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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cartilagem Articular/lesões , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterais do Tornozelo/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1202-1207, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022269

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar as características clínicas e imunológica dos receptores de transplante renal. Métodos: estudo documental e retrospectivo, realizado em um Ambulatório do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, com pacientes internados no período de junho de 2012 a junho de 2014. A amostra foi composta por 300 pacientes submetidos ao transplante renal. As variáveis preditoras de interesse, foram subdivididas em: características prétransplante, características pós-transplante e características imunológicas. Utilizou-se testes de Pearson e Spearman para avaliar correlação entre variáveis. Resultados: Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino (65%), com faixa etária entre 44 e 56 anos (31,4%). Demonstrou-se relação estatisticamente significante entre o DSA e a disfunção do enxerto (p<0,04), Rejeição celular o Painel Reativo classe I (p< 0,05), o tempo de internação e a disfunção do enxerto (p<0,001) e entre o entre o HLA e o MISMATCH. Conclusão: Aponta-se a necessidade de um acompanhamento crítico e individualizado do paciente transplantado por parte dos profissionais para garantir o sucesso do transplante a longo prazo


Objective: The study's purpose has been to assess both clinical and immunological characteristics of renal transplant recipients. Methods: It is a documentary and retrospective study that was performed at the renal transplantation ambulatory from the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF), Fortaleza city, Ceará State, with patients hospitalized from June 2012 to June 2014. The sample consisted of 300 patients submitted to renal transplantation. The predictive variables of interest were subdivided in the following categories: pre-transplant characteristics, post-transplant characteristics and immunological characteristics. Pearson and Spearman tests were used to evaluate the correlation between variables. Results: There was a predominance of male patients (65%), with ages ranging from 44 to 56 years (31.4%). A statistically significant relationship was found between the Donor-Specific Antibody and Delayed Graft Function (p<0.04), Cellular Rejection and PanelReactive Antibody class I (p<0.05), duration of hospitalization and Delayed Graft Function (p<0.001) and also between the Human Leukocyte Antigen and MISMATCH. Conclusion: It is pointed out the need for a critical and individualized follow-up of the transplanted patient by the professionals to guarantee the long-term transplantation success


Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínicas e inmunológicas de lós receptores de trasplante renal. Métodos: estudio documental y retrospectivo realizado en una clínica del Hospital General de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, con pacientes ingresados desde junio de 2012 a junio de 2014. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes sometidos a trasplante de riñón. Las variables predictoras de interés, fueron subdivididas en: características pretrasplante, características post-transplante y características inmunológicas. Se utilizaron pruebas de Pearson y Spearman para evaluar la correlación entre variables. Resultados: Hubo un predominio de pacientes del sexo masculino (65%), con edades comprendidas entre 44 y 56 años (31,4%). Se demostró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el DSA y la disfunción del injerto (p <0,04), el rechazo celular del panel reactivo clase I (p <0,05), el tiempo de internación y la disfunción del injerto (p <0,001) y entre el HLA y el MISMATCH. Conclusión: Se apunta la necesidad de un acompañamiento crítico e individualizado del paciente trasplantado por parte de los profesionales para garantizar el éxito del trasplante a largo plazo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Imunologia de Transplantes , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 280-286, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life is the individuals' subjective evaluation of their general well-being, including physical and mental health, social relationships and everyday functionality. The aim of our study was to examine conduct disorder in terms of gender differences in prevalence, and relationship to quality of life domains in the presence or absence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS: Altogether 392 adolescents, aged 13-18 years (M=14.5; SD= 1.37), participated in this study. The members of the clinical group were selected from Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hospital, Budapest, Hungary with externalizing symptoms in their case history. The control group was selected from public schools in Budapest, Hungary. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid was used to diagnose conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, and parent and adolescent version of the Inventory of Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei Kindern und Jugendlichen) was used to measure the children's quality of life. RESULTS: In this sample 8.5% of adolescents were diagnosed with conduct disorder, of which 52.9% had a comorbid oppositional defiant diagnosis. Conduct disorder diagnosis was only present in the clinical group, 9 of participants with such diagnosis were male and 24 were female. Girls with conduct disorder evaluated their family life domain (p<0.01) and their global quality of life (p<0.05) lower than the boys. Compared to adolescents without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder diagnosis, adolescents with conduct disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder had significantly worse quality of life in the domain of time spent alone (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Conduct disorder is associated with decreased quality of life. The presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder correlates with lower quality of life in several domains. These findings are considerable for the clinical management of these externalizing disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 11-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576537

