Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 956
Filtrar
1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105350, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715549

RESUMO

Previous studies have acknowledged the impact of risk perception on safety behavior, but were largely controversial. This study aims to clarify this conflict and the mechanism through which risk perception can have an impact on safety behavior. From the perspective of the dual attribute of the job demand concept in job demands-resources theory, we posit that risk perception can be considered as a job hindrance or a job challenge depending on the context, thereby resulting in a negative or positive impact on safety behavior, respectively. The current research context is the construction industry and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchically nested data collected from 311 workers in 35 workgroups. Risk perception was demonstrated to be a job hindrance exerting a negative impact on safety behavior and safety motivation mediated this effect. In addition, two dimensions of group-level safety climate--supervisor's and coworkers'--were expected to alleviate or even reverse the detrimental effects of hindrance risk perception on safety motivation and on safety behavior via motivation. A moderation model and a first-stage moderated mediation model were established, respectively, for testing the moderating roles of safety climate in the relationship between risk perception and safety motivation, and in the indirect relationship of risk perception with safety behavior via motivation. Surprisingly, contrary to the hypotheses, when supervisor's safety climate changed from a low level to a high level, the impact of risk perception on safety motivation changed from positive to negative, and the negative effect of risk perception on safety behavior via safety motivation was not alleviated but worsened. As expected, for workers in a positive coworkers' safety climate, the negative effect of risk perception on motivation and the indirect negative effect of risk perception on behavior were both reversed to the positive. This indicates that coworkers' safety climate helped to change perceived risk from a job hindrance to a challenge. This research contributes to workplace risk perception and safety behavior research by theoretically viewing risk perception as a dual job hindrance-challenge concept and proposing two competing hypotheses concerning the impact of risk perception on safety behavior. The empirical investigation confirmed the hindrance attribute of risk perception in the construction context. It provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence for future research to synthesize the conflict risk perception-safety behavior relationship. We also contribute to the literature by pointing out the potential negative role of certain supervisor safety activities such as paternalistic leadership in influencing employee safety.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Indústria da Construção/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Saúde do Trabalhador
2.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 458-464, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041357

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices on traffic accidents in schoolchildren, before and after the implementation of a health education program. Methods: Experimental study carried out in two public schools in Northeastern Brazil. The sample was composed of 173 children from 3rd to 5th grade and was randomized into Experimental Group (EG; n=0) and Control Group (CG; n=8). The educational program was carried out at EG with the use of the educational therapeutic method (Health Magic Box). The data were obtained through the questionnaire Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP), applied at the beginning of the study, before any educational actions, and one month after the experimental treatment. Paired Student's t-test was used to compare the moments before and after the intervention in the EG and initial and final evaluation in the CG. Results: The children in the EG and CG were similar in relation to sociodemographic variables, and no significant difference was observed in the level of knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices on traffic accidents between the groups in the initial evaluation. One month after the experimental treatment, a significant improvement in knowledge was observed in EG (p=0.027). Preventive attitudes and practices were also higher in children in the EG, but without significant differences in relation to CG (p=0.060 and p=0.282, respectively). Conclusions: The educational intervention increased the level of knowledge and maintained the preventive attitudes and practices on traffic accidents at the same level in 3rd-5th grade students.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento, as atitudes e as práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito entre crianças escolares antes e depois da aplicação de um programa educativo. Métodos: Estudo experimental, com abordagens descritiva e analítica, realizado em duas escolas públicas do nordeste brasileiro. A amostra foi composta de 173 crianças do 3º ao 5º ano do ensino fundamental e aleatorizada em Grupo Experimental (GE), com 90 participantes, e Grupo Controle (GC), com 83 participantes. O programa educativo foi realizado no GE com a utilização do método eduterapêutico (Health Magic Box). Os dados foram obtidos por meio do questionário Conhecimento, Atitudes e Práticas (CAP), aplicado no início da pesquisa, antes de qualquer ação educativa, e após um mês da realização do tratamento experimental. Na análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student pareado para comparação entre os momentos anteriores e posteriores à intervenção no GE e avaliação inicial e final no GC. Resultados: As crianças do GE e GC mostraram-se semelhantes quanto às variáveis sociodemográficas, e não foi observada diferença significativa no nível de conhecimento, atitudes e práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito entre os grupos na avaliação inicial. Entretanto, ainda após um mês da realização do experimento, foi evidenciada melhora significativa no conhecimento do GE (p=0,027). As atitudes e práticas preventivas também foram superiores nas crianças do GE, porém sem diferença significativa em relação ao GC (p=0,060 e p=0,282, respectivamente). Conclusões: A intervenção educativa aumentou o nível de conhecimento e manteve as atitudes e práticas preventivas de acidentes de trânsito estabilizadas em estudantes de 3º a 5º ano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Brasil , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The increase in traffic accidents depends on multiple factors; it generates an economic and public health problem that must be analyzed jointly by agents involved in road safety. The aim of the work was to quantify the effect of various factors in the cost savings due to traffic accidents on interurban roads in Spain. METHODS: It was analyzed, through a lineal regression with panel data model and in the period 2000-2017, how different factors affected cost savings due to the risk of mortality or injury avoided on Spanish interurban roads. RESULTS: A 1% increase in traffic volume led to a reduction in costs per MVKT (million vehiclekilometres travelled) of €162.46 referring to the risk of mortality, €115.32 for serious injuries and €10.10 for mild injuries. This increase in unemployment caused a cost reduction of €31.43, €10.76 and €0.98, respectively. The same increase in the investment in replacement implied a reduction of these costs of €11 for any risk. A 1% increase in the ageing index led to an increase in costs of €276.83 in terms of mortality risk and €257.49 in terms of injury. Foreign tourism generated a cost of more than €40 for any risk. A 1% increase in GDP per capita led to an increase in costs of €155.50, €138.09 and €8.21 for defined risks. The points driving license led to an increase in costs of €785.50 per MVKR when referring to mortality risks. CONCLUSIONS: Determining factors for cost savings: motorization rate, unemployment rate and investment in replacement interurban roads. Determining factors that increased costs: expiry of the effect of the penalty - points driving licence, ageing index of the population, increase in GDP or proportion of foreign travelers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Prevenção de Acidentes/economia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
N Z Med J ; 132(1501): 33-40, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465325

RESUMO

AIM: To describe quad bike injury-related hospitalisations in the Midland region over a six-year period. METHOD: A retrospective review of anonymised, prospectively-collected trauma registry data from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2018 was undertaken. Cases include patients hospitalised with quad bike-related injuries. Non-major injuries are included to provide a clearer picture of the trauma burden. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-six injuries resulted in hospitalisation with 70.2% of events occurring on a farm. Males outnumbered females 3.7:1. Forty-six children (<16 years) were hospitalised, of which 23 were injured on-farm and seven on a road. Over six years there was an annual average increase of 7.3% for all events occurring on a farm, 2.6% for injuries occurring during a farming activity and 4.7% for off-farm recreational injuries. CONCLUSION: Despite continued public debate and education on the safe use of quad bikes, injuries severe enough to require hospitalisation continue to occur. Children continue to be injured, both as riders and passengers. Ageing farmers are a developing area for concern. While workplace safety garners most of the safety attention, two other areas also deserve injury prevention consideration; injuries that occur on-farm but not during farming activities and those occurring off-farm to recreational riders.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Veículos Off-Road , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ciclismo/normas , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
5.
N Z Med J ; 132(1501): 73-78, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465330

RESUMO

Multifactorial individual assessment with interventions tailored to the individual's risk factors can reduce the rate of falls and risk of fractures. Assessment of vision is one key aspect of multifactorial assessment and first eye cataract surgery reduces the rate of falls. We recently modelled the impact of expediting first eye cataract surgery in New Zealand for falls prevention (Boyd et al Injury Prevention). The model used was the same model used for previous modelling of home safety assessment and modification and community exercise programmes. This study found that expedited cataract surgery was highly cost-effective by generating a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for NZ$10,600 (95%UI: NZ$6,030-15,700). Routine cataract surgery itself (relative to no such surgery being available) was even more cost-effective at $4,380 per QALY gained, when considering vision benefits and falls prevention benefits. In this viewpoint article, we discuss the potential next steps for expediting cataract surgery and further improving its cost-effectiveness in the New Zealand setting.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas , Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/epidemiologia , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Acuidade Visual
6.
Injury ; 50(8): 1433-1439, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated the issue of facial injuries caused by car accidents, but only a few have addressed the technical and clinical aspects of such accidents and injuries in depth. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and protective elements for facial injuries in car accidents. METHODS: We analysed the technical and clinical data of patients with facial injuries caused by car accidents over a 16-year period (2000-2016) and investigated the following factors: sitting position, sex, age, accident time, use of a seatbelt, deployment of the front airbag, direction of impact, speed at the time of collision, and occurrence and location of facial injuries. RESULTS: Of the 1291 patients involved in car accidents who were included in our study, 291 (22.5%) had suffered facial injuries. We found a significant association between occurrence of facial injuries and sex, speed at the time of collision, impact from the back, seatbelt usage, and deployment of the front airbag. In accidents occurring at speeds over 40 km/h, automobile security measures had no significant influence on the occurrence of facial injuries in drivers and front-seat passengers. In accidents occurring at speeds between 0 and 20 km/h, seatbelt usage (without airbag deployment) solely showed a significant protective influence against the occurrence of facial injuries (odd ratio [OR], 0.130; confidence interval [CI], 0.038-0.451). In contrast, patients who were in accidents at speeds between 21 and 40 km/h suffered significantly fewer facial injuries when wearing a seatbelt with the front airbag being deployed (OR, 0.245; CI, 0.091-0.665) or undeployed (OR, 0.216; CI, 0.084-0.561). CONCLUSION: Male sex and a high speed at the time of collision are significant risk factors for the occurrence of facial injuries. The security measurements evaluated in this study only exerted a protective influence at low speeds (below 40 km/h). This indicates a possible weakness of these security systems with regard to preventing facial injuries. Engineers could benefit from these findings and improve the efficiency of existing security measures and eventually help decrease the incidence of facial injuries.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Automóveis/normas , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Air Bags , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Equipamentos para Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cintos de Segurança , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Inj Violence Res ; 11(2): 179-188, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing effective road traffic injury surveillance is an important priority for low- and middle-income countries since a large proportion of fatal road traffic injuries occur in these countries. A surveillance system can coordinate the activities and compile the data gathered by all road safety organizations. This study aims to explore the challenges of establishing road traffic injury surveillance based on the stakeholders' experiences. METHODS: This is a qualitative content analysis study that was performed in 2018 in Iran. The study was conducted through interviews with 13 participants and employed purposeful sampling. Data generation was continued until concept saturation. RESULTS: Five main categories and 17 sub-categories were identified including: policy-making (legal authority, stakeholders, content policy and plan); process (collection and recording, analysis and interpretation, dissemination and feedback); resources and infrastructure (technology, staff, structure, finance); coherence and coordination (communication, dispersion, cooperation, consensus); and context (socio-cultural, political). CONCLUSIONS: By creating a clear structure for a road traffic injury surveillance system, identifying data collection systems and stakeholders in the field of road safety and injury prevention, determining a clear goal for improving road safety, and formulating policies for the dissemination of road traffic crash data among stakeholders, it will be possible to overcome the obstacles to establishing a surveillance system for road traffic injury.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 299-308, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Safety assessment is crucial for the development of continuous improvement strategies. However, most studies assess construction safety with cross-sectional information and thus management tends to be passive. This study proposes an evidence-based methodology incorporating hazard rectification efficiency for project safety assessment. METHOD: First, we theoretically introduced hazard rectification efficiency as a proxy for hazard exposure. Later, based on set-pair analysis, we proposed a safety assessment model that incorporates hazard occurrence and rectification efficiency. Subsequently, we collected site investigation records from seven building projects in Qingdao, Shandong. The data were used to develop a safety performance index (SPI) with the proposed model and a default model. The results were compared and discussed according to industrial practices for validation purposes. RESULTS: The proposed model provides conservative indications of project safety performance; more importantly, the index calculated with the model provides advance warning when necessary. In the proposed method, in terms of the SPI, hazard and rectification indicators provide actionable information to address failures and improve safety conditions. IMPLICATIONS: This research describes a new perspective (rectification efficiency) for safety assessment, which supplements the current body of knowledge on safety assessment. The proposed index, SPI, promotes the adoption of proactive hazard identification, monitoring, and control in construction.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 728, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transportation, such as walking and biking, is a healthy way for children to explore their environment and develop independence. However, children can be injured while walking and biking. Many cities make changes to the built environment (e.g., traffic calming features, separated bike lanes) to keep people safe. There is some research on how effective these changes are in preventing adult pedestrians and bicyclists from getting hurt, but very little research has been done to show how safe various environments are for children and youth. Our research program will study how features of the built environment affect whether children travel (e.g., to school) using active modes, and whether certain features increase or decrease their likelihood of injury. METHODS: First, we will use a cross-sectional study design to estimate associations between objectively measured built environment and objectively measured active transportation to school among child elementary students. We will examine the associations between objectively measured built environment and child and youth pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and bicyclist-MVCs. We will also use these data to determine the space-time distribution of pedestrian-MVCs and bicyclist-MVCs. Second, we will use a case-crossover design to compare the built environment characteristics of the site where child and youth bicyclists sustain emergency department reported injuries and two randomly selected sites (control sites) along the bicyclist's route before the injury occurred. Third, to identify implementation strategies for built environment change at the municipal level to encourage active transportation we will conduct: 1) an environmental scan, 2) key informant interviews, 3) focus groups, and 4) a national survey to identify facilitators and barriers for implementing built environment change in municipalities. Finally, we will develop a built environment implementation toolkit to promote active transportation and prevent child pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. DISCUSSION: This program of research will identify the built environment associated with active transportation safety and form an evidence base from which municipalities can draw information to support change. Our team's national scope will be invaluable in providing information regarding the variability in built environment characteristics and is vital to producing evidence-based recommendations that will increase safe active transportation.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/lesões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pedestres , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caminhada/lesões
10.
Chin J Traumatol ; 22(4): 228-232, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Child injuries are a global public health problem and injury surveillance systems (ISS) can be beneficial by providing timely data. However, ISS implementation has challenges. Opinions of stakeholders of ISS implementation barriers and facilitators are a good source to understand this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to investigate barriers and facilitators of implementing ISS in Iran. METHODS: This is a qualitative study. Data were gathered through interviews with 14 experts in the field of child injury and prevention from Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME), medical universities, pediatrics hospitals, general hospitals and health houses during January 2017 to September 2017. Data collection and analysis continued until data saturation. Data were analyzed using content analysis through identifying meaning units. RESULTS: Barriers were classified in three main categories and nine subcategories including management barriers (including performance, coordination and cooperation, supervision and attitude), weakness in data capture and usage (including data collection, data recording and data dissemination) and resource limitation (including human and financial resources). Facilitators identified in three areas of policy making (including empowerment and attitude), management (including organization, function and cooperation and coordination) and data recording and usage (including data collection/distribution and data recording). CONCLUSION: The most important barrier is lack of national policy in child injury prevention. The most important facilitator is improving MOHME function through passing supportive regulations. Effective data usage and dissemination of information to those requiring data for policy making can help reduce child injuries. Coalition of stakeholders helps overcome existing barriers.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 284, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present database contains information on patient falls in the hospital setting. Data were collected in January 2018 with of describing in-hospital falls reported from 1st January 2012 to 31 December 2017 in a large hospital in the South of Brazil. Learning about the characteristics of these events and establishing a profile may contribute to the design of adequate prevention and improvement strategies that are effective to reduce the risk of falls. DATA DESCRIPTION: This data set encompasses 1.071 in-patients falls characterized by the follow variables: year, date, patient birth, weekday, shift, department/location of the incident, location, severity, presence of companion, age, sex, risk level, medication associated with fall risk, implemented fall prevention protocol, type of injury, reason, restraint prescription, physical therapy prescription.


Assuntos
Propensão a Acidentes , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(2): 265-271, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929887

RESUMO

Through education, frontline nurse involvement, and redesigning fall prevention approach, hourly rounding was promoted as a proactive falls prevention strategy with the goal of decreasing falls and promoting patient safety, health, and comfort. Nurses in health care organizations increase patient safety and reduce patient falls in the hospital setting through hourly rounding with a purpose. Current practices must be redesigned to ensure that acute care fall prevention initiatives are consistent and transformational.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
13.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(2): 273-283, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929888

RESUMO

Falls in hospitalized patients are a pressing patient safety concern, but there is a limited body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of commonly used fall prevention interventions in hospitals. This article reviews common study designs and the evidence for various hospital fall prevention interventions. There is a need for more rigorous research on fall prevention in the hospital setting.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Medição de Risco
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 114-131, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991290

RESUMO

How do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern. My general conclusion is that the relationship, as it evolved over time, is unpremeditated and occasionally dysfunctional. Issues of concern are the lightness with which decisions affecting road-user safety can be based on opinion that is unsupported by evidence, that such opinions can trump inconvenient evidence, that research findings can be willfully distorted or disregarded, that questionable results can be given a ring of consensual truth, and that the questions which research asks and what findings get published are at times influenced by external interest. In sum, the concern is that practice is not sufficiently evidence-based. Road users have a right to expect that decisions substantially affecting their safety take into account fact-based expectation of safety consequences. It is therefore time to endow the research-practice relationship with a premeditated and purposeful structure.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas , Segurança
15.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(5): 453-461, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936428

RESUMO

Vulnerability to natural disasters is increasing globally1-3. In parallel, the responsibility for natural hazard preparedness has shifted to communities and individuals4. It is therefore crucial that households increase their preparedness, yet adoption of household preparedness measures continues to be low, even in high-risk regions5-8. In addition, few hazard-preparedness interventions have been evaluated longitudinally using observational measures. Therefore, we conducted a controlled intervention with a 12-month follow-up on adults in communities in the United States and Turkey that focused on improving household earthquake and fire preparedness. We show that this Fix-it intervention, involving evidence-based, face-to-face workshops, increased multihazard preparedness in both cultures longitudinally. Compared to baseline, the primary outcome-overall preparedness-increased significantly in the intervention groups, with more improvement in earthquake preparedness in the Turkish participants and more improvements in fire preparedness in the US participants. High baseline outcome expectancy and home ownership predicted overall preparedness change in both intervention groups longitudinally, implying that a sense of agency influences preparedness. An unintended consequence of observation is that it may increase preparedness, as even the control groups changed their behaviour. Therefore, observation of home preparatory behaviours by an external source may be a way to extend multihazard preparedness across a population.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Defesa Civil/educação , Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Educação , Família , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia , Estados Unidos
16.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(4): 200-207, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180860

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo es estimar la prevalencia de consumos de riesgo de drogas y patrones de consumo en atención primaria. Diseño: Estudio multicéntrico descriptivo transversal. Emplazamiento: Cinco centros de salud del área Sur de Madrid. Participantes: Población consultante en atención primaria entre 16-100 años. Mediciones: Se utilizó el test ASSIST validado al castellano de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el cribado de consumo de drogas. Se calculó la puntuación total para cada droga. Resultados: Se realizaron un total de 441 cribados. La edad media fue de 51,3 años y un 56,1% presentó algún consumo de riesgo moderado o grave para alguna de las 9 sustancias cribadas. Las drogas con cribado de riesgo más consumidas fueron el tabaco (41,7%), el alcohol (15,4%), los sedantes o los hipnóticos (13,7%) y el cannabis (5,7%), encontrándose algunas diferencias: los hombres consumían más alcohol y cannabis; las mujeres tenían mayor consumo de sedantes/hipnóticos que los hombres. Se observó policonsumo en un 16% de los sujetos. Conclusiones: Existen riesgos derivados del consumo tabaco, alcohol, sedantes y cannabis en atención primaria. Existe una mayor prevalencia de sedantes e hipnóticos


Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. Design: Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. Participants: all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. Measurements: Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care. Total points scored at the test were obtained. Results: A sum of 441 screening test were collected. Mean age was 51,3 years and 51.6% of patients presented a moderate-severe risky drug use out of the nine drugs tested. The more frequent drug use screened were tobacco (41.7%) followed by alcohol (15.4%), hypnotics (13.7%) and cannabis (5.7%). Differences were found between genders in the patterns: men had higher risky drug uses compared to women regarding alcohol and cannabis. Women had higher sedatives/hypnotics consumption prevalence. A 16% of patients presented with polyconsumption drug use patterns. Conclusions: There is risk derived from drug misuse in primary care for tobacco, alcohol, hypnotics and cannabis as detected by the ASSIST test. There is a higher rate of hypnotics than expected


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/instrumentação , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/organização & administração , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
17.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822333

RESUMO

Spontaneous combustion of coal is one of the major hazards threatening production safety during longwall mining. Mining-induced voids, which provide passages for air leakage, are the key factor triggering spontaneous combustion of coal in longwall goafs. In this study, a comprehensive method, which combined pressure balance, grouting injection, and filling fissures, was proposed to prevent spontaneous combustion of coal in longwall goafs with complex air leakage. Field engineering practice was carried out in Sitai Coal Mine in China. The results demonstrated that with the application of the proposed method, in the working face, the concentration of CO was decreased from 31ppm to 0 and the air leakage quantity was decreased from 261 to below 80 m3min-1. The gas samples analysis from the gob areas also indicated that concentrations of O2 and CO were successively decreased, indicating that the risk of spontaneous combustion of coal in goafs was eliminated. The above mentioned analysis indicates that, the method proposed in this study is useful and efficient. Successful application of this technology could provide reference for the treatment of other coal mines.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Combustão Espontânea , Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Prevenção de Acidentes/normas , Minas de Carvão/instrumentação , Minas de Carvão/normas
19.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 46: 100-108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904775

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To reduce harm related to pediatric falls, a quality improvement project was conducted at a children's hospital. DESIGN AND METHODS: An interprofessional team designed and implemented evidence-based interventions to align with the hospital's journey to reduce patient harm. These interventions included selection and implementation of a fall risk assessment tool, implementation of fall bundle elements, and implementation of fall prevention education to patients and families. Surveys, audits, and rate of falls were used to evaluate the project. RESULTS: Fall bundle compliance increased from 27% to 88% and there were zero patient falls in five out of the six months after implementation a comprehensive pediatric fall prevention program. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing pediatric-specific, evidence-based interventions can help to reduce patient falls. There was a substantial increase in fall bundle compliance and a decrease in falls and falls with injury. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Engagement and empowerment of clinical nurses in the quality improvement process design and implementation can substantially improve patient outcomes and patient safety while reducing harm. Future research is needed to determine factors that promote enhanced reporting needed to determine the true incidence of patient falls in pediatric inpatient and outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Criança Hospitalizada , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Criança , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
20.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(4): 415-418, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue and sleepiness are well recognized determinants of human-error related accidents and incidents in aviation. In Brazil, according to the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aeronautical Accidents (CENIPA), the rate of accidents in the aerial modal is 1 per 2 d. Human factors are present in 90% of these accidents.CASE REPORT: This paper describes a retrospective study of the communication between a pilot and an air traffic control tower just before a fatal accident. The objective was the detection of fatigue and sleepiness of a pilot, who complained of these signs and symptoms before the flight, by means of voice and speech analysis. The in-depth accident analysis performed by CENIPA indicated that sleepiness and fatigue most likely contributed to the accident. Speech samples were analyzed for two conditions: 1) nonsleepy data recorded 35 h before the air crash (control condition), which were compared with 2) data from samples collected about 1 h before the accident and also during the disaster (sleepy condition). Audio recording analyses provided objective measures of the temporal organization of speech, such as hesitations, silent pauses, prolongation of final syllables, and syllable articulation rate.DISCUSSION: The results showed that speech during the day of the accident had significantly low elocution and articulation rates compared to the preceding day, also indicating that the methodology adopted in this study is feasible for detection of fatigue and sleepiness through speech analysis.de Vasconcelos CA, Vieira MN, Kecklund G, Yehia HC. Speech analysis for fatigue and sleepiness detection of a pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(4):415-418.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Sonolência , Acústica da Fala , Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Vigília/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA