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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMO

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 410-417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072217

RESUMO

Risk assessment is an essential component of the occupational health and safety event prevention activity.The purpose of this study is to choose the most appropriate risk assessment method for hospitals. The main methods were compared. There are many assessment methods, each with its advantages and disadvantages, but none has been adapted to the specificities of hospital activity. We adapted the workplace assessment sheet from the INCDPM (National Research and Development Institute for Labor Protection Bucharest) method to the specific of the hospital units and used this method at the level of jobs, within the hospital's departments, calculating the global risk level per job position, workplace (department), and hospital. The clinical departments global risk level exceeds the average (3.00) for all jobs, but does not exceed, however, 3.50, representing an acceptable security level. For assess the psychosocial risks we used the ELVIE method. Looking ahead, the methods should be adapted to allow both numerical presentation of the results and graphic.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Medição de Risco , Local de Trabalho , Acidentes/psicologia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017446

RESUMO

For the complicated operation process, many risk factors, and long cycle of urban logistics, it is difficult to manage the security of urban logistics and it enhances the risk. Therefore, to study a set of effective management mode for the safe operation of urban logistics and improve the risk prediction mechanism, is the primary research item of urban logistics security management. This paper summarizes the risk factors to public security in the process of urban logistics, including pick up, warehouse storage, transport, and the end distribution. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict accidents, and the Apriori algorithm is used to analyze the combination of high-frequency risk factors. The results show that the method of combining GRNN with PSO is effective in accident prediction and has a powerful generalization ability. It can prevent the occurrence of unnecessary urban logistics public accidents, improve the ability of relevant departments to deal with emergency incidents, and minimize the impact of urban logistics accidents on social and public security.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes , Algoritmos , China , Cidades , Emergências , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Organização e Administração , Fatores de Risco
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 645-653, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of accidental drug-related deaths and suicides classified as pregnancy-related from 2013 to 2014 (preimplementation of standardized criteria) and 2015 to 2016 (postimplementation). METHODS: Based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pregnancy-related death criteria, the Utah Perinatal Mortality Review Committee developed a standardized evaluation tool to assess accidental drug-related death and suicide beginning in 2015. We performed a retrospective case review of all pregnancy-associated deaths (those occurring during pregnancy or 1 year postpartum for any reason) and pregnancy-related deaths (those directly attributable to the pregnancy or postpartum events) evaluated by Utah's Perinatal Mortality Review Committee from 2013 to 2016. We compared the proportion of accidental drug-related deaths and suicides meeting pregnancy-related criteria preimplementation and postimplementation of a standardized criteria checklist tool using Fisher's exact test. We assessed the change in pregnancy-related mortality ratio in Utah from 2013 to 2014 and 2015 to 2016 using test of trend. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2016, there were 80 pregnancy-associated deaths in Utah (2013-2014: n=40; 2015-2016: n=40), and 41 (51%) were pregnancy-related (2013-2014: n=15, 2015-2016: n=26). In 2013-2014 (preimplementation), 12 women died of drug-related deaths or suicides, and only two of these deaths were deemed pregnancy-related (17%). In 2015-2016 (postimplementation), 18 women died of drug-related deaths or suicide, and 94% (n=17/18) of these deaths met one or more of the pregnancy-related criteria on the checklist (P<.001). From 2013 to 2014 to 2015-2016, Utah's overall pregnancy-related mortality ratio more than doubled, from 11.8 of 100,000 to 25.7 of 100,000 (P=.08). CONCLUSION: After application of standardized criteria, the Utah Perinatal Mortality Review Committee determined that pregnancy itself was the inciting event leading to the majority of accidental drug-related deaths or suicides among pregnant and postpartum women. Other maternal mortality review committees may consider a standardized approach to assessing perinatal suicides and accidental drug-related deaths.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos , Revisão por Pares/normas , Complicações na Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/mortalidade , Suicídio , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/mortalidade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Falha da Terapia de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Utah/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1328, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students, staff, and faculties are involved in activities that exposed them to a range of minor to severe or even fatal accidents in academic settings. Managing work environment risks is crucial to any safety and health prevention program. This study developed a risk assessment using combinations of hazards and risk factors to establish a scale of measures in a risk reduction action plan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an Iranian medical sciences university in 2018. A structured method of risk assessment was developed, applying a three-step procedure to identify hazards, consequences, and risk evaluation. Data were collected through detailed health, safety, and environment checklist in 38 different sites. Finally, the risks quantified, prioritized, and control measures proposed accordingly. Chi-square and correlation tests assessed how environmental factors were associated with hazard consequences. The analysis results were evaluated at the significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The frequencies of moderate and high-risk levels were 22.7 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, corrective measures should be considered as soon as possible and immediately for these risk groups. Facilities and functions within laboratories, library, and powerhouse were more vulnerable to serious risks. The type of hazard had associated with the sites and total risk score at the significance level of 0.05 (P-value = 0.017). Similarly, risk severity was significantly related to the sites (P-value = 0.003). Safety hazards had a statistically higher contribution to the total risk score when compared to health and environmental hazards. CONCLUSION: The study revealed complex risks and hazardous circumstances with significant variances in academic sites and activities. Universities should provide training in risk reduction programs to increase the awareness of students, staff, and faculties, which can improve life safety in a university environment.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Fatores de Risco , Universidades
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730254

