly given a negative assignment out of all subjects who are actually negative for the outcome, indicates how well a test can classify subjects who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Positive predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a positive test result who truly have the outcome of interest. Negative predictive value reflects the proportion of subjects with a negative test result who truly do not have the outcome of interest. Sensitivity and specificity are inversely related, wherein one increases as the other decreases, but are generally considered stable for a given test, whereas positive and negative predictive values do inherently vary with pre-test probability (e.g., changes in population disease prevalence). This article will further detail the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values using a recent real-world example from the medical literature.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066935

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cancer is a threatening-life disease with a significant psychological burden. The psychological morbidity varies according to the phases of the illness and is influenced by multiple socio-demographic factors, that are useful to consider in order to identify the categories of patients most at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The present study analyzes, in a sample of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, the relationships between their levels of anxiety and depression and several socio-demographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and seventy eight women newly diagnosed with breast cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during the pre-surgical phase. Results: Findings show that almost 40% of the sample had clinically relevant anxious symptoms and about a quarter of the sample had significant depressive symptoms. Their prevalence was higher in widows. Moreover, depressive symptoms were higher in older women and anxious symptoms were higher in patients with a lower educational level. In the pre-surgical phase, women can suffer from clinically relevant anxiety and depression, especially the widows, older women, and women with a lower educational level. Conclusions: Identifying the most psychologically vulnerable patients, due to specific socio-demographic characteristics, is essential in order to provide adequate psycho-oncological treatments to the categories of patients, who are most at risk of developing psychopathological concerns.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico
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