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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological suffering by health professionals may be associated with the uncertainty of a safe workplace. Front-line professionals exposed and involved in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients are more susceptible. METHOD: This review was conducted based on papers that were published at MEDLINE, BMJ, PsycINFO, and LILACS, the according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). RESULTS: Health professionals had a higher level of anxiety (13.0 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01, OR = 1.6152; 95%CI 1.3283 to 1.9641; p < 0.0001) and depression 12.2 vs. 9.5%; p = 0.04; OR = 1.3246; 95%CI 1.0930 to 1.6053; p = 0.0042), besides somatizations and insomnia compared to professionals from other areas. CONCLUSION: Health professionals, regardless of their age, showed significant levels of mental disorders. We observed a prevalence of anxiety and depression. Insomnia was a risk factor for both.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 503-507, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009083

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To revisit ocular rosacea as an underappreciated condition which can cause permanent blindness if inadequately treated, and to review data supporting improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ocular rosacea has an underrecognized prevalence in children and individuals with darker skin tone. Rosacea has several associations with other significant systemic diseases. Variations in local and systemic microbiome, including demodex infestation, may play a role in pathogenesis, severity, and in explaining the different phenotypes of rosacea. The National Rosacea Society Expert Committee established an updated classification system of rosacea in 2017. New treatment algorithms based on these clinical subtypes are suggested. SUMMARY: With continued advancements in the understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of rosacea, randomized controlled trials specific for ocular rosacea remain lacking. There is overall consensus that rosacea and ocular rosacea require chronic maintenance treatment strategies involving combination topical and systemic therapies.


Assuntos
Rosácea , Cegueira , Humanos , Prevalência , Rosácea/diagnóstico , Rosácea/terapia
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 686-690, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025940

RESUMO

AIM: To study the prevalence of different malocclusion traits in Najran in Saudi adolescents and adults seeking orthodontic treatment in Najran in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty male patients in the age group of 12-35 years who visited faculty of dentistry in Najran University for orthodontic treatment were examined and were divided into two age groups, adolescents and adults. The patients were examined and classified into Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions. They were also examined for overjet, overbite, open bite, crossbite, scissor's bite, crowding, and spacing. RESULTS: The prevalence of Angle's malocclusion Classes I, II, and III was 52.8%, 31.6%, and 15.6%, respectively. The most common anomaly was moderate overbite followed by lateral open bite. Posterior crossbite was found to be more prevalent than anterior crossbite. CONCLUSION: Angle's Class I malocclusion was most prevalent type, followed by Class II, and then Class III. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study can be used to formulate an appropriate preventive and orthodontic treatment measures pertaining to the population of adolescent and adult Saudi males.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Mordida Aberta , Sobremordida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Telefone
7.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 913-918, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the oral health status of children aged 3-12 in Shaoshan area of Hunan province and to evaluate the role of oral health educations based on community such as fluoride varnish, oral hygiene introduction in improving the oral health of children in the area so as to gain expe-rience. METHODS: The study used cluster sampling to select 3 kindergartens and 2 primary schools in different economic development areas of Shaoshan. Oral health status survey and interventions were conducted in December 2014 and September 2016, respectively. The average debris index, decayed missing filled teeth (deciduous teeth: dmft; permanent teeth: DMFT), and caries prevalence rate of children aged 3-6 years and 6-12 years were compared. At the same time, children aged 5 and 12 were used as representative populations to compare the indices as listed before and the caries prevalence rate of the first permanent molar in 12-year-old children was compared as well. Finally, health economic analysis was carried out based on the 2 years' result. RESULTS: In this study, 992 children and 896 children in 2014 and 2016 were included respectively. As for children aged 3-6 years, the average debris index and dmft in 2016 were significantly less than that in 2014 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and the difference of DMFT was not significant (P=0.419). Children aged 6-12 years showed the same result, the average debris index and dmft in 2016 were significantly less than those in 2014 (P < 0.001, P=0.013), and the difference in DMFT was not significant (P=0.674). 173 and 179 5-year-old children were included in 2014 and 2016 respectively, and the dmft showed significant difference (P=0.038); the caries prevalence rate was 75.7% and 71.5%, respectively, which was also not significant (P=0.370). With respect to the 12-year-old children, 65 and 104 children were included and the differences in dmft and DMFT were not significant (P=0.133, P=0.171). The caries prevalence of the first permanent molar in the 12-year-old children was 36.9% and 26.9%, whose difference was not significant (P=0.171). CONCLUSION: The application of fluoride varnish and oral health education can significantly reduce the dmft of children aged 3-12 years in Shaoshan area and significantly improve the oral hygiene status. DMFT, the caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children's deciduous teeth and 12-year-old children's first permanent molar showed a decline.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Humanos , Dente Molar , Prevalência
8.
Chron Respir Dis ; 17: 1479973120961843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000640

RESUMO

The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among population has imposed a re-organization of healthcare services, aiming at stratifying patients and dedicating specific areas where patients with suspected COVID-related respiratory disease could receive the necessary health care assistance while waiting for the confirmation of the diagnosis of COVID-19 disease. In this scenario, the pathway defined as a "grey zone" is strongly advocated. We describe the application of rules and pathways in a regional context with low diffusion of the infection among the general population in the attempt to provide the best care to respiratory patients with suspected COVID-19. To date, this process has avoided the worst-case scenario of intra-hospital epidemic outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Procedimentos Clínicos/tendências , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevalência
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22439, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate associated with Covid-19 varies considerably among studies and determinants of this variability are not well characterized. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published through March 31, 2020 was performed to estimate the mortality rate among hospitalized patients in China with a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19. Hospital mortality rates were estimated using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis model. Funnel plot symmetry was evaluated for small-study effects, a one-study removed sensitivity analysis assessed the influence of individual studies on the pooled mortality rate, and metaregression assessed the association of potential confounding variables with mortality rates. RESULTS: The review included 16 observational studies involving 1832 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19. The surveillance period among studies ranged from December 16, 2019 to February 23, 2020. The median patient age was 53 years and 53% were males. A total of 38.5% of patients presented with at least 1 comorbidity, most commonly hypertension (24.0%), cardiac disease (15.1%), and diabetes mellitus (14.4%). Fever and cough, reported in 84.8% and 61.7% of patients respectively, were the most common patient symptoms. The pooled mortality rate was 9.9% (95% confidence interval 6.1% to 14.5%). Funnel plot asymmetry was not observed and the meta-analysis results were not substantially influenced by any single study since the pooled mortality rate ranged from 8.9% to 11.1% following iterative removal of one study at a time. Substantial heterogeneity in the mortality rate was identified among studies (I = 87%; P < .001). In a metaregression that included demographics, patient risk factors, and presenting symptoms, only a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher mortality rate (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of hospitalized patients in China with a diagnosis of Covid-19, the mortality rate was 9.9% and a higher diabetes mellitus prevalence was independently associated with a worse prognosis. The independent influence of diabetes mellitus with Covid-19 mortality should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and warrants further study.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1494-1509, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact, and Singapore has seen 33,000 confirmed cases. Patients with cancer, their caregivers, and health care workers (HCWs) need to balance the challenges associated with COVID-19 while ensuring that cancer care is not compromised. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effect of COVID-19 on these groups and the prevalence of burnout among HCWs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of patients, caregivers, and HCWs at the National Cancer Centre Singapore was performed over 17 days during the lockdown. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to assess for anxiety and burnout, respectively. Self-reported fears related to COVID-19 were collected. RESULTS: A total of 624 patients, 408 caregivers, and 421 HCWs participated in the study, with a response rate of 84%, 88%, and 92% respectively. Sixty-six percent of patients, 72.8% of caregivers, and 41.6% of HCWs reported a high level of fear from COVID-19. The top concern of patients was the wide community spread of COVID-19. Caregivers were primarily worried about patients dying alone. HCWs were most worried about the relatively mild symptoms of COVID-19. The prevalence of anxiety was 19.1%, 22.5%, and 14.0% for patients, caregivers, and HCWs, respectively. Patients who were nongraduates and married, and caregivers who were married were more anxious. The prevalence of burnout in HCWs was 43.5%, with more anxious and fearful HCWs reporting higher burnout rates. CONCLUSION: Fears and anxiety related to COVID-19 are high. Burnout among HCWs is similar to rates reported prepandemic. An individualized approach to target the specific fears of each group will be crucial to maintain the well-being of these vulnerable groups and prevent burnout of HCWs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 491, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented health and economic impact. Psychological stress, anxiety and depression are affecting not only COVID-19 patients but also health professionals, and general population. Fear of contracting COVID-19, forced restrictive social measures, and economic hardship are causing mental trauma. Nepal is a developing country from South Asia where the COVID-19 pandemic is still evolving. This online survey has been carried out to understand impact of COVID- 19 on mental health of Nepalese community dwellers. METHODS: The COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) questionnaire adapted from the Shanghai Mental Health Centre was used for online data collection from 11 April-17 May 2020. Collected data were extracted to Microsoft excel-13 and imported and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version-22. An initial univariate analysis was conducted for all variables to assess the distribution. Logistic regression analyses were done to estimate the odds ratios of relevant predicting variables. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants completed the self-rated questionnaires. Mean age of study participants was 34.8 ± 11.7 years with male preponderance. 88.5% of the respondents were not in distress (score less than 28) while, 11% had mild to moderate distress and 0.5% had severe distress. The prevalence of distress is higher among age group > 45 years, female gender, and post-secondary education group. Health professional were more likely to get distressed. Respondents with post-secondary education had higher odds (OR = 3.32; p = 0.020) of developing distress as compared to respondents with secondary education or lower. CONCLUSION: There is lower rate of psychological distress in city dwellers and people with low education. Adequate intervention and evaluation into mental health awareness, and psychosocial support focused primarily on health care workers, female and elderly individuals is necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031651

RESUMO

Objective: Amid the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers of multiple disciplines have been designated as frontline doctors. This unforeseen situation has led to psychological problems among these health care workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mental health status of pan-Indian frontline doctors combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted among frontline doctors of tertiary care hospitals in India (East: Kolkata, West Bengal; North: New Delhi; West: Nagpur, Maharashtra; and South: Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala) from May 23, 2020, to June 6, 2020. Doctors involved in clinical services in outpatient departments, designated COVID-19 wards, screening blocks, fever clinics, and intensive care units completed an online questionnaire. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess depression and perceived stress. Results: The results of 422 responses revealed a 63.5% and 45% prevalence of symptoms of depression and stress, respectively, among frontline COVID-19 doctors. Postgraduate trainees constituted the majority (45.5%) of the respondents. Moderately severe and severe depression was noted in 14.2% and 3.8% of the doctors, respectively. Moderate and severe stress was noted in 37.4% and 7.6% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed working ≥ 6 hours/day (adjusted odds ratio: 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9-6.3; P < .0001) to be a significant risk factor for moderate or severe perceived stress, while single relationship status (adjusted odds ratio: 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = .002) and working ≥ 6 hours/day (adjusted odds ratio: 10.3; 95% CI, 4.3-24.6; P < .0001) significantly contributed to the development of moderate, moderately severe, or severe depression. Conclusions: The pandemic has taken a serious toll on the physical and mental health of doctors, as evident from our study. Regular screening of medical personnel involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted to evaluate for stress, anxiety, and depression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 744, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field. However, several gaps remain in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV. This study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co-infection or only TB, to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of potentially eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and July, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB in adults. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. Descriptive and meta-analysis were done and results have been presented in graphs and tables. RESULTS: After removing 95 duplicates, 58 out of 437 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 14 studies were included for descriptive analysis and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the descriptive analysis, the meta-analysis showed strong evidence that current TB exposure was high-risk COVID-19 group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65, P = 0.03). The pooled of COVID-19/TB severity rate increased from OR 4.50 (95% CI 1.12-18.10, P = 0.03), the recovery rate was high among COVID-19 compared to COVID-19/TB irrespective of HIV status (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.83-2.74, P < 0.001) and the mortality was reduced among non-TB group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In summary, TB was a risk factor for COVID-19 both in terms of severity and mortality irrespective of HIV status. Structured diagnostic algorithms and clinical management are suggested to improve COVID-19/HIV/TB or COVID-19/TB co-infections outcomes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
18.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 935-940, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among freshmen from a university in Hunan Province in 2018. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1 685 freshmen from a university in Hunan Province in 2018. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and other laboratory indicators were measured. The risk factors of hematuria, proteinuria, and CKD were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 1 685 students, the detection rates of proteinuria, hematuria, and renal dysfunction were 2.14%, 6.65%, and 0.95%, respectively. The prevalence of CKD was 10.86%, mainly at stage 1 and 2. The awareness rate in the patients was 6.56%. The detection rate of proteinuria was not significantly correlated with gender, and the detection rate of hematuria and renal dysfunction was higher in women than in men, and the prevalence of CKD was higher in women than in men. Independent risk factors associated with CKD were hypertension and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In 2018, the prevalence of CKD among freshmen in this university is roughly the same as the national level. CKD patients and people with hypertension and diabetes should be checked regularly, and early intervention should be performed to delay the occurrence and development of the disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 720, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with sputum smear-positive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients are vulnerable to acquire tubercular infection. Contact tracing is an important strategy to control tubercular infection in the community. This study was done to find out prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular infection in children living with sputum smear-positive adult patients receiving DOTS at recruitment and to find out incidence of tubercular infection and disease in these children on follow up. METHOD: Children (< 15 years) living in contact with adults on DOTS were grouped as < 6 years and 6-14 years. They were further sub grouped as being - uninfected, infected, diseased and on prophylaxis and were followed at 3, 6 and 9 months. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were done. RESULTS: At recruitment 152 children were enrolled and 21.1% (n = 32) had TB. On follow up, 4.3% (n = 5), 5.8% (n = 6) and 11.6% (n = 11) children developed TB after 3, 6 and 9 months respectively.9 children did not come for the last follow up so the overall prevalence of TB disease at 9 months was 37.7% (n = 54). Out of the 128 children with TST reading 23.4% (n = 30) child contacts were found to be infected already at recruitment. The incidence of TST conversion was 20.7% (n = 18), 26.9% (n = 18) and 16.3% (n = 7) respectively. The overall prevalence of tubercular infection in the children, who were in contact with TB patients for 9 months was 74.5% (n = 73). CONCLUSION: About half the children were either suffering from TB or tubercular infection on recruitment. During 9 months follow up 22 unaffected children developed disease and 43acquired infection.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5009, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024121

RESUMO

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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