RESUMO

The injection of laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms poses a significant safety risk because of the potential for injury by accidental needlestick. This is especially true for researchers using invertebrate models of disease due to the required precision and accuracy of the injection. The restraint of the greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) is often achieved by grasping a larva firmly between finger and thumb. Needle resistant gloves or forceps can be used to reduce the risk of a needlestick but can result in animal injury, a loss of throughput, and inconsistencies in experimental data. Restraint devices are commonly used for the manipulation of small mammals, and in this manuscript, we describe the construction of two devices that can be used to entrap and restrain G. mellonella larvae prior to injection with pathogenic microbes. These devices reduce the manual handling of larvae and provide an engineering control to protect against accidental needlestick injury while maintaining a high rate of injection.


Assuntos
Injeções/instrumentação , Microbiologia/instrumentação , Mariposas/microbiologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Animais , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Reutilização de Equipamento , Larva/microbiologia
9.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 971-989, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612356

RESUMO

Purpose: Approximately, 14% of older adults aged 65 years and over experience a fall within 1 month post-hospital discharge. Adequate self-management may minimize the impact of these falls; however, research is lacking on why some older adults engage in self-management to prevent falls while others do not. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to identify barriers and facilitators to older adults participating in fall-prevention strategies after transitioning home from acute hospitalization. Eligibility criteria were peer-reviewed journal articles published during 2009-2019 which were written in English and contained any of the following keywords or their synonyms: "fall-prevention," "older adults," "post-discharge" and "transition care." We systematically and selectively summarized the findings of these articles using the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines and the PRISMA-ScR reporting guidelines. Seven bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed/MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We used the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behavior (COM-B) model of health behavior change as a framework to guide the content, thematic analysis, and descriptive results. Results: Seventeen articles were finally selected. The most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators for each COM-B dimension differed. Motivation factors include such as older adults lacking inner drive and self-denial of being at risk for falls (barriers) and following-up with older adults and correcting inaccurate perceptions of falls and fall-prevention strategies (facilitators). Conclusion: This scoping review revealed gaps and future research areas in fall prevention relative to behavioral changes. These findings may enable tailoring feasible fall-prevention interventions for older adults after transitioning home from acute hospitalization.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes Domésticos/prevenção & controle , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1064, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education is a pivot included Decade of Action for Road Safety initiative, which has reduced deaths caused by accidents in developed countries. Given the circumstances of each country, a proper education program is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop the National Road Traffic Safety Education Program (NRTSEP) and reduce Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). METHODS: This study used a qualitative approach and was conducted in Iran. Data were obtained through sixteen semi-structured in-depth interviews from indifferent road safety and health promotion field experts as well as eleven focus group discussion (FGD) sessions conducted with participants from general population. Inductive qualitative content analysis was used to converge and compare themes through data. The initial pattern of the program was developed and subsequently, the designed program was validated and finalized by two-step Delphi method for the consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS: The following six main themes emerged from the analysis: target groups, program content, educational methods, instructors, resources and evaluation. The target group consisted of children, youth, parents, teachers, elderly, motorcyclists, cyclists, pedestrians, drivers, driver license applicants, instructors and administrators of driving schools, and specific groups such as the disabled, managers at different levels, and policymakers. The content of the program consisted of 27 items, including traffic laws and regulations, first aid, and medical emergencies. Educational practices and authorities were determined based on the target group and educational content. The most important resources of the program were human force and other cases, which can be managed in case of a lead agency. In the evaluation dimension, the cases such as mortality rate, hospitalization, behavioral changes, and other cases can be considered. CONCLUSIONS: The designed program should be implemented for all target groups for road safety promotion. The proper content was provided with proper educational methods and instructors for the target groups. A lead agency is needed to provide the resources and funding to run the program.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/educação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Técnica Delfos , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(5): 311-318, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493890

RESUMO

Objectives Comprehensive community sports clubs (CCSCs), of which more than 3,500 exist in Japan, have the potential to contribute to healthy aging in older adults, but their effect on this population has not, thus far, been well explored. This study aimed to investigate the current environment affecting seniors at Japanese CCSCs and to examine issues identified by the analysis.Methods Data were collected from the FY 2016 Survey Results on Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs, conducted by the Japan Sports Agency. A total of 2,444 clubs were divided equally into four groups after calculating the proportion of senior members (ages 60 and over) per total number of members in each club. The groups were then ranked from lowest to highest according to proportion of senior members: Groups A, B, C and D. Additionally, the 2,444 clubs were classified into six regions according to location. Group designation (A to D) and regional classification were used as independent variables. The dependent variables were categorized as follows: basic information (e.g. total number of members), crisis management and accident prevention measures (13 specific items in total), and each club's compliance with legal obligations.Results Study results revealed that Group D, containing the highest proportion of senior members, had fewer total members, lower monthly membership fees, lower annual club income, less annual club budget apportioned to each member, and fewer instructors than other groups. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, Group D had lower completion rates on 6 items (health certificate submissions, liability insurance enrollment, safety workshop implementation, heatstroke prevention, liaison with healthcare professionals, and AED availability). Group D also showed a lower rate of compliance with legal obligations than other groups. In comparisons between the six regions, the median proportion of senior members was found to be highest in Chugoku-Shikoku and lowest in Chubu, although each median ranged from only 20% to 30%. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, clubs in Kanto region had the highest completion rates for 10 items, whereas clubs in Kinki region had the lowest completion rates for 8 items.Conclusion The CCSCs with higher proportions of senior members had smaller budgets, fewer members and staff, and delayed implementation of crisis management and accident prevention measures. Regional disparities were also observed both in club scale and management of medical and safety issues. Although our study identified several shortcomings in this area, medical and safety management implementation is an important consideration for CCSCs with high proportions of senior members, as these members are at higher risk for disease and frailty. Affected CCSCs and relevant authorities should therefore acknowledge and address this issue cooperatively.


Assuntos
Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção de Acidentes , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Academias de Ginástica/economia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Gestão da Segurança , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 514-526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573377

RESUMO

This study aims to conceptualize the key stakeholders in emergency management of childcare facilities for applicable nations by referring to the Korean case. Qualitative content analysis is the main methodology used. Unique features are gathered from the Korean literature on childcare facilities and then summarized; however, universal principles from the English language literature on international childcare facilities are emphasized. The analysis of five major stakeholders in Korean childcare facilities, namely, governments, community personnel, parents, childcare providers, and children, shows that their current efforts are directed only at general safety management. Multi-hazard management or an integrated approach in terms of social work is thus provided as an alternative for not only Korea but also other nations.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/normas , Creches/organização & administração , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Single vehicle run-off crashes in urban areas constitute a growing problem that deserves more attention from authorities and researchers. This study aims to detect geometric road design risk factors characterizing places where urban run-off crashes might happen. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in the urban area of Valladolid (Spain) with data corresponding to a four-year period. Logistic regression models were used to analyze data, considering different variables related to design parameters in the models: type of intersection, radius of curvature, width of the pavement, width of the traffic lane, number of lanes for traffic in the same direction, direction of the traffic, length of the previous straight section, distance to the previous traffic light, slope, and finally, priority regulation. Two different scenarios were investigated: intersections and curves. RESULTS: The Adjusted Odds-Ratio of a run-off crash was five times higher in double direction roads with median strip than in one-way urban roads, for both curves and intersections, and almost nine times higher on road sections with previous straight lengths greater than 500 meters. Specific risk factors for intersections are "number of lanes for traffic in the same direction" (the odds of a run-off crash are more than five times higher on a road with two or more lanes), "length of preceding straight section" (the odds on road sections with lengths greater than 500 meters are more than nine times that of road sections with a length of less than 150 meters). For curves, specific factors are "width of the traffic lane" (the odds of a run-off crash on curves with lanes wider than 3.75m are more than six times higher) and "priority regulation" (the odds of a run-off crash increases more than twelve times on road sections with traffic light regulation over those without any regulation). CONCLUSIONS: The current study identifies urban road configurations that might require redesigning with the aim of decreasing the odds of a run-off crash, or the implementation of passive protective systems to mitigate their consequences. Specifically, intersections in two direction roads with median strip, more than two lanes per direction and a long preceding straight section, as well as curves with wide lanes and traffic light regulation, are the places that require attention.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Espanha
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414127

RESUMO

Escalator accidents not only happen frequently but also have cascading effects. The purpose of this study is to block the formation of cascading accident networks by identifying and preventing critical hazards. A modified five-step task-driven method (FTDM) is proposed to break down passenger-related cascading escalator accidents. Three complex network parameters in complex network theory are utilized to identify critical and non-critical Risk Passenger Behavior (RPB) hazards and Other Hazards related with Risk Passenger Behavior (OH-RPB) in accident chains. A total of 327 accidents that occurred in the Beijing metro rail transit (MRT) stations were used for case studies. The results are consistent in critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB and prove that through combination of FTDM accident investigation model and complex network analysis method, critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB in a complicated cascading hazards network can be identified. Prevention of critical RPB can block the formation of cascading accident networks. The method not only can be used by safety manager to make the corresponding preventive measures according to the results in daily management but also the findings can guide the allocation of limited preventive resources to critical hazards rather than non-critical hazards. Moreover, the defects of management plan and product design can be re-examined according to the research results.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes , Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes , Pequim , Humanos , Ferrovias , Assunção de Riscos
15.
Ergonomics ; 63(6): 769-786, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323610

RESUMO

To prevent single-bicycle crashes, this study is the first to evaluate effects of slanted kerbstones, edge lines, shoulder strips, and edge strips on cycling behaviour of cyclists ≥50 years. In Experiment 1, 32 participants cycled on a control path and paths with edge lines, slanted kerbstones, and three types of 0.5 m wide shoulder strips (with grey artificial grass, green artificial grass, or concrete street-print). In Experiment 2, 30 participants cycled a different route including a control path and paths with edge lines or 0.3 m white edge strips. Cyclists rode closer to the main cycle path's edge in the shoulder strips conditions, although the presence of these strips resulted in a larger total distance to the verge compared to the control condition. Furthermore, cyclists cycled further from the verge in the edge strip condition than the control condition. Safety implications of the shoulder and edge strips are considered to be positive. Practitioner Summary: Older cyclists have a high risk for single-bicycle crashes (e.g. riding into the verge). In two experiments, cyclists ≥50 years cycled a route where different treatments were applied on a cycle path. Shoulder and edge strip treatments were related to more efficient path use and safer distances from the verge. Abbreviations: AGS: artificial grass strip; CL: control location; CSS: concrete street-print strip; ELC: edge line continuous; ELI: edge line intermittent; LP: lateral position; SDLP: standard deviation of the lateral position; SK: slanted kerbstones; WCES: white chippings edge strip.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 21(5): 303-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319811

RESUMO

Objective: Recent changes in FMVSS have led to the utilization of side air curtains to provide occupant retention during rollover events. However, the safety advantage provided by the air curtains relies on the vehicle system's ability to detect the rollover event and deploy the curtains. The purpose of this study is to identify crash and vehicle characteristics in motor vehicle rollovers that influence side air curtain deployment and occupant outcomes. The current study aims to improve the understanding of rollover events and inspire more robust air curtain deployment strategies.Methods: Study data were extracted from rollover cases documented in the NASS-CDS data set from 2011 to 2015. Vehicle model years of 2011 or later with side air curtains installed were examined. The presence of a rollover sensor in each vehicle was determined from vehicle content data available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's crash rating website. The resulting data set contained 14,003 weighted cases of rollover accidents in which the side air curtain did not deploy (40 raw count) and 23,178 cases of deployment (80 raw count).Results: Several crash event and vehicle characteristics were similar for the nondeployed and deployed groups, including number of quarter turns, primary location of damage, initiating event for the rollover, and vehicle model year. However, the nondeployed group included significantly more passenger vehicle body types (vs. SUV or truck) and had a significantly lower rate of rollover sensor presence. Presence of a rollover sensor increased the odds air curtain deployment by a factor of 36.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.06-265). Cases in which both side air curtains deployed resulted in a higher frequency of injured occupants (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] ≥ 3). However, rollover events resulting in these injuries were also associated with higher rates of impact with another object or vehicle and damage to the roof of the vehicle, suggesting a higher energy event.Conclusions: Nondeployment of the side curtain airbags in rollovers occurred more frequently in vehicles without dedicated rollover sensors, which were most frequently passenger vehicles.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 125, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the aging of the population, the number of older drivers is on the rise. This poses significant challenges for public health initiatives, as older drivers have a relatively higher risk for collisions. While many studies focus on developing screening tools to identify medically at-risk drivers, little research has been done to develop training programs or interventions to promote, maintain or enhance driving-related abilities among healthy individuals. The purpose of this systematic review is to synopsize the current literature on interventions that are tailored to improve driving in older healthy individuals by working on components of safe driving such as: self-awareness, knowledge, behaviour, skills and/or reducing crash/collision rates in healthy older drivers. METHODS: Relevant databases such as Scopus and PubMed databases were selected and searched for primary articles published in between January 2007 and December 2017. Articles were identified using MeSH search terms: ("safety" OR "education" OR "training" OR "driving" OR "simulator" OR "program" OR "countermeasures") AND ("older drivers" OR "senior drivers" OR "aged drivers" OR "elderly drivers"). All retrieved abstracts were reviewed, and full texts printed if deemed relevant. RESULTS: Twenty-five (25) articles were classified according to: 1) Classroom settings; 2) Computer-based training for cognitive or visual processing; 3) Physical training; 4) In-simulator training; 5) On-road training; and 6) Mixed interventions. Results show that different types of approaches have been successful in improving specific driving skills and/or behaviours. However, there are clear discrepancies on how driving performance/behaviours are evaluated between studies, both in terms of methods or dependent variables, it is therefore difficult to make direct comparisons between these studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified strong study projects, effective at improving older drivers' performance and thus allowed to highlight potential interventions that can be used to maintain or improve older drivers' safety behind the wheel. There is a need to further test these interventions by combining them and determining their effectiveness at improving driving performance.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/educação , Cognição/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 413, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of mortality and severe morbidity in cyclists admitted to Dutch emergency departments (EDs). Although the use of bicycle helmets is an effective way of preventing TBI, this is uncommon in the Netherlands. An option to increase its use is through a legal enforcement. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such mandatory use of helmets in the Dutch context. The current study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a law that enforces helmet use to reduce TBI and TBI-related mortality. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness was estimated through decision tree modelling. In this study, wearing bicycle helmets enforced by law was compared with the current situation of infrequent voluntary helmet use. The total Dutch cycling population, consisting of 13.5 million people, was included in the model. Model data and parameters were obtained from Statistics Netherlands, the National Road Traffic Database, Dutch Injury Surveillance System, and literature. Effects included were numbers of TBI, death, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Costs included were healthcare costs, costs of productivity losses, and helmet costs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess which parameter had the largest influence on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS: The intervention would lead to an estimated reduction of 2942 cases of TBI and 46 deaths. Overall, the incremental costs per 1) death averted, 2) per TBI averted, and 3) per DALY averted were estimated at 1) € 2,002,766, 2) € 31,028 and 3) € 28,465, respectively. Most favorable were the incremental costs per DALY in the 65+ age group: € 17,775. CONCLUSIONS: The overall costs per DALY averted surpassed the Dutch willingness to pay threshold value of € 20,000 for cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions. However, the cost per DALY averted for the elderly was below this threshold, indicating that in this age group largest effects can be reached. If the price of a helmet would reduce by 20%, which is non-hypothetical in a situation of large-scale purchases and use of these helmets, the introduction of this regulation would result in an intervention that is almost cost-effective in all age groups.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/economia , Ciclismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/economia , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção de Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Ciclismo/economia , Ciclismo/lesões , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
Ir Med J ; 112(10): 1023, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311253

RESUMO

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact the EU Directive for the Prevention of Sharps injuries had on the incidence of needlestick injuries (NSI) in Ireland. Methods A five-year retrospective study prior to, and after the introduction of these regulations, was conducted. Secondary data from the Occupational Health Department's annual NSI reports were used. The population studied were healthcare workers who reported a NSI from 2013 to 2017. Results The incidence of NSI varied from 157 in 2017 to 207 in 2014. 'Miscellaneous needles' was the category which caused the most NSI (23%). 'Disposable needles with syringes' accounted for 20% of all NSI before the legislation; this figure was reduced to 12-15% after the regulations were introduced. Conclusion The EU regulations did not reduce the incidence of NSI. A lower incidence of NSI was reported from 'disposable needles with syringes' after the implementation of the regulations.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Seringas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(2): 111-113, Abr-Jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1121739

RESUMO

Introducción: el envejecimiento de la población genera un incremento de la prevalencia de distintos procesos patológicos, generando un aumento de la estancia de los pacientes hospitalizados y demanda de atención ambulatoria. Estos mismos procesos patológicos se clasifican como factores de riesgos de caídas. Reportándose las caídas como el tercer evento adverso más notificado por la Joint Commission International para el año 2015. Objetivo: identificar los factores de riesgos, determinar las principales recomendaciones dadas por la literatura y correlacionar cuatro intervenciones NIC para disminuir las caídas. Metodología: revisión sistemática de literatura, con formato PICOT (Problema, Intervención, Comparador, Resultado y Tiempo) utilizando terminología DeCS y MeSH, Búsqueda en 5 bases de datos online e inclusión de estudios de los últimos 5 años, en tres idiomas. Inclusión de estudios secundarios, criterio de valoración crítica metodológica de la literatura CASPe, escala JADAD y AGREE. Resultados: se identifican 588 estudios, 83 cumplen con criterios de inclusión, valoración crítica de 55 y 31 estudios fueron seleccionados. Conclusión: la valoración del riesgo de caídas y las intervenciones de identificación del riesgo, son la piedra angular de prevención en la atención integral de seguridad del paciente hospitalizado y ambulatorio.


Introduction: The aging of population generates an increase in prevalence of different pathological processes, generating an increase in the stay of hospitalized patients and demand for outpatient care. These same pathological processes are classified as risk factors of fall. Reporting the falls as the third most reported adverse event by Joint Commission International for 2015. Objective: Identify risk factors, determine the main recommendations given by the literature and correlate four NIC interventions to reduce falls. Methods: Systematic review of literature, with PICOT format (Problem, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome and Time) using DeCS and MeSH terminology, Search in 5 online databases and inclusión of studies from the last 5 years, in three languages. Inclusión of secondary studies, criterion of critical methodological assessment of CASPe literature, JADAD and AGREE scale. Results: 588 studies are identified, 83 meet inclusión criteria, critical assessment of 55 and 31 studies were selected. Conclusión: The risk assessment of falls and risk identification interventions are the cornerstone of prevention in the integral safety care of the hospitalized and outpatient patient.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pacientes , Acidentes por Quedas , Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations , Fatores de Risco , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Guia de Prática Clínica , Revisão Sistemática , Prevenção de Acidentes , Colômbia
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