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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1194-1201, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022257

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento de cuidadores de pacientes com câncer gástrico, identificar os principais fatores de risco em cuidadores e propor ações de educação em saúde junto aos cuidadores sobre o câncer gástrico. Método: Estudo descritivo do tipo qualitativo. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio da entrevista semiestruturada com cuidadores de pacientes com câncer gástrico. A análise dos dados deu-se por meio da análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados: Os entrevistados possuíam conhecimento insuficiente sobre a prevenção do câncer gástrico, levando a aquisição de hábitos não saudáveis, que comprometem a saúde. Conclusão: É necessário a implementação de ações educativas em todos os níveis de atenção a saúde e cabe aos profissionais a difusão de conhecimentos sobre o assunto e aos usuários a mudança de comportamentos que gerem saúde e o abandono de hábitos que contribuam para a aquisição de doenças


Objective: The study's purpose has been to scrutinize the knowledge of caregivers of patients bearing gastric cancer, to identify the main risk factors in caregivers and to propose actions of health education among caregivers regarding the gastric cancer. Methods: It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured interview with caregivers of patients with gastric cancer. Data analysis was performed according to Bardin's perspective. Results: The interviewees had insufficient knowledge about the prevention of gastric cancer, then leading to unhealthy habits that compromise their health. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement educational engagement at all levels of health care, furthermore, it is the responsibility of professionals to disseminate knowledge about the subject, as well as it is up to users to choose behaviors that produce health rather than habits that lead to illnesses


Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento de cuidadores de pacientes con cáncer gástrico, identificar los principales factores de riesgo en cuidadores y proponer acciones de educación en salud junto a los cuidadores sobre el cáncer gástrico. Método: Estudio descriptivo del tipo cualitativo. La recolección de datos fue realizada por medio de la entrevista semiestructurada con cuidadores de pacientes con cáncer gástrico. El análisis de los datos se dio a través del análisis de contenido de Bardin. Resultados: Los entrevistados poseían conocimiento insuficiente sobre la prevención del cáncer gástrico, llevando la adquisición de hábitos no saludables, que comprometen la salud. Conclusión: Es necesario la implementación de acciones educativas en todos los niveles de atención a la salud y corresponde a los profesionales la difusión de conocimientos sobre el tema y los usuarios el cambio de comportamientos que generan salud y el abandono de hábitos que contribuyan a la adquisición de enfermedades


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas , Cuidadores/educação , Prevenção Secundária/educação , Brasil , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação em Saúde
2.
Bull Cancer ; 106(10): 903-914, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495441

RESUMO

Germ-cell tumors are the most common solid tumors in young men. The follow-up of these patients is very important in their management. In stage I testicular cancer, surveillance is the standard for low-risk disease. In addition to the early detection of relapse, follow-up should be directed towards prevention, detection and treatment of late toxicity, and secondary malignancies. Follow up consists in physical examination, laboratory analysis and radiological imaging. Recently, guidelines recommend risk-adapted surveillance strategy, with a reduction of CT scans numbers, due to the recognition of the risk of ionizing radiation exposure. However, efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up are required.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/prevenção & controle , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(4): 315-321, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487255

RESUMO

One of the main pillars of acute ischemic stroke management is antiplatelet therapy. Different treatment schemes have been compared, suggesting that the combination of multiple antiplatelet drugs is associated with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence. However, it has also been associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications which, in the long term, surpass the mentioned benefits. However, considering that most stroke recurrences occur i n the short term, a time limited double antiplatelet scheme could result in significant benefits to patients with acute ischemic stroke. On this basis, we conducted a rapid systematic review of the literature in order to evaluate the effects of a short-term double antiplatelet therapy both on stroke recurrence and complications. All trials comparing double versus single antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Results showed that double therapy reduces recurrence risk but probably marginally increases major bleeding complications. We suggest double antiplatelet therapy for the initial management of patients with minor (Score NIH < or equal to 3 or transient isquemic attack -TIA) acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Poliaminas/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD005049, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent sustained arrhythmia. Atrial fibrillation often recurs after restoration of normal sinus rhythm. Antiarrhythmic drugs have been widely used to prevent recurrence. This is an update of a review previously published in 2006, 2012 and 2015. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of long-term treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs on death, stroke, drug adverse effects and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in people who had recovered sinus rhythm after having atrial fibrillation. SEARCH METHODS: We updated the searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase in January 2019, and ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP in February 2019. We checked the reference lists of retrieved articles, recent reviews and meta-analyses. SELECTION CRITERIA: Two authors independently selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any antiarrhythmic drug with a control (no treatment, placebo, drugs for rate control) or with another antiarrhythmic drug in adults who had atrial fibrillation and in whom sinus rhythm was restored, spontaneously or by any intervention. We excluded postoperative atrial fibrillation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We pooled studies, if appropriate, using Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). All results were calculated at one year of follow-up or the nearest time point. MAIN RESULTS: This update included one new study (100 participants) and excluded one previously included study because of double publication. Finally, we included 59 RCTs comprising 20,981 participants studying quinidine, disopyramide, propafenone, flecainide, metoprolol, amiodarone, dofetilide, dronedarone and sotalol. Overall, mean follow-up was 10.2 months.All-cause mortalityHigh-certainty evidence from five RCTs indicated that treatment with sotalol was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate compared with placebo or no treatment (RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.81; participants = 1882). The number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for sotalol was 102 participants treated for one year to have one additional death. Low-certainty evidence from six RCTs suggested that risk of mortality may be higher in people taking quinidine (RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.84 to 4.77; participants = 1646). Moderate-certainty evidence showed increased RR for mortality but with very wide CIs for metoprolol (RR 2.02, 95% CI 0.37 to 11.05, 2 RCTs, participants = 562) and amiodarone (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 4.99, 2 RCTs, participants = 444), compared with placebo.We found little or no difference in mortality with dofetilide (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27; moderate-certainty evidence) or dronedarone (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.09; high-certainty evidence) compared to placebo/no treatment. There were few data on mortality for disopyramide, flecainide and propafenone, making impossible a reliable estimation for those drugs.Withdrawals due to adverse eventsAll analysed drugs increased withdrawals due to adverse effects compared to placebo or no treatment (quinidine: RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.87 to 2.78; disopyramide: RR 3.68, 95% CI 0.95 to 14.24; propafenone: RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.46; flecainide: RR 15.41, 95% CI 0.91 to 260.19; metoprolol: RR 3.47, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.15; amiodarone: RR 6.70, 95% CI 1.91 to 23.45; dofetilide: RR 1.77, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.18; dronedarone: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.85; sotalol: RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.11). Certainty of the evidence for this outcome was low for disopyramide, amiodarone, dofetilide and flecainide; moderate to high for the remaining drugs.ProarrhythmiaVirtually all studied antiarrhythmics showed increased proarrhythmic effects (counting both tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias attributable to treatment) (quinidine: RR 2.05, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.41; disopyramide: no data; flecainide: RR 4.80, 95% CI 1.30 to 17.77; metoprolol: RR 18.14, 95% CI 2.42 to 135.66; amiodarone: RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.71 to 6.96; dofetilide: RR 5.50, 95% CI 1.33 to 22.76; dronedarone: RR 1.95, 95% CI 0.77 to 4.98; sotalol: RR 3.55, 95% CI 2.16 to 5.83); with the exception of propafenone (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.39 to 4.47) for which the certainty of evidence was very low and we were uncertain about the effect. Certainty of the evidence for this outcome for the other drugs was moderate to high.StrokeEleven studies reported stroke outcomes with quinidine, disopyramide, flecainide, amiodarone, dronedarone and sotalol. High-certainty evidence from two RCTs suggested that dronedarone may be associated with reduced risk of stroke (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.95; participants = 5872). This result is attributed to one study dominating the meta-analysis and has yet to be reproduced in other studies. There was no apparent effect on stroke rates with the other antiarrhythmics.Recurrence of atrial fibrillationModerate- to high-certainty evidence, with the exception of disopyramide which was low-certainty evidence, showed that all analysed drugs, including metoprolol, reduced recurrence of atrial fibrillation (quinidine: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88; disopyramide: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.01; propafenone: RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.74; flecainide: RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.77; metoprolol: RR 0.83 95% CI 0.68 to 1.02; amiodarone: RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.58; dofetilide: RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.85; dronedarone: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.91; sotalol: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.87). Despite this reduction, atrial fibrillation still recurred in 43% to 67% of people treated with antiarrhythmics. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high-certainty evidence of increased mortality associated with sotalol treatment, and low-certainty evidence suggesting increased mortality with quinidine, when used for maintaining sinus rhythm in people with atrial fibrillation. We found few data on mortality in people taking disopyramide, flecainide and propafenone, so it was not possible to make a reliable estimation of the mortality risk for these drugs. However, we did find moderate-certainty evidence of marked increases in proarrhythmia and adverse effects with flecainide.Overall, there is evidence showing that antiarrhythmic drugs increase adverse events, increase proarrhythmic events and some antiarrhythmics may increase mortality. Conversely, although they reduce recurrences of atrial fibrillation, there is no evidence of any benefit on other clinical outcomes, compared with placebo or no treatment.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 90-92, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532173

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of a patient with recurrent acute adhesive intestinal obstruction is described. Seven plates of anti-adhesive barrier agent made from oxidized regenerated cellulose were applied to small bowel in order to prevent adhesions. Control examination did not reveal viscero-parietal adhesions between hollow organs and delayed passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Long-term results indicate the need for intraoperative prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions in patients with abdominal adhesive disease.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Celulose Oxidada/administração & dosagem , Obstrução Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia
9.
JAMA ; 322(7): 622-631, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429896

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic depression is a severely disabling and potentially lethal disorder. Little is known about the efficacy and tolerability of continuing antipsychotic medication for patients with psychotic depression in remission. Objective: To determine the clinical effects of continuing antipsychotic medication once an episode of psychotic depression has responded to combination treatment with an antidepressant and antipsychotic agent. Design, Setting, and Participants: Thirty-six week randomized clinical trial conducted at 4 academic medical centers. Patients aged 18 years or older had an episode of psychotic depression acutely treated with sertraline plus olanzapine for up to 12 weeks and met criteria for remission of psychosis and remission or near-remission of depressive symptoms for 8 weeks before entering the clinical trial. The study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2017, and the final date of follow-up was June 13, 2017. Interventions: Participants were randomized either to continue olanzapine (n = 64) or switch from olanzapine to placebo (n = 62). All participants continued sertraline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was risk of relapse. Main secondary outcomes were change in weight, waist circumference, lipids, serum glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Results: Among 126 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 55.3 years [14.9 years]; 78 women [61.9%]), 114 (90.5%) completed the trial. At the time of randomization, the median dosage of sertraline was 150 mg/d (interquartile range [IQR], 150-200 mg/d) and the median dosage of olanzapine was 15 mg/d (IQR, 10-20 mg/d). Thirteen participants (20.3%) randomized to olanzapine and 34 (54.8%) to placebo experienced a relapse (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.48; P < .001). The effect of olanzapine on the daily rate of anthropometric and metabolic measures significantly differed from placebo for weight (0.13 lb; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.15), waist circumference (0.009 inches; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.014), and total cholesterol (0.29 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.45) but was not significantly different for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.04 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.10), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.01 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.01), triglyceride (-0.153 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.306 to 0.004), glucose (-0.02 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.08), or HbA1c levels (-0.0002 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.0021 to 0.0016). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with psychotic depression in remission, continuing sertraline plus olanzapine compared with sertraline plus placebo reduced the risk of relapse over 36 weeks. This benefit needs to be balanced against potential adverse effects of olanzapine, including weight gain. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01427608.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olanzapina/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Prevenção Secundária , Sertralina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1366-1369, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411823

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death in young athletes has become a highly visible public health issue and it has been studied for the last twenty years. In this article, we analyse the most recent literature about epidemiology and aetiology of sudden cardiac death in Switzerland in comparison to international data. We cover last recommendations for pre-participation screening in athletes and we briefly describe the strategies of secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Eletrocardiografia , Exercício , Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevenção Secundária , Suíça
11.
Unfallchirurg ; 122(10): 766-770, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis results in fragility fractures that are associated with a high morbidity and mortality as well as an increased risk for subsequent fragility fractures. Thus, the first fragility fracture should be the last. To achieve this goal patients need treatment of osteoporosis according to the prevailing clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVE: This article presents the current clinical care situation of patients with a manifest osteoporosis in Germany and the accompanying risks. As a possible solution the concept of a fracture liaison service (FLS) as a new intersectoral care concept is presented and options for the establishment of FLS in Germany are provided. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search (PubMed) was conducted using key terms. The practical experiences of the authors in the context of establishing an FLS were also considered. RESULTS: Compared to other countries, in Germany only a minority of patients receive treatment for osteoporosis after fragility fractures. To improve the care situation an intersectoral FLS provides a coordinated referral of patients with fragility fractures from inpatient care in hospitals to specialists in private practice. This enables the strict identification and treatment of high-risk patients according to the prevailing clinical guidelines. In Germany, different options exist to structure an FLS under consideration of the local circumstances. CONCLUSION: In Germany, FLS should be established nationwide and according to uniform standards. This would significantly improve the quality of clinical care of patients with manifest osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Alemanha , Humanos , Prevenção Secundária
12.
Ther Umsch ; 76(2): 65-70, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429395

RESUMO

Skin cancer - prevention and therapy Abstract. Skin cancers are increasing in western countries. Prevention consists mainly of primary (UV- protection) and secondary (early detection) prevention. Family physicians are often the first contact persons to evaluate the dignity of skin lesions of high-risk patients and help to perform the diagnosis. If skin cancer is detected early, surgical removal is highly likely to achieve complete cure and reduce the financial burden due to malignant skin tumors. Great progress has been made in the local and systemic therapy of skin tumors in recent years.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 916-919, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438057

RESUMO

The habits and lifestyles are the fundamental factors in the control of cardiovascular risk. Patients who have had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) have a high risk of having a new event with similar characteristics. The exponentially growing success, penetration and adherence of the new communication technologies, based on applications (APPs), allows to use them to obtain information and influence the risk factors. We propose that empowering patients in their disease can make a more efficient management of it. For this reason, we designed and developed a system which integrates a mobile application and a web application. This system also makes use of peripheral devices to monitor patients and allow the automatic acquisition of information to enable the characterization of this kind of patients in relation to habits and lifestyle. At the same time, the system can also empower these patients with their disease to do secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hábitos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1712-1713, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438306

RESUMO

We developed a HeartGuardian app and explored its effects supporting people with CVD on lipid control and medication adherence. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled, 29 in the intervention group and 28 in the control group. The 12-week intervention resulted in a moderate improvement in lipid level and greater improvement in medication adherence (82.14% vs 37.93%, P = 0.001). These outcomes translate into significant differences in occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (28.75% vs 72.43%, P = 0.001).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Prevenção Secundária , Smartphone , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
16.
BMJ ; 366: l4697, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on diabetes diagnosis and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, and trials in relevant systematic reviews. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing effects of increasing α-linolenic acid, long chain omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA, which collected data on diabetes diagnoses, fasting glucose or insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and/or homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DATA SYNTHESIS: Statistical analysis included random effects meta-analyses using relative risk and mean difference, and sensitivity analyses. Funnel plots were examined and subgrouping assessed effects of intervention type, replacement, baseline risk of diabetes and use of antidiabetes drugs, trial duration, and dose. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and quality of evidence with GRADE. RESULTS: 83 randomised controlled trials (mainly assessing effects of supplementary long chain omega-3) were included; 10 were at low summary risk of bias. Long chain omega-3 had little or no effect on likelihood of diagnosis of diabetes (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.17; 58 643 participants, 3.7% developed diabetes) or measures of glucose metabolism (HbA1c mean difference -0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.07% to 0.04%; plasma glucose 0.04, 0.02 to 0.07, mmol/L; fasting insulin 1.02, -4.34 to 6.37, pmol/L; HOMA-IR 0.06, -0.21 to 0.33). A suggestion of negative outcomes was observed when dose of supplemental long chain omega-3 was above 4.4 g/d. Effects of α-linolenic acid, omega-6, and total PUFA on diagnosis of diabetes were unclear (as the evidence was of very low quality), but little or no effect on measures of glucose metabolism was seen, except that increasing α-linolenic acid may increase fasting insulin (by about 7%). No evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most extensive systematic review of trials to date to assess effects of polyunsaturated fats on newly diagnosed diabetes and glucose metabolism, including previously unpublished data following contact with authors. Evidence suggests that increasing omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064110.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010233, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition and maintenance of remission is a major issue as many patients fail to achieve remission with medical management and require surgical interventions. Purine analogues such as azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) have been used to maintain surgically-induced remission in CD, but the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of these agents remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of purine analogues (AZA and 6-MP) for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register from inception to 26 July 2018 (and from inception to 31 July 2019). In addition, we searched reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews, conference proceedings and trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of at least three months that enrolled adults and children with surgically-induced remission of CD and compared AZA or 6-MP to no treatment, placebo or any other active intervention were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The primary outcome was clinical relapse. Secondary outcomes included endoscopic relapse, radiologic and surgical relapse, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), withdrawal due to AEs and health-related quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: Ten RCTs with a total of 928 participants were included. Study participants were adults recruited from university clinics and gastroenterology hospitals who received interventions post-surgery for a duration between 12 to 36 months. Most study participants were recruited less than three months after surgery in all except one study where participants were recruited between 6 to 24 months post-surgery. One study was rated as low risk of bias, six studies were rated high risk of bias and three were rated unclear risk of bias.There was moderate certainty evidence that purine analogues are more efficient for preventing clinical relapse than placebo. At 12 to 36 months, 51% (109/215) of AZA/6-MP participants relapsed compared to 64% (124/193) of placebo participants (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.92; 408 participants; 3 studies; I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence regarding the efficacy of AZA or 6-MP for maintaining postoperative clinical remission compared to 5-ASA compounds was low. At 12 to 24 months , 64% (113/177) of purine analogue participants relapsed compared to 59% (101/170) of 5-ASA participants (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.24; 347 participants; 4 studies; I² = 8%; low certainty evidence). The certainty of evidence that purine analogues are inferior for preventing postsurgical clinical relapse compared to tumour necrosis factor alpha agents (anti-TNF-α) was very low. At 12 to 24 months, 43% (29/67) of AZA participants relapsed compared to 14% (10/72) of anti-TNF-α participants (RR 2.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 5.57; 139 participants; 3 studies; I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence).The effect of purine analogues compounds on AEs compared to placebo or any active treatment was uncertain, as the quality of evidence ranged from very low to low. After 12 to 24 months, 14% (12/87) of purine analogue participants experienced an AE compared to 10% (8/81) of placebo participants (RR 1.36; 95% CI 0.57 to 3.27; 168 participants; 2 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). The effect of purine analogues on AEs compared to 5-ASA agents was uncertain. After 12 to 24 months, 41% (73/176) of purine analogue participants had an AE compared to 47% (81/171) of 5-ASA participants (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.07; 346 participants; 4 studies; I² = 15%; low certainty evidence). The effect of purine analogues on AEs in comparison to anti TNF-α agents was uncertain. At 12 to 24 months, 57% (32/56) of AZA participants had an AE compared to 51% (31/61) of anti-TNF-α participants (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.53; 117 participants; 2 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). Purine analogue participants were more like than 5-ASA participants to have a SAE (RR 3.39, 95% CI 1.26 to 9.13, 311 participants; 3 studies; I² = 9%; very low certainty evidence), or to withdraw due to an AE (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.81; 425 participants; 5 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). Commonly reported AEs across all studies included leucopenia, arthralgia, abdominal pain or severe epigastric intolerance, elevated liver enzymes, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, anaemia, nasopharyngitis and flatulence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence suggests that AZA and 6-MP may be superior to placebo for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in participants with CD. There was no clear difference in the number of clinical relapses when purine analogues were compared with 5-ASA agents, however this is based on low certainty evidence. There was very low certainty evidence that AZA and 6-MP are more likely to result in more serious adverse events (SAEs) and withdrawals due to an AE (low certainty) when compared to 5-ASA agents. Very low certainty evidence suggests that purine analogues may be inferior to anti-TNF-α agents, however, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Further research investigating the efficacy and safety of AZA and 6-MP in comparison to other active medications in surgically-induced remission of CD is warranted.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Mercaptopurina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Prevenção Secundária
18.
Cornea ; 38(8): 1043-1048, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new surgical option for the treatment of acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus and to present the first results. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3 patients who presented to our clinic with a massive corneal hydrops in acute keratoconus and were treated by mini-Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). According to the size and the shape of the gap in the patient's Descemet membrane (DM), 1 DMEK graft was trephined with a round 5-mm punch. The other grafts were trimmed with a razor blade to a width of about 3 mm and a length adjusted to the length of the defect of the recipients' DM. The graft was inserted with a regular intraocular lens shooter. Correct unfolding of the graft was controlled by using intraoperative optical coherence tomography. At the end of the surgery, the graft was attached to the posterior corneal surface by a small air bubble. Thereafter, the complete anterior chamber was filled with 20% SF6 gas. RESULTS: All 3 patients (age 32 ± 3 years on average) showed a rapid increase in uncorrected visual acuity from the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) 1.66 (±0.46) before mini-DMEK to the LogMAR 1.2 (±0.3) within 6 to 8 weeks after mini-DMEK. The thickest corneal point within the edematous cornea decreased in all 3 patients (1088 ± 280 µm before surgery vs. 630 ± 38 µm 1 week after surgery). One mini-DMEK failed in a first attempt. In this patient, the recipient DM was under strong tension and showed a pronounced dehiscence. Therefore, a small part of the recipient's DM around the preexisting gap in DM was removed before a second mini-DMEK graft was placed successfully. The other 2 patients developed partial graft detachment within 1 to 2 weeks after surgery. However, the corneas of these patients were dehydrated to physiological levels after mini-DMEK, and despite partial detachment, there was no relapse of the hydrops. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-DMEK could be helpful in patients with larger defects and detachments of DM in very ectatic corneas in the acute phase of corneal hydrops in acute keratoconus. These patients may not be successfully treated by intracameral gas application alone or in combination with pre-Descemetal sutures. Further investigations are needed to identify factors helping to decide on the best surgical approach in hydrops in acute keratoconus.


Assuntos
Edema da Córnea/cirurgia , Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior/métodos , Ceratocone/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Edema da Córnea/complicações , Edema da Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratocone/complicações , Ceratocone/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
BMJ ; 365: l1800, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extending initial prednisolone treatment from eight to 16 weeks in children with idiopathic steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome improves the pattern of disease relapse. DESIGN: Double blind, parallel group, phase III randomised placebo controlled trial, including a cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: 125 UK National Health Service district general hospitals and tertiary paediatric nephrology centres. PARTICIPANTS: 237 children aged 1-14 years with a first episode of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomised to receive an extended 16 week course of prednisolone (total dose 3150 mg/m2) or a standard eight week course of prednisolone (total dose 2240 mg/m2). The drug was supplied as 5 mg tablets alongside matching placebo so that participants in both groups received the same number of tablets at any time point in the study. A minimisation algorithm ensured balanced treatment allocation by ethnicity (South Asian, white, or other) and age (5 years or less, 6 years or more). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to first relapse over a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Secondary outcome measures were relapse rate, incidence of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, use of alternative immunosuppressive treatment, rates of adverse events, behavioural change using the Achenbach child behaviour checklist, quality adjusted life years, and cost effectiveness from a healthcare perspective. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in time to first relapse (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.17, log rank P=0.28) or in the incidence of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (extended course 60/114 (53%) v standard course 55/109 (50%), P=0.75), steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (48/114 (42%) v 48/109 (44%), P=0.77), or requirement for alternative immunosuppressive treatment (62/114 (54%) v 61/109 (56%), P=0.81). Total prednisolone dose after completion of the trial drug was 6674 mg for the extended course versus 5475 mg for the standard course (P=0.07). There were no statistically significant differences in serious adverse event rates (extended course 19/114 (17%) v standard course 27/109 (25%), P=0.13) or adverse event rates, with the exception of behaviour, which was poorer in the standard course group. Scores on the Achenbach child behaviour checklist did not, however, differ. Extended course treatment was associated with a mean increase in generic quality of life (0.0162 additional quality adjusted life years, 95% confidence interval -0.005 to 0.037) and cost savings (difference -£1673 ($2160; €1930), 95% confidence interval -£3455 to £109). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes did not improve when the initial course of prednisolone treatment was extended from eight to 16 weeks in UK children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. However, evidence was found of a short term health economic benefit through reduced resource use and increased quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16645249; EudraCT 2010-022489-29.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Síndrome Nefrótica , Prednisolona , Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/economia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/economia , Síndrome Nefrótica/psicologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/economia , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(8): 771-780, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269825

RESUMO

Introduction: The current approach of using only antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention leaves a substantial risk of recurrent cardiovascular complications and mortality. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the role of coagulation in atherothrombosis is reviewed, as well as the impact of vascular doses of rivaroxaban on major cardiovascular outcomes and major adverse limb events. Expert opinion: In COMPASS, among patients with coronary heart disease and/or peripheral artery disease, compared to aspirin, the addition of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily to aspirin, significantly reduced the risk of major atherosclerotic outcomes, cardiovascular death and death for any cause, with a significant increase in the risk of major bleeding, but not fatal or intracranial bleedings. Preclinical data strongly suggest that rivaroxaban exerts vascular protection through different mechanisms, including improvement of endothelial functionality and fibrinolytic activity at endothelium, anti-inflammatory properties, and platelet-dependent thrombin generation. All these data indicate that among patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease, the addition of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg may provide further vascular protection.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
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