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1.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(1): 1-4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510100