RESUMO

Of the ~129,079 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 72,987 associated deaths estimated for 2018, the majority will be geographically localized to South East Asia, and likely to show an upward trend annually. It is thought that disparities in dietary habits, lifestyle, and exposures to harmful environmental factors are likely the root cause of NPC incidence rates to differ geographically. Genetic differences due to ethnicity and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are likely contributing factors. Pertinently, NPC is associated with poor prognosis which is largely attributed to lack of awareness of the salient symptoms of NPC. These include nose hemorrhage and headaches and coupled with detection and the limited therapeutic options. Treatment options include radiotherapy or chemotherapy or combination of both. Surgical excision is generally the last option considered for advanced and metastatic disease, given the close proximity of nasopharynx to brain stem cell area, major blood vessels, and nerves. To improve outcome of NPC patients, novel cellular and in vivo systems are needed to allow an understanding of the underling molecular events causal for NPC pathogenesis and for identifying novel therapeutic targets and effective therapies. While challenges and gaps in current NPC research are noted, some advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapies targeting EBV NPCs are discussed in this chapter, which may offer improvements in outcome of NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/complicações , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1192-1198, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564144

RESUMO

AIMS: Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies of vitamin E-doped, highly crosslinked polyethylene (VEPE) liners show low head penetration rates in cementless acetabular components. There is, however, currently no data on cemented VEPE acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a new cemented VEPE component, compared with a conventional polyethylene (PE) component regarding migration, head penetration, and clinical results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 42 patients (21 male, 21 female) with osteoarthritis and a mean age of 67 years (sd 5), in a double-blinded, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive a reverse hybrid THA with a cemented component of either argon-gas gamma-sterilized PE component (controls) or VEPE, with identical geometry. The primary endpoint was proximal implant migration of the component at two years postoperatively measured with RSA. Secondary endpoints included total migration of the component, penetration of the femoral head into the component, and patient-reported outcome measurements. RESULTS: In total, 19 control implants and 18 implants in the VEPE group were analyzed for the primary endpoint. We found a continuous proximal migration of the component in the VEPE group that was significantly higher with a difference at two years of a mean 0.21 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.37; p = 0.013). The total migration was also significantly higher in the VEPE group, but femoral head penetration was lower. We found no difference in clinical outcomes between the groups. CONCLUSION: At two years, this cemented VEPE component, although having a low head penetration and excellent clinical results, failed to meet noninferiority compared with the conventional implant by a proximal migration above the proposed safety threshold of RSA. The early proximal migration pattern of the VEPE component is a reason for continued monitoring, although a specific threshold for proximal migration and risk for later failure cannot be defined and needs further study. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1192-1198.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Polietilenos/química , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese/tendências , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Migração de Corpo Estranho/epidemiologia , Prótese de Quadril , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Análise Radioestereométrica , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suécia , Vitamina E/farmacologia
7.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1199-1208, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564148

RESUMO

AIMS: We compared implant and patient survival following intraoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (IOPFFs) during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with matched controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared 4831 hips with IOPFF and 48 154 propensity score matched primary THAs without IOPFF implanted between 2004 and 2016, which had been recorded on a national joint registry. Implant and patient survival rates were compared between groups using Cox regression. RESULTS: Ten-year stem survival was worse in the IOPFF group (p < 0.001). Risk of revision for aseptic loosening increased 7.2-fold following shaft fracture and almost 2.8-fold after trochanteric fracture (p < 0.001). Risk of periprosthetic fracture of the femur revision increased 4.3-fold following calcar-crack and 3.6-fold after trochanteric fracture (p < 0.01). Risk of instability revision was 3.6-fold after trochanteric fracture and 2.4-fold after calcar crack (p < 0.001). Risk of 90-day mortality following IOPFF without revision was 1.7-fold and 4.0-fold after IOPFF with early revision surgery versus uncomplicated THA (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: IOPFF increases risk of stem revision and mortality up to ten years following surgery. The risk of revision depends on IOPFF subtype and mortality risk increases with subsequent revision surgery. Surgeons should carefully diagnose and treat IOPFF to minimize fracture progression and implant failure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1199-1208.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Reoperação/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inglaterra , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Irlanda do Norte , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Periprotéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Periprotéticas/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , País de Gales
8.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1218-1229, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564157

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal femoral torsion (FT) is increasingly recognized as an additional cause for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). It is unknown if in-toeing of the foot is a specific diagnostic sign for increased FT in patients with symptomatic FAI. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of in-toeing to detect increased FT; 2) if foot progression angle (FPA) and tibial torsion (TT) are different among patients with abnormal FT; and 3) if FPA correlates with FT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, institutional review board (IRB)-approved, controlled study of 85 symptomatic patients (148 hips) with FAI or hip dysplasia was performed in the gait laboratory. All patients had a measurement of FT (pelvic CT scan), TT (CT scan), and FPA (optical motion capture system). We allocated all patients to three groups with decreased FT (< 10°, 37 hips), increased FT (> 25°, 61 hips), and normal FT (10° to 25°, 50 hips). Cluster analysis was performed. RESULTS: We found a specificity of 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 93%, and sensitivity of 23% for in-toeing (FPA < 0°) to detect increased FT > 25°. Most of the hips with normal or decreased FT had no in-toeing (false-positive rate of 1%). Patients with increased FT had significantly (p < 0.001) more in-toeing than patients with decreased FT. The majority of the patients (77%) with increased FT walk with a normal foot position. The correlation between FPA and FT was significant (r = 0.404, p < 0.001). Five cluster groups were identified. CONCLUSION: In-toeing has a high specificity and high PPV to detect increased FT, but increased FT can be missed because of the low sensitivity and high false-negative rate. These results can be used for diagnosis of abnormal FT in patients with FAI or hip dysplasia undergoing hip arthroscopy or femoral derotation osteotomy. However, most of the patients with increased FT walk with a normal foot position. This can lead to underestimation or misdiagnosis of abnormal FT. We recommend measuring FT with CT/MRI scans in all patients with FAI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1218-1229.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Imagem Tridimensional , Metatarso Valgo/diagnóstico por imagem , Metatarso Varo/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metatarso Valgo/epidemiologia , Metatarso Varo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia/métodos , Prevalência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Anormalidade Torcional/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17185, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567961

RESUMO

Infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) mostly present as recurrent skin abscesses and furunculosis. However, life-threatening infections (eg, necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and osteomyelitis) caused by PVL-SA have also been reported.We assessed the clinical phenotype, frequency, clinical implications (surgery, length of treatment in hospitals/intensive care units, and antibiotic treatments), and potential preventability of severe PVL-SA infections in children.Total, 75 children treated for PVL-SA infections in our in- and outpatient units from 2012 to 2017 were included in this retrospective study.Ten out of 75 children contracted severe infections (PVL-methicillin resistant S aureus n = 4) including necrotizing pneumonia (n = 4), necrotizing fasciitis (n = 2), pyomyositis (n = 2; including 1 patient who also had pneumonia), mastoiditis with cerebellitis (n = 1), preorbital cellulitis (n = 1), and recurrent deep furunculosis in an immunosuppressed patient (n = 1). Specific complications of PVL-SA infections were venous thrombosis (n = 2), sepsis (n = 5), respiratory failure (n = 5), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). The median duration of hospital stay was 14 days (range 5-52 days). In 6 out of 10 patients a history suggestive for PVL-SA colonization in the patient or close family members before hospital admission was identified.PVL-SA causes severe to life-threatening infections requiring lengthy treatments in hospital in a substantial percentage of symptomatic PVL-SA colonized children. More than 50% of severe infections might be prevented by prompt testing for PVL-SA in individuals with a history of abscesses or furunculosis, followed by decolonization measures.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pneumonia Necrosante/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578845

RESUMO

The majority of the population in Yemen lives in rural areas and suffers from parasitic infections. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and schistosome infections among the students enrolled in the primary schools in Hajjah governorate ­ north of Yemen, along with an assessment of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of microscopy-confirmed cases of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. For this purpose, 780 samples (320 stool and 460 urine) were examined microscopically. The present study revealed an overall infection rate of 75.3% (241/320) with intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni. The detected parasite species included Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%), Hymenolepis nana (12.2%), Giardia lamblia (9.7%), Entamoeba coli (9.4%), S. mansoni (9.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Trichuris trichiura (3.1%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.8%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (2.2%). Schistosoma haematobium was prevalent among 1.7% (8/460) of the investigated students. On the other hand, PZQ yielded a cure rate of 75.7% of Schistosoma-infected students when administered at 40 mg/kg body weight. However, a 100% cure rate was achieved when administered at 60 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the findings of the present study highlight the importance of monitoring PZQ efficacy through large-scale studies in different settings endemic for schistosomosis in the country.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 225-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578846

RESUMO

Hydatidosis or echinococcosis is considered to be one of the most common zoonotic diseases of the animals. Infection occurs when intermediate hosts such as camel, cattle, sheep, and goats ingested food or water contaminated with eggs from the definitive host (dog). This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in one of the biggest abattoirs in Makkah in the west of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 38302 goats were examined and recorded at Makkah abattoirs. The examination had been performed to all slaughtered animals on two organs (spleen and heart) for detection of any hydatid cysts during the period from July 2018 until December 2018. The study included also histopathological tissue evaluation. The total infections number of hydatidosis in goats is 0.23%. The infected hearts were 40.35% whereas the infected spleen was 48.48% subsequently in local animals. The imported animals were 2124, the infected animals in heart were 59.64%, whereas the infected animal involving spleen were 51.51%. Meanwhile, results of histopathological examination had shown that most of the hydatid cysts in goats caused progressive focal pressure and degenerative changes in the surrounding tissue.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Doenças das Cabras , Coração , Baço , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Coração/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita , Baço/parasitologia
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 182-187, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although manufactured cigarettes remain the most popular tobacco product worldwide, the use of other products, including little cigar and cigarillo, has been rising in recent years; however, there is a paucity of data on the correlates of current and ever use of cigarillos in Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the extent and determinants of cigarillo use, as well as to describe the cost and affordability of cigarillos across the EU, in light of the current regulatory framework at a European level. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data collected across 28 European Union (EU) Member States through wave 87.1 of the Eurobarometer survey, conducted in March 2017 (N = 27,901). A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to assess the association of current and ever cigarillo use with the above socio-demographic factors. We also analysed Euromonitor International data on cigarillo prices in 2017 from 24 EU Member States. RESULTS: Across the EU, 0.46% (95% CI: 0.33-0.63) of those aged ≥ 15 years reported at least weekly current use of cigarillos in 2017, which corresponds to 1,966,516 (95% CI: 1,426,554-2,709,563) people. Finland recorded the highest prevalence (20.51%) of ever cigarillo use in Europe while Ireland had the lowest (1.15%). Male sex, living in urban area and being over 55 years old compared to 15-24 year olds were associated with greater odds of ever cigarillo use. Median cigarillo prices varied widely, ranging from 3.60 Euros in Portugal to 20.40 Euros in Bulgaria per 20 sticks. CONCLUSIONS: The use of cigarillos in Europe is associated with several socio-demographic factors such as gender, age and living area. Policy makers of EU countries, especially now under the regulatory framework of the EU Tobacco Products Directive, should work together to enforce more restrictive rules for cigarillos.


Assuntos
Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Bulgária , Europa (Continente) , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
13.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 188-194, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking of water pipe (WP) and cigarettes has recently turned into a major global health burden. The present study aimed at assessing WP and cigarette smoking among Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) students in Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 500 students in ZUMS (182 males, 318 females). The subjects were selected through randomized cluster sampling. Morgan's chart was applied to calculate the sample size; 96.6% of the attendees completed a questionnaire designed to address the aims of the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 21.2 ± 2.4 years. WP and cigarette smoker rates were at 31.2% and 15.2%, respectively. The age of smoking initiation ranged between 15 and 20 years. Friends played crucial roles in triggering the smoking in both groups of WP and cigarette smokers (78% and 54%, respectively). The main reasons for WP and cigarette smoking were entertainment followed by curiosity. Furthermore, males used more cigarette (26.5 vs. 8.7%) and WP (50.6 vs. 20.4%) than females. Among father and mother smokers, respectively, 54.2% and 60% of children were also WP smokers (p = 0.001). Also, 21.9% and 60% of children smoking cigarettes had father and mother smokers, respectively (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Tobacco use, especially for WP seems to be at alarming rates among medical students in Iran. It is highly recommended to control the progressive prevalence of WP smoking by governmental/academic preventive measures as educational and smoking cessation activities.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Estudantes de Medicina , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 212-216, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Survey was conducted to assess state of viral hepatitis care in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). METHODS: Representatives of 16 CEE countries completed on-line survey in April-May 2017 that collected information on basic epidemiology and availability of key services for HCV and HBV infections. Sources of information provided ranged from national surveillance data to expert opinion. RESULTS: The burden of viral hepatitis varied between countries, ranging from 6,500 to 2 million for HCV and from 10,000 to 3 million for HBV. Access to routine HCV RNA testing and genotyping was reported by 11 and 9 countries, respectively. HCV resistance testing was available in 7 countries. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) were available in 13 countries, most frequently Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (12 countries apiece) and Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Dasabuvir (9 countries). HBV DNA testing and HBV genotyping were routinely available in 10 and 7 countries, respectively. Eleven countries reported available treatment with Tenofovir. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in viral hepatitis care in CEE. Despite the availability of registered modern drugs for HCV and HBV, the access to treatment is limited. Ensuring quality health care is essential to reduce the epidemic and achieve the WHO's goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health challenge.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C , Antivirais/farmacologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos
15.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 223-228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treponema pallidum and HIV are transmitted frequently through sexual contact, these agents with epidemiological similarities co-infect the same host. The current number of HIV-infected cases in Turkey is increasing. For this reason, we aimed to reveal the characteristics of syphilis in HIV/AIDS cases. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed, patients were followed up at 24 clinics in 16 cities from all seven regions of Turkey between January 2010 to April 2018. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters and neurosyphilis association in HIV/AIDS-syphilis co-infected cases. RESULTS: Among 3,641 patients with HIV-1 infection, 291 (8%) patients were diagnosed with syphilis co-infection. Most patients were older than 25 years (92%), 96% were males, 74% were working, 23% unemployed, and 3% were students. The three highest prevalence of syphilis were in Black Sea (10.3%), Mediterranean (8.4%) and Marmara Regions (7.4%). As for sexual orientation, 46% were heterosexuals, 42% men who have sex with men (MSM), and no data available for 12%. Patients with the number of CD4+ ≤ 350 mm3 reached 46%, 17% of the patients received antiretroviral therapy and neurosyphilis association reached 9%. CONCLUSION: Although HIV/AIDS-syphilis co-infection status appeared high in heterosexuals, MSM had a moderate level increase in cases. Our results suggested syphilis co-infection in HIV/AIDS cases should be integral part of monitoring in a national sexual transmitted diseases surveillance system. However, our data may provide base for HIV/syphilis prevention and treatment efforts in the future.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Turquia
16.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 229-234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Late presentation of the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with less favourable treatment responses, more accelerated clinical progression, and a higher mortality risk. Although HIV prevalence is low in Turkey, it is steadily increasing and the information about late presentation among HIV-positives is limited. We aimed to analyze the status of late presentation among HIV-positive patients in Turkey. METHODS: All newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients from 2003 to 2016 were enrolled in this study by five dedicated centres in Istanbul, Turkey. Demographic data, CD4+ counts, and HIV RNA were collected from medical records and were transferred to a HIV database system. Late pre- sentation was defined as presentation for care with a CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 or presentation with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. A medical literature search was done for the analysis of late presentation in Turkey. RESULTS: The cohort included 1,673 patients (1,440 males, median age 35 years). Among them, 847 (50.6%) had an early diagnosis, with a CD count of more than 350 cells/mm3. The remaining 826 were late presenters. Among late presenters, 427 (25.5% of all, 51.7% of late presenters) presented with advanced HIV disease. Late presenters were more elderly and less educated. The gender seemed comparable between groups. Late presentation was more likely among married patients. Early presenters were more likely among homosexuals, those diagnosed in screening studies, and in lower HIV-RNA viral load category. There has been a decreasing trend among late presenters in 2011-2016 when compared to 2003-2011 period. CONCLUSION: Current data suggest that half of HIV-infected patients present late in Turkey. In our cohort, those presented late were more elderly, less educated, married and had heterosexual intercourse. On admission, late presenters had more HIV-related diseases and were more likely in higher HIV-RNA category. In the cohort, men having sex with men were less likely late presenters. Efforts to reduce the proportion of late presentation are essential for almost every country. The countries should identify the risk factors of late presentation and should improve early diagnosis and presentation for HIV care.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Turquia
17.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 235-238, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a transmissible infection, common in the temperate climate zones. It is caused by a group of spirochetal bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The aim of the present work was to investigate the incidence rate of borreliosis in different regions of Bulgaria and to identify possible risk factors for its occurrence. METHODS: National and regional borreliosis incidence rates for 2009-2018 were obtained from the public database of the National Centre of Public Health and Analyses. Their association with some socio-demographic variables and the geographic location (south or north) of the regions was tested with Spearman's correlation analysis and simple linear regression. RESULTS: The mean annual incidence for the last 10 years (2009-2018) in Bulgaria was 6.9 (range 4.1-11.6) cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We found that the Lyme disease was highly fluctuating at regional level with incidence rates varied from 0.3 to 30.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. Several regions showed significantly higher endemicity for the disease. Socio-demographic factors were not found to be important for Lyme disease frequency while the geographic location in the north part of the country was a significant risk factor for it. CONCLUSIONS: Lyme disease is a serious health risk in Bulgaria especially in its northern part - regions on the north are the most vulnerable to a higher incidence of the disease.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Bulgária , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia
18.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 245-250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common problems in women, and important reason for visiting primary care physicians, resulting in substantial financial burden to community. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance rates of E. coli to commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs for community-acquired UTIs in women and to establish the association between age and resistance to antibiotics among isolates of E. coli from urine. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective cross-sectional study during the 5-years period. It was conducted on a sample of urinary tract isolates of E. coli taken from women with community-acquired UTIs. After prevalence of E. coli resistance to antibiotics was established, the analysis of risk factors for emergence of resistance was conducted. RESULTS: There were 10,734 isolates of E. coli, comprising 70.62% of all samples analyzed. E. coli was the most frequently resistant to ampicillin (54.68%), followed by trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (37.46%), first and second generation cephalosporins (cephalexin and cefaclor) (29.53% both), and ciprofloxacin (23.80%). Less than 50% of E. coli isolates was sensitive to all three tested antibiotics, and nearly 13% acquired triple-resistance. Prevalence of isolates resistant to two or three agents was higher in the subgroup of women older than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Empirical choice of antimicrobial agent for community-acquired non-complicated UTIs in women should be individualized on the basis of the patient's age, prevalence of resistance in the local community, and compliance history of the patient.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/química , Infecções Urinárias , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 256-262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate caries prevalence in a sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years from rural and urban areas in Croatia. METHODS: Using standardized World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria, the oral health status of 1,589 children (265 from rural and 1,324 from urban areas) was assessed by recording the following indices: DMFT (decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth), deft (decayed, extracted, filled primary teeth), DMFS (decayed, missing, filled surfaces - permanent teeth), defs (decayed, extracted, filled surfaces - primary teeth) and SiC (Significant Caries Index). Rural areas were Stitar and Babina Greda municipalities in Slavonia and urban areas were the cities of Zupanja (Slavonia), Zagreb and Dubrovnik. RESULTS: Half of the examined children (50.0%) had caries (D component in DMFT), with 46.0% of these being from urban and 70.2% from rural areas. The median DMFT among children was 2, 4 (rural) and 2 (urban) (p < 0.001). Among 12-year-olds, the median DMFT was 4 (rural) and 3 (urban), and mean DMFT was 3.4. The median DMFS for rural area was 5 and for urban area 3 (p < 0.001). The median deft was 1.00 for rural and 1.00 for urban, while the highest value was found among 6-year-olds at 9 in rural and 7 in urban areas. The median SiC was 4, 4 (urban) and 5 (rural). CONCLUSION: Schoolchildren from urban and rural areas in Croatia differ significantly in caries prevalence. They fall into the medium DMFT classification group according to the WHO, which indicates the need for a comprehensive oral health preservation programme.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Croácia , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 855-859, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581161

RESUMO

Rubella is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable birth defects. Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild febrile rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). A single dose of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) can provide lifelong protection (1). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the use of RCV and recommended capitalizing on the accelerated measles elimination activities as an opportunity to introduce RCV (1). The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) includes a target to achieve elimination of rubella in at least five of the six WHO regions by 2020 (2). This report on the progress toward rubella and CRS control and elimination updates the 2017 report (3), summarizing global progress toward the control and elimination of rubella and CRS from 2000 (the initiation of accelerated measles control activities) and 2012 (the initiation of accelerated rubella control activities) to 2018 (the most recent data) using WHO immunization and surveillance data. Among WHO Member States,* the number with RCV in their immunization schedules has increased from 99 (52% of 191) in 2000 to 168 (87% of 194) in 2018†; 69% of the world's infants were vaccinated against rubella in 2018. Rubella elimination has been verified in 81 (42%) countries. To make further progress to control and eliminate rubella, and to reduce the equity gap, introduction of RCV in all countries is important. Likewise, countries that have introduced RCV can achieve and maintain elimination with high vaccination coverage and surveillance for rubella and CRS. The two WHO regions that have not established an elimination goal (African [AFR] and Eastern Mediterranean [EMR]) should consider establishing a goal.§.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/administração & dosagem
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