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1.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1291, fev.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1053377

RESUMO

Objetivo: realizar o mapeamento cruzado dos cuidados de Enfermagem para a prevenção de quedas em pacientes no perioperatório encontrados na literatura com as intervenções/atividades propostas pela Nursing Interventions Classification para o diagnóstico de Enfermagem "risco de queda". Métodos: estudo descritivo desenvolvido em três etapas: busca na literatura dos cuidados de Enfermagem utilizados, levantamento das intervenções propostas pela NIC e o mapeamento cruzado com base na ligação NANDA-I/NIC. Resultados: os 214 cuidados encontrados na literatura foram mapeados com 84 atividades distribuídas em 26 intervenções NICs. A intervenção que apresentou mais correspondência com a literatura foi prevenção contra queda, que obteve 70 atividades mapeadas, seguida pelas intervenções identificação de risco e supervisão, com 35 e 19 atividades, respectivamente. Conclusão: todos os cuidados encontrados na literatura apresentaram correspondência com alguma intervenção/atividade NIC. Para a prevenção de quedas em pacientes durante o perioperatório são necessários segurança ambiental, consciência educativa dos pacientes, acompanhantes e profissionais, identificação precoce dos riscos e supervisão contínua da Enfermagem.(AU)


Objective: to identify nursing care intended to prevent falls among perioperative patients in the literature and cross-map them with interventions/activities proposed by the Nursing Interventions Classification for the nursing diagnosis "risk for falls". Methods: descriptive study conducted in three stages: search for nursing care reported in the literature; identification of NIC intervention; and cross-mapping based on linkage between NANDA-I/NIC. Results: the 214 care actions identified in the literature were mapped with 84 activities distributed in 26 NIC interventions. The intervention with the highest number of correspondences with the literature was prevention of falls, which resulted in 70 mapped activities, followed by the intervention risk identification and supervision, with 35 and 19 activities, respectively. Conclusion: all the care actions identified in the literature presented correspondences to some NIC intervention/activity. Preventing falls among perioperative patients requires ensuring environmental safety; that patients, companies and workers be educated and sensitized; the early identification of risks; in addition to continuous nursing supervision.(AU)


Objetivo: realizar el mapeo cruzado de cuidados de enfermería para la prevención de caídas en pacientes en el proceso perioperatorio encontrados en la literatura con las intervenciones/actividades propuestas por Nursing Interventions Classification (Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería) para el diagnóstico de enfermería "riesgo de caída". Métodos: estudio descriptivo llevado a cabo en tres etapas: búsqueda en la literatura de los cuidados de enfermería utilizados, encuesta de las intervenciones propuestas por el NIC y mapeo cruzado basado en el enlace NANDA-I/NIC. Resultados: las 214 experiencias de cuidados encontrados en la literatura fueron mapeados con 84 actividades distribuidas en 26 intervenciones de NIC. La intervención que más correspondió con la literatura fue prevención de caídas, que contó con 70 actividades mapeadas, seguidas de intervenciones de identificación y supervisión de riesgos, con 35 y 19 actividades, respectivamente. Conclusión: todas las experiencias de cuidados de enfermería encontrados en la literatura mostraron correspondencia con alguna intervención/actividad NIC. Para la prevención de caídas en pacientes durante el período perioperatorio es necesario que haya seguridad ambiental, conciencia educativa de los pacientes, acompañantes y profesionales, identificación temprana de riesgos y supervisión continua de Enfermería. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Acidentes por Quedas , Assistência Perioperatória , Terminologia Padronizada em Enfermagem , Prevenção de Acidentes , Hospitalização
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105350, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715549

RESUMO

Previous studies have acknowledged the impact of risk perception on safety behavior, but were largely controversial. This study aims to clarify this conflict and the mechanism through which risk perception can have an impact on safety behavior. From the perspective of the dual attribute of the job demand concept in job demands-resources theory, we posit that risk perception can be considered as a job hindrance or a job challenge depending on the context, thereby resulting in a negative or positive impact on safety behavior, respectively. The current research context is the construction industry and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchically nested data collected from 311 workers in 35 workgroups. Risk perception was demonstrated to be a job hindrance exerting a negative impact on safety behavior and safety motivation mediated this effect. In addition, two dimensions of group-level safety climate--supervisor's and coworkers'--were expected to alleviate or even reverse the detrimental effects of hindrance risk perception on safety motivation and on safety behavior via motivation. A moderation model and a first-stage moderated mediation model were established, respectively, for testing the moderating roles of safety climate in the relationship between risk perception and safety motivation, and in the indirect relationship of risk perception with safety behavior via motivation. Surprisingly, contrary to the hypotheses, when supervisor's safety climate changed from a low level to a high level, the impact of risk perception on safety motivation changed from positive to negative, and the negative effect of risk perception on safety behavior via safety motivation was not alleviated but worsened. As expected, for workers in a positive coworkers' safety climate, the negative effect of risk perception on motivation and the indirect negative effect of risk perception on behavior were both reversed to the positive. This indicates that coworkers' safety climate helped to change perceived risk from a job hindrance to a challenge. This research contributes to workplace risk perception and safety behavior research by theoretically viewing risk perception as a dual job hindrance-challenge concept and proposing two competing hypotheses concerning the impact of risk perception on safety behavior. The empirical investigation confirmed the hindrance attribute of risk perception in the construction context. It provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence for future research to synthesize the conflict risk perception-safety behavior relationship. We also contribute to the literature by pointing out the potential negative role of certain supervisor safety activities such as paternalistic leadership in influencing employee safety.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Indústria da Construção/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Saúde do Trabalhador
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1350-1355, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838803

RESUMO

Injury is an important public health problem that threatening children's health. Researches have been carried out to prevent child injuries in China. Disease burden on injury for children have been moderated, but remained as the first cause of death in Chinese children, so injury prevention among children should still be treated as priority to promote children's health. It is necessary to establish and improve strategies in injury prevention which should be led by the government and correlated institutes, as to carry out a systematic, comprehensive and scientific system for children injury prevention and control. In order to reduce children's injuries and promote children's health, relevant policies and regulations should base on "Healthy China 2030" to formulate and implement action plans, to carry out practice and scientific research on children injury prevention, and to strengthen the team construction and talent training on this issue.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Saúde Pública , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , Humanos
4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 458-464, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041357

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices on traffic accidents in schoolchildren, before and after the implementation of a health education program. Methods: Experimental study carried out in two public schools in Northeastern Brazil. The sample was composed of 173 children from 3rd to 5th grade and was randomized into Experimental Group (EG; n=0) and Control Group (CG; n=8). The educational program was carried out at EG with the use of the educational therapeutic method (Health Magic Box). The data were obtained through the questionnaire Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP), applied at the beginning of the study, before any educational actions, and one month after the experimental treatment. Paired Student's t-test was used to compare the moments before and after the intervention in the EG and initial and final evaluation in the CG. Results: The children in the EG and CG were similar in relation to sociodemographic variables, and no significant difference was observed in the level of knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices on traffic accidents between the groups in the initial evaluation. One month after the experimental treatment, a significant improvement in knowledge was observed in EG (p=0.027). Preventive attitudes and practices were also higher in children in the EG, but without significant differences in relation to CG (p=0.060 and p=0.282, respectively). Conclusions: The educational intervention increased the level of knowledge and maintained the preventive attitudes and practices on traffic accidents at the same level in 3rd-5th grade students.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento, as atitudes e as práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito entre crianças escolares antes e depois da aplicação de um programa educativo. Métodos: Estudo experimental, com abordagens descritiva e analítica, realizado em duas escolas públicas do nordeste brasileiro. A amostra foi composta de 173 crianças do 3º ao 5º ano do ensino fundamental e aleatorizada em Grupo Experimental (GE), com 90 participantes, e Grupo Controle (GC), com 83 participantes. O programa educativo foi realizado no GE com a utilização do método eduterapêutico (Health Magic Box). Os dados foram obtidos por meio do questionário Conhecimento, Atitudes e Práticas (CAP), aplicado no início da pesquisa, antes de qualquer ação educativa, e após um mês da realização do tratamento experimental. Na análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student pareado para comparação entre os momentos anteriores e posteriores à intervenção no GE e avaliação inicial e final no GC. Resultados: As crianças do GE e GC mostraram-se semelhantes quanto às variáveis sociodemográficas, e não foi observada diferença significativa no nível de conhecimento, atitudes e práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito entre os grupos na avaliação inicial. Entretanto, ainda após um mês da realização do experimento, foi evidenciada melhora significativa no conhecimento do GE (p=0,027). As atitudes e práticas preventivas também foram superiores nas crianças do GE, porém sem diferença significativa em relação ao GC (p=0,060 e p=0,282, respectivamente). Conclusões: A intervenção educativa aumentou o nível de conhecimento e manteve as atitudes e práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito estabilizadas em estudantes de 3º a 5º ano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Brasil , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
5.
Revista Espaço para a Saúde ; 20(2): [90-107], dez.2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046436

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conhecer os principais riscos relacionados à segurança do paciente no transporte intra-hospitalar. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, que utilizou os descritores: segurança do paciente, Cuidados críticos e transporte intra-hospitalar. Resultados: Analisaramse 12 artigos, todos na língua portuguesa, selecionados nas bases de dados BVS, CAPES e Google Acadêmico, delimitados ao período de 2010 a 2019. Conclusão: A alta incidência de eventos adversos em pacientes críticos durante o transporte intra-hospitalar torna imperativa a criação de protocolos institucionais para auxiliar e padronizar o transporte, minimizando erros e favorecendo uma prática segura.


Assuntos
Gestão da Segurança , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Prevenção de Acidentes , Instalações de Saúde
6.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742653

RESUMO

In Sweden equestrian sport activities are the sixth most popular sport and predominantly women and girls are engaged. Horses are prey animals and humans are predators, and the two species therefore act in completely different ways. It is well known that accidents can occur when horses and humans interact. Literature from different countries in the world reveals that most accidents happen to females and also children are at risk. The most common accident is when a rider falls from a horse, but also unmounted humans are at risk for injuries. Most of the injuries are uncomplicated, but there are several reports of serious injuries and death. Prevention of injuries is very important. Education about how horses behave and react in different situations and how to communicate with horses according to Natural Horsemanship strategies make the horses less inclined to escape. The effectiveness of helmets in preventing serious head injury has been well established.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Cavalos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 75(11): 1337-1346, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748460

RESUMO

We conducted a questionnaire survey (situation, patient factor, environmental factor, operator factor, degree of disability, countermeasure etc.) on cases that occurred up to the present to investigate the actual situation of the medical accidents that occur in the radiological examination department of medical institutions. There were 373 questionnaires collected. Among them, there were 197 cases of falls. In this study, we examined the age of patients who fell, the background of the accident, and factors. As for the accident, 11.7% of accidents with risk impact level 3b or higher occurred including the fatal accident. Of the accidents, 44.2% were foreseeable and 55.8% were unforeseeable. The most accident-prone age was elderly in their 60s to 80s. As the causative factor for the accident, the patient factor was the largest at 63.5%. We can prevent about 30% of the accident by improving the operator factor and the environmental factor which are parts other than patient factor. It is important for us to understand what kind of people tend to fall. Among foreseeable accidents, the causes of patient factors can be reduced.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Radiografia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The increase in traffic accidents depends on multiple factors; it generates an economic and public health problem that must be analyzed jointly by agents involved in road safety. The aim of the work was to quantify the effect of various factors in the cost savings due to traffic accidents on interurban roads in Spain. METHODS: It was analyzed, through a lineal regression with panel data model and in the period 2000-2017, how different factors affected cost savings due to the risk of mortality or injury avoided on Spanish interurban roads. RESULTS: A 1% increase in traffic volume led to a reduction in costs per MVKT (million vehiclekilometres travelled) of €162.46 referring to the risk of mortality, €115.32 for serious injuries and €10.10 for mild injuries. This increase in unemployment caused a cost reduction of €31.43, €10.76 and €0.98, respectively. The same increase in the investment in replacement implied a reduction of these costs of €11 for any risk. A 1% increase in the ageing index led to an increase in costs of €276.83 in terms of mortality risk and €257.49 in terms of injury. Foreign tourism generated a cost of more than €40 for any risk. A 1% increase in GDP per capita led to an increase in costs of €155.50, €138.09 and €8.21 for defined risks. The points driving license led to an increase in costs of €785.50 per MVKR when referring to mortality risks. CONCLUSIONS: Determining factors for cost savings: motorization rate, unemployment rate and investment in replacement interurban roads. Determining factors that increased costs: expiry of the effect of the penalty - points driving licence, ageing index of the population, increase in GDP or proportion of foreign travelers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Prevenção de Acidentes/economia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(10): 851-859, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paragliding is an emerging discipline of aviation, with recreational pilots flying distances over 100 km. It remains risky. Accidents typically relate to pilot error rather than equipment failure. We measured cognition and physiological responses during simulated flight, to investigate whether errors might be due to pilot impairment, rather than misjudgment.METHODS: There were 10 male paraglider pilots (aged 19-58 yr) who undertook a simulated flight in an environmental chamber from sea level (0.209 FIo2) to 1524 m (0.174 FIo2), 2438 m (0.156 FIo2), and 3658 m (0.133 FIo2), over approximately 2 h. They experienced normobaric hypoxia, environmental cooling and headwind, completing logical reasoning, mannikin, mathematical processing, Stroop Color-Word and Tower Puzzle tasks; as well as measures of risk-taking (BART), mood (POMS), and subjective experience.RESULTS: Results were compared to ten controls, matched by age, sex, and flying experience. Physiological measures were oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ventilation, heart rate, oxygen saturation, rectal and skin temperatures, blood glucose, blood lactate, and urine production. There were no significant differences between pilots and controls at any altitude. Results were heterogenous within and between individuals. As altitude increased, oxygen consumption and minute volume increased significantly, while oxygen saturations fell (98.3% [baseline] to 88.5% [peak]). Rectal temperatures fell by a statistically (but not clinically) significant amount (37.6°C to 37.3°C), while finger skin temperatures dropped steeply (32.2°C to 13.9°C).DISCUSSION: Results suggest cognitive impairment is unlikely to be a primary cause of pilot error during paragliding flights (of less than 2 h, below 3658 m), though hand protection requires improvement.Wilkes M, Long G, Massey H, Eglin C, Tipton MJ. Cognitive function in simulated paragliding flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(10):851-859.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Aeronaves , Cognição , Hipóxia/psicologia , Pilotos/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Adulto , Altitude , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(10): 872-881, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this article an analysis is made of existing legal provisions and policies regarding medical confidentiality and the use of medical information on pilots, for the reporting of unfit pilots and for accident and incident investigation. An overview is given of the applicable international, European and several national legal frameworks in relation to this question. The applicable national legislation and relating policies of the Netherlands, the U.S., and Canada are compared on this subject. These three States (countries) are selected because of the differences between them in legal provisions when it comes to medical confidentiality of pilots' health information. The article will conclude with tools derived from this analysis, which can be used to find a balance between medical confidentiality vs. aviation safety.Schuite JM. Aviation safety vs. medical confidentiality: disclosure of health information for accident prevention and investigation. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(10):872-881.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Medicina Aeroespacial/legislação & jurisprudência , Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Notificação de Abuso , Aviação , Canadá , Certificação , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Países Baixos , Pilotos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
12.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S126-S132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381430

RESUMO

Objective: The Vision Zero initiative pursues the goal of eliminating all traffic fatalities and severe injuries. Today's advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an important part of the strategy toward Vision Zero. In Germany in 2018 more than 26,000 people were killed or severely injured by traffic accidents on motorways and rural roads due to road accidents. Focusing on collision avoidance, a simulative evaluation can be the key to estimating the performance of state-of-the-art ADAS and identifying resulting potentials for system improvements and future systems. This project deals with the effectiveness assessment of a combination of ADAS for longitudinal and lateral intervention based on German accident data. Considered systems are adaptive cruise control (ACC), autonomous emergency braking (AEB), and lane keeping support (LKS). Methods: As an approach for benefit estimation of ADAS, the method of prospective effectiveness assessment is applied. Using the software rateEFFECT, a closed-loop simulation is performed on accident scenario data from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) precrash matrix (PCM). To enable projection of results, the simulative assessment is amended with detailed single case studies of all treated cases without PCM data. Results: Three categories among today's accidents on German rural roads and motorways are reported in this study: Green, grey, and white spots. Green spots identify accidents that can be avoided by state-of-the-art ADAS ACC, AEB, and LKS. Grey spots contain scenarios that require minor system modifications, such as reducing the activation speed or increasing the steering torque. Scenarios in the white category cannot be addressed by state-of-the-art ADAS. Thus, which situations demand future systems are shown. The proportions of green, grey, and white spots are determined related to the considered data set and projected to the entire GIDAS. Conclusions: This article describes a systematic approach for assessing the effectiveness of ADAS using GIDAS PCM data to be able to project results to Germany. The closed-loop simulation run in rateEFFECT covers ACC, AEB, and LKS as well as relevant sensors for environment recognition and actuators for longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Identification of green spots evaluates safety benefits of state-of-the-art level 0-2 functions as a baseline for further system improvements to address grey spots. Knowing which accidents could be avoided by standard ADAS helps focus the evolution of future driving functions on white spots and thus aim for Vision Zero.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Automação , Desaceleração , Emergências , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
13.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S133-S138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381453

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this research study was to estimate the number of left turn across path/opposite direction (LTAP/OD) crashes and injuries that could be prevented in the United States if vehicles were equipped with an intersection advanced driver assistance system (I-ADAS). Methods: This study reconstructed 501 vehicle-to-vehicle LTAP/OD crashes in the United States that were investigated in the NHTSA National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). The performance of 30 different I-ADAS system variations was evaluated for each crash. These variations were the combinations of 5 time-to-collision (TTC) activation thresholds, 3 latency times, and 2 different response types (automated braking and driver warning). In addition, 2 sightline assumptions were modeled for each crash: One where the turning vehicle was visible long before the intersection and one where the turning vehicle was only visible within the intersection. For resimulated crashes that were not avoided by I-ADAS, a new crash delta-V was computed for each vehicle. The probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale 2 or higher injury in any body region (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 2+F) to each front-row occupant was computed. Results: Depending on the system design, sightline assumption, I-ADAS variation, and fleet penetration, an I-ADAS system that automatically applies emergency braking could avoid 18-84% of all LTAP/OD crashes. Only 0-32% of all LTAP/OD crashes could have been avoided using an I-ADAS system that only warns the driver. An I-ADAS system that applies emergency braking could prevent 47-93% of front-row occupants from receiving MAIS 2 + F injuries. A system that warns the driver in LTAP/OD crashes was able to prevent 0-37% of front-row occupants from receiving MAIS 2 + F injuries. The effectiveness of I-ADAS in reducing crashes and number of injured persons was higher when both vehicles were equipped with I-ADAS. Conclusions: This study presents the simulated effectiveness of a hypothetical intersection active safety system on real crashes that occurred in the United States. This work shows that there is a strong potential to reduce crashes and injuries in the United States.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 350-356, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to encourage bicycling to school have increased in the United States. However, little is known about how parent-child communication affects bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child agreement on biking instructions and their correlation with the early adolescents' real-world riding behavior. METHODS: Parent-child dyads were asked open-ended questions about instructions they had given/received about bicycling. Answers were then coded into nine categories (e.g., crossing the road, bicycle control/handling). Distributions of parent-child agreement on parent-given bicycle safety instructions were examined in relation to the adolescent's real-world riding behaviors. RESULTS: 36 parent-child dyads were included. Average age was 11.9 (Range: 10-15) for adolescents and 43.3 (Range: 30-59) for parents. Common parental instructions included: wear helmet, ride on sidewalk, and trip routing specifications. High 'ride on sidewalk' instruction (38.9% both parent and adolescent, 22.2% parent only, 16.7% adolescent only) was concerning due to potential driveway conflicts. Agreement between parents and adolescents on reported instructions was low, overall. Mean safety-relevant event rates in real-world cycling did not differ significantly between bicycle safety instruction agreement groups (both parent & adolescent reported, parent only, adolescent only, neither). The proportion of time an adolescent rode on different infrastructure types (sidewalk, street, etc.) did not vary between dyads reporting parents had given instructions to ride on the sidewalk and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight lack of agreement between parents and adolescents on cycling instructions the adolescent receives from the parent. Parent instructions to adolescents regarding bicycling safety were not associated with actual riding behaviors. Results suggest parent messaging to adolescents may be ineffective. Given parents are in a position of influence, results indicate a need for parental training on effective safety-related communication strategies to assist them in capitalizing on their parental role to increase their child's safety.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Ciclismo/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
N Z Med J ; 132(1501): 33-40, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465325

RESUMO

AIM: To describe quad bike injury-related hospitalisations in the Midland region over a six-year period. METHOD: A retrospective review of anonymised, prospectively-collected trauma registry data from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2018 was undertaken. Cases include patients hospitalised with quad bike-related injuries. Non-major injuries are included to provide a clearer picture of the trauma burden. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-six injuries resulted in hospitalisation with 70.2% of events occurring on a farm. Males outnumbered females 3.7:1. Forty-six children (<16 years) were hospitalised, of which 23 were injured on-farm and seven on a road. Over six years there was an annual average increase of 7.3% for all events occurring on a farm, 2.6% for injuries occurring during a farming activity and 4.7% for off-farm recreational injuries. CONCLUSION: Despite continued public debate and education on the safe use of quad bikes, injuries severe enough to require hospitalisation continue to occur. Children continue to be injured, both as riders and passengers. Ageing farmers are a developing area for concern. While workplace safety garners most of the safety attention, two other areas also deserve injury prevention consideration; injuries that occur on-farm but not during farming activities and those occurring off-farm to recreational riders.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Veículos Off-Road , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ciclismo/normas , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
17.
N Z Med J ; 132(1501): 73-78, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465330

RESUMO

Multifactorial individual assessment with interventions tailored to the individual's risk factors can reduce the rate of falls and risk of fractures. Assessment of vision is one key aspect of multifactorial assessment and first eye cataract surgery reduces the rate of falls. We recently modelled the impact of expediting first eye cataract surgery in New Zealand for falls prevention (Boyd et al Injury Prevention). The model used was the same model used for previous modelling of home safety assessment and modification and community exercise programmes. This study found that expedited cataract surgery was highly cost-effective by generating a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for NZ$10,600 (95%UI: NZ$6,030-15,700). Routine cataract surgery itself (relative to no such surgery being available) was even more cost-effective at $4,380 per QALY gained, when considering vision benefits and falls prevention benefits. In this viewpoint article, we discuss the potential next steps for expediting cataract surgery and further improving its cost-effectiveness in the New Zealand setting.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas , Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/epidemiologia , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Acuidade Visual
18.
Injury ; 50(8): 1433-1439, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated the issue of facial injuries caused by car accidents, but only a few have addressed the technical and clinical aspects of such accidents and injuries in depth. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and protective elements for facial injuries in car accidents. METHODS: We analysed the technical and clinical data of patients with facial injuries caused by car accidents over a 16-year period (2000-2016) and investigated the following factors: sitting position, sex, age, accident time, use of a seatbelt, deployment of the front airbag, direction of impact, speed at the time of collision, and occurrence and location of facial injuries. RESULTS: Of the 1291 patients involved in car accidents who were included in our study, 291 (22.5%) had suffered facial injuries. We found a significant association between occurrence of facial injuries and sex, speed at the time of collision, impact from the back, seatbelt usage, and deployment of the front airbag. In accidents occurring at speeds over 40 km/h, automobile security measures had no significant influence on the occurrence of facial injuries in drivers and front-seat passengers. In accidents occurring at speeds between 0 and 20 km/h, seatbelt usage (without airbag deployment) solely showed a significant protective influence against the occurrence of facial injuries (odd ratio [OR], 0.130; confidence interval [CI], 0.038-0.451). In contrast, patients who were in accidents at speeds between 21 and 40 km/h suffered significantly fewer facial injuries when wearing a seatbelt with the front airbag being deployed (OR, 0.245; CI, 0.091-0.665) or undeployed (OR, 0.216; CI, 0.084-0.561). CONCLUSION: Male sex and a high speed at the time of collision are significant risk factors for the occurrence of facial injuries. The security measurements evaluated in this study only exerted a protective influence at low speeds (below 40 km/h). This indicates a possible weakness of these security systems with regard to preventing facial injuries. Engineers could benefit from these findings and improve the efficiency of existing security measures and eventually help decrease the incidence of facial injuries.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Automóveis/normas , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Air Bags , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Equipamentos para Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cintos de Segurança , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261838

RESUMO

In order to clearly understand the risky riding behaviors of electric bicycles (e-bikes) and analyze the riding characteristics, we review the research results of the e-bike risky riding behavior from three aspects: the characteristics and causes of e-bike accidents, the characteristics of users' traffic behavior, and the prevention and intervention of traffic accidents. The analysis results show that the existing research methods on risky riding behavior of e-bikes mainly involve questionnaire survey methods, structural equation models, and binary probability models. The illegal occupation of motor vehicle lanes, over-speed cycling, red-light running, and illegal manned and reverse cycling are the main risky riding behaviors seen with e-bikes. Due to the difference in physiological and psychological characteristics such as gender, age, audiovisual ability, responsiveness, patience when waiting for a red light, congregation, etc., there are differences in risky cycling behaviors of different users. Accident prevention measures, such as uniform registration of licenses, the implementation of quasi-drive systems, improvements of the riding environment, enhancements of safety awareness and training, are considered effective measures for preventing e-bike accidents and protecting the traffic safety of users. Finally, in view of the shortcomings of the current research, the authors point out three research directions that can be further explored in the future. The strong association rules between risky riding behavior and traffic accidents should be explored using big data analysis. The relationships between risk awareness, risky cycling, and traffic accidents should be studied using the scales of risk perception, risk attitude, and risk tolerance. In a variety of complex mixed scenes, the risk degree, coupling characteristics, interventions, and the coupling effects of various combination intervention measures of e-bike riding behaviors should be researched using coupling theory in the future.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Eletricidade , Assunção de Riscos , Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motocicletas , Probabilidade , Segurança , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324046

RESUMO

Evidence shows that there are many work-related accidents and injuries happening in construction projects and governments have taken a series of administrative measures to reduce casualties in recent years. However, traditional approaches have reached a bottleneck due to ignoring market forces, and thus new measures should be conducted. This study develops a perspective of safety performance (SP) for construction projects in China and puts forward a conception of the safety information system by using several brainstorming sessions to strengthen the safety supervision of participants in the construction industry. This system provides rating information to the public, and bad performance contractors enter into a blacklist which will influence their economic activities. Considering the limited rationality of government and various contractors, this paper builds a reasonable evolutionary game model to verify the feasibility of the safety information system. The analysis results show that there is not a single set of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs), as different situations may lead to different ESSs. The efficiency of applying the safety information system (the blacklist) in the construction industry can be proved by reducing the government's safety supervision cost and by enhancing construction safety at the same time.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/normas , Indústria da Construção/normas , Guias como Assunto , Gestão da Segurança/normas , China , Humanos
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