Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.984
Filtrar
1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 60-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this review, the authors re-examine the role of aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. They discuss the history of the use of aspirin in primary prevention, the current guidelines, and the recent evidence surrounding aspirin use as primary prevention in special populations such as those with moderate cardiovascular risk, diabetes mellitus, and the elderly.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevenção Primária/métodos
2.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18232, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852085

RESUMO

Transgender people continue to be at high-risk for HIV acquisition, but little is known about the characteristics of their sexual partners. To address this gap, we examined sociodemographic and sexual characteristics of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reporting transgender sexual partners.A cohort of 392 MSM in southern California in a randomized clinical trial for PrEP adherence were followed from 2013 to 2016. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and logistic models identified characteristics of MSM reporting transgender sexual partners and PrEP adherence.Only 14 (4%) MSM reported having transgender sexual partners. MSM were more likely to report transgender partners if they were African American, had incident chlamydia, reported injection drug-using sexual partners, or received items for sex. Most associations remained significant in the multivariable model: African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.20, P = .01), incident chlamydia (AOR 3.71, P = .04), and receiving items for sex (AOR 5.29, P = .04). There were no significant differences in PrEP adherence between MSM reporting transgender partners and their counterpart.MSM who report transgender sexual partners share characteristics associated with individuals with high HIV prevalence. Identifying this group distinct from larger cohorts of MSM could offer new HIV prevention opportunities for this group of MSM and the transgender community.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20191100. 22 p. graf, ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1005172

RESUMO

La publicación describe los criterios para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de bronquiolitis, contribuyendo a la reducción de la morbilidad y mortalidad en menores de 2 años. Asimismo, las medidas de prevención, atención y control de la Bronquiolitis, mejorando así su calidad de vida


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Infecções Respiratórias , Bronquiolite , Guia de Prática Clínica , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Bronquíolos
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20191100. 11 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1024803

RESUMO

La norma tiene como finalidad contribuir a que los establecimientos dedicados a la salud o a la educación, dependencias públicas, interiores de los lugares de trabajo, espacios públicos cerrados y cualquier medio de transporte público, sean ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco, de acuerdo a lo dispuesto en la ley N° 28705.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Saúde Pública , Normas Técnicas , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
8.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(5): 304-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623006

RESUMO

AIMS: This is an official guideline of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). The aim of this guideline is to improve the prediction, prevention and management of preterm birth based on evidence obtained from recent scientific literature, the experience of the members of the guideline commission and the views of self-help groups. METHODS: Based on the international literature, the members of the participating medical societies and organizations developed Recommendations and Statements. These were adopted following a formal process (structured consensus conference with neutral moderation, voting was done in writing using the Delphi method to achieve consensus). RECOMMENDATIONS: Part I of this short version of the guideline lists Statements and Recommendations on the epidemiology, etiology, prediction and primary and secondary prevention of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária , Sociedades Médicas
9.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(9): 580-594, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an up-to-date review of current guidelines, previous trials, and new trials regarding aspirin use in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease in the elderly population. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of articles published through April 2019 was performed using a combination of the following words: aspirin, bleeding, cardiovascular, elderly, hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, primary prevention, stroke. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines were assessed for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CV disease in older patients. References from the above literature were also evaluated. Articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic, detailed methods, and complete results. DATA SYNTHESIS: The role of aspirin for primary prevention of CV disease in older adults is not well defined. As a result, the guideline recommendations for the use of aspirin in this setting are inconsistent. In 2018, the ARRIVE, ASCEND, and ASPREE studies were published. These studies tried to address some of the inconsistencies regarding the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CV disease. This article reviews the current recommendations along with previous and recent studies for aspirin use for primary prevention in older adults. CONCLUSION: The role of aspirin for primary prevention of CV disease in older adults should be individualized based on patient's risk factors, including risk of CV disease and likelihood of bleeding. Updated evidence provides more guidance regarding which patient populations will benefit from therapy.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco
10.
Bull Cancer ; 106(11): 1008-1022, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606139

RESUMO

With more than 3300 new cases and almost 2500 deaths each year, cervical cancer (CC) ranks second among female cancers in Moroccan women. The majority of cases occurs in women aged 50 and over. In absence of a national cancer registry, data published in Morocco are limited to the number of cases recorded in some oncology centers, so the incidence of this cancer is likely much higher than estimated. A Moroccan national program against CC based on the practice of visual inspection after application of acetic acid was set up in 2010, allowing both screening and possibly immediate treatment of (pre)cancerous lesions. However, this program has not been implemented in all regions of the country. The CC develops slowly and most often without any symptoms, and so it is diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Virtually, all CC are associated with persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16 and 18. For more than ten years, two prophylactic vaccines targeting these two HPV genotypes have been marketed. They have proved their excellent immunogenicity and efficacy and they are well tolerated. However, HPV vaccine is not yet recommended by health authorities in Morocco. In this literature review, we focused on the current situation of CC, the prevalence of HPV infection and the prevention strategies against CC in Morocco.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Algoritmos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Indicadores e Reagentes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/virologia , Prevenção Primária , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos , Prevenção Secundária , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of aspirin for primary prevention of cancer remains inconclusive, and variation in the effects of aspirin use on cancer outcomes by cancer site, aspirin dose, follow-up duration, or different populations has never been systematically evaluated. METHODS: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, etc) will be searched from inception to September 30, 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing aspirin versus no aspirin in participants without pre-existing cancer and reporting cancer incidence, and/or cancer mortality outcomes will be selected and assessed for inclusion. The Cochrane's Risk of Bias Tool and the Jadad scale will be used to evaluate the risk of bias and the methodologic quality of the RCTs. Data will be screened and extracted by independent investigators. Total cancer incidence will be defined as the primary clinical endpoint, and total cancer mortality, all-cause mortality, and the risk of major bleeding will be the secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses based on cancer site, aspirin dose, follow-up duration, or different populations will be conducted. Analyses will be performed using Review Manager 5.3, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0, and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) software. RESULTS: This study will systematically evaluate the effects of long-term aspirin use on total cancer incidence, cancer mortality, all-cause mortality, and the risk of major bleeding. Subgroup analyses will indicate whether the effects of aspirin on cancer outcomes are associated with cancer site, daily dose of aspirin, follow-up duration, or different subgroup of participants. The results will be submitted and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term use of aspirin for primary prevention of cancer and determine whether there are some potential influencing factors affecting the effects of aspirin on cancer outcomes, thus strengthening the evidence base for the clinical practice and future research of this intervention.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(2): 129-139, 17 de octubre de 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023408

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar la contribución de los estudios y las políticas de salud pública diseñadas para la prevención y el tratamiento de la enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) permite conocer los planes de acción para obtener los resultados deseados en el abordaje de la enfermedad, además, estos documentos son guías en el proceso de promoción de buenos hábitos que impacten en la salud. Sin embargo, la literatura adolece de una revisión sistemática que permita saber con claridad las políticas de salud pública para la prevención y el tratamiento de la EVC en Estados Unidos de América (EE. UU.), México y Colombia. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es presentar los hallazgos más significativos reportados para estos países en la literatura. Metodología: se creó una ecuación de búsqueda aplicable en la base de datos de Web of Science (WoS), dentro del periodo de tiempo de enero de 2001 a enero de 2018. Resultados: los resultados mostraron tres enfoques relacionados con políticas de salud pública para la prevención y el tratamiento de la EVC: En EE.UU., recomendaciones de la Asociación Americana de EVC; en México, recomendaciones de la Asociación Mexicana de EVC y en Colombia, recomendaciones del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Conclusiones: este artículo contiene recomendaciones que van desde la etapa prehospitalaria hasta tiempo después del EVC y que incluyen el abordaje médico, de rehabilitación, de cuidado alimentario y de actividad física, así como estrategias de actuación en caso de sospecha de EVC.


Objective: It is a must to identify the contribution of previous research and public health policies designed to prevent and treat stroke, in order to get to know action plans to obtain the desired results when approaching this illness. Moreover, these policies are important guidelines when it comes to promoting good health habits. However, current literature lacks a systematic review about the contribution of public health policies to stroke prevention and treatment in the U.S. of America, Mexico and Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present the most important findings about this matter in said countries. Methodology: This article proposes a search equation in the Web of Science (WoS) database from January 2001 to January 2018. Results: The main findings suggest three approaches related to public health policies and stroke prevention and treatment: In America (Guidelines of the American Stroke Association), in Mexico (Guidelines of the Mexican Stroke Association), and in Colombia (Guidelines of the Health and Social Protection Ministry). Conclusions: This article contains recommendations that range from the pre-hospital stage to time after the stroke. They include the medical, rehabilitation, food care and physical activity approach, as well as action strategies in case of suspected stroke.


Objetivo: identificar a contribuição dos estudos e as políticas de saúde pública desenhadas para a prevenção e o tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) permite conhecer os planos de ação para obter os resultados desejados na abordagem da doença, ademais, estes documentos são guias no processo de promoção de bons hábitos que impactem na saúde. Embora, a literatura carece de uma revisão sistemática que permita saber com claridade as políticas de saúde pública para a prevenção e o tratamento do AVC nos Estados Unidos de América (E. U.A), México e Colômbia. Por tanto, o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar as descobertas mais significativas reportadas para estes países na literatura. Metodologia: se criou uma equação de busca aplicável na base de dados de Web of Science (WoS), dentro do período de tempo de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2018. Resultados: os resultados mostraram três enfoques relacionados com políticas de saúde pública para a prevenção e o tratamento do AVC: Nos E.U.A., Recomendações da Associação Americana de AVC; no México, Recomendações da Associação Mexicana de AVC e na Colômbia, Recomendações do Ministério de Saúde e Proteção Social. Conclusões: este artigo contém recomendações que vão desde a etapa pré-hospitalar até tempo depois do AVC e que incluem a abordagem, médica, de reabilitação, de cuidado alimentar e de atividade física, assim como estratégias de atuação em caso de suspeita de AVC.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Saúde Pública , Guia de Prática Clínica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD010546, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including haemorrhage from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal haemorrhage commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein obstruction. Prevention is therefore important. Following numerous randomised clinical trials demonstrating efficacy of non-selective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation in decreasing the incidence of variceal haemorrhage, primary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage in adults has become the established standard of care. Hence, band ligation and beta-blockers have been proposed to be used as primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of band ligation compared with any type of beta-blocker for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (February 2019), CENTRAL (December 2018), PubMed (December 2018), Embase Ovid (December 2018), LILACS (Bireme; January 2019), and Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science; December 2018). We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications and performed a manual search from the main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conferences (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN) abstract books from 2009 to 2018. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing clinical trials. There were no language or document type restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. We planned to also include quasi-randomised and other observational studies retrieved with the searches for randomised clinical trials for report of harm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using standard Cochrane methodologies. MAIN RESULTS: We found no randomised clinical trials assessing band ligation versus beta-blockers for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits or harms of band ligation versus beta-blockers for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are lacking. There is a need for well-designed, adequately powered randomised clinical trials to assess the benefits and harms of band ligation versus beta-blockers for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Those randomised clinical trials should include patient-relevant clinical outcomes such as mortality, failure to control bleeding, and adverse events.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Ligadura/métodos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Veia Porta , Prevenção Primária , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombose Venosa/complicações
15.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(8-9): 523-531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471226

RESUMO

This review summarizes the main findings of the French multicentre DAI-PP pilot programme, and discusses the related clinical and research perspectives. This project included retrospectively (2002-2012 period) more than 5000 subjects with structural heart disease who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, and were followed for a mean period of 3 years. The pilot phase of the DAI-PP programme has provided valuable information on several practical and clinically relevant aspects of primary prevention ICD implantation in the real-world population, which are summarized in this review. This pilot has led to a prospective evaluation that started in May 2018, assessing ICD therapy in primary and secondary prevention in patients with structural and electrical heart diseases, with remote monitoring follow-up using a dedicated platform. This should further enhance our understanding of sudden cardiac death, to eventually optimize the field of preventative actions.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 501-508, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483196

RESUMO

Objectives: Aiginition Longitudinal Biomarker Investigation Of Neurodegeneration (ALBION) is a longitudinal ongoing study initiated in 2018 that takes place in the Cognitive Disorders Clinic of Aiginition Hospital of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Its aim is to address several research questions concerning the preclinical and prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and explore potential markers for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of dementia. Methods: We here present the design and the preliminary baseline characteristics of ALBION. The sample of our study consists of people aged over 50 who are concerned about their memory but are cognitively normal (CN) or have mild cognitive deficits. Each participant undergoes an extensive assessment including several demographic, medical, social, environmental, clinical, nutritional, neuropsychological determinants and lifestyle activities. Furthermore, we are collecting data from portable devices, neuroimaging techniques and biological samples (blood, stools, CSF). All participants are assessed annually for a period of 10 years. Results: In total, 47 participants have completed the initial evaluation up to date and are divided in two groups, CN individuals (N = 26) and MCI patients (N = 21), based on their cognitive status. The participants are, on average, 64 years old, 46.3% of the sample is male with an average of 12.73 years of education. MCI patients report more comorbidities and have a lower score in the MMSE test. Regarding APOE status, 2 participants are ε4 homozygotes and 10 ε4 heterozygotes. CSF analyses (Aß42, Τ-tau, P-tau) revealed no differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The ALBION study offers an opportunity to explore preclinical dementia and identify new and tailored markers, particularly relating to lifestyle. Further investigation of these populations may provide a wider profile of the changes taking place in the preclinical phase of dementia, leading to potentially effective therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Prevenção Primária , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Grécia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Dados Preliminares , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
18.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(9): 633-643, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382819

RESUMO

Introduction: While the clinical merits of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention remain undisputed, its role in primary prevention is controversial. Recently, three trials of primary prevention reported neutral net benefit results or evidence of harm for aspirin in patients with no overt CVD. Areas covered: This article aims to inform clinical practitioners by appraising the current body of evidence on the use of aspirin for primary CVD prevention, ranging from general pharmacology to clinical outcomes and future directions. Expert opinion: Based on meta-analyses incorporating latest trials in the field of primary prevention, the modest reduction in ischemic events with aspirin, if any, is offset by a modest increase in nonfatal bleeding. Improved control of CVD risk factors and broader use of statins may have reduced the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis, thus limiting the opportunity for aspirin to prevent clinical CVD events in the contemporary era. As such, decision-making about aspirin for primary prevention is challenging even when selected patients are considered and involves careful weighing of risks and benefits. Ongoing investigations conducted in patients with cancer could rapidly modify the current perception of the unfavorable benefit-risk ratio of aspirin in patients with no overt CVD.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Seleção de Pacientes , Prevenção Primária/métodos
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392647

RESUMO

Non communicable diseases (NCDs) become symptomatic in adulthood, but they mainly origin from early life. As NCDs are the major cause of mortality both in developed and developing countries, global actions are necessary for their life course prevention and control. The main preventable risk factors of NCDs include tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. These risk factors track from childhood to adulthood; it is well documented that healthy lifestyles play an important role for primordial and primary prevention of NCDs. Sedentary lifestyle, especially prolonged screen time, is a main underlying factor for NCDs. Regarding dietary intake, lower consumption of fruits, vegetables and fibers, as well as higher consumption of fatty and salty foods (fast foods, junk food), and carbonated soft drinks are of most usual habits correlated with increased risk of NCDs.Strategic action areas for the prevention and control of NCDs are health promotion, risk reduction, health systems strengthening for early detection and management of NCD risk factors. Low-cost solutions for reduction the common modifiable risk factors including unhealthy life-cycle are important for guiding policy and priorities of governments and for decreasing the prevalence of NCDs.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 270, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria preventive measures, including long-lasting insecticide-treated bet nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and controlling mosquito breeding sites, are key measures to achieve malaria elimination. Still, compliance with these recommended measures remains a major challenge. By applying a novel and comprehensive model for determinants of malaria prevention behaviour, this study tests how individual perceptions influence the intentions to use malaria preventive measures and explores strategies that stimulate their consistent use. METHODS: The study was carried out in the sectors of Ruhuha and Busoro, Rwanda during October and November 2017, and these were conducted into two phases. Phase one involved a questionnaire survey (N = 742), whereas Phase two employed a qualitative approach that included nine focus group discussions, seven key informant interviews, and three in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The findings of the quantitative study showed that participants very often use LLINs (66.6%), accept IRS (73.9%), and drain stagnant water in case of presence (62%). The intentions to use malaria preventive measures were consistently driven by perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, and subjective norms, and hindered by perceived barriers. The intentions were also positively associated with the actual use of LLINs, acceptance of IRS, and drainage of stagnant water. There is no evidence that either not having enough LLINs (ownership of at least one bed net in the household, here referred to as availability) or having sufficient LLINs (having one LLIN per two people in the household, here referred to as accessibility) moderated the relationship between behavioural intentions and actual use of LLINs. The qualitative study indicated that participants believed malaria risk to be high and perceived a high mosquito density. They also believed that repetitive malaria episodes are caused by the perceived low effectiveness of anti-malaria medications. Lack of LLINs increased the perceived added value of LLINs, and together with the increased malaria burden increased the perceived response efficacy. Participants highlighted the need to continuously mobilize and engage community members especially those who do not use LLINs when having one, and those who do not accept the spraying activities. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention interventions should target individual perceptions to enhance consistent use of malaria preventive measures. Three strategies to improve consistent use and acceptance of these measures are highlighted: (1) ensure access to LLINs and regular spraying activities, (2) community mobilization and (3) citizen engagement in malaria prevention activities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruanda
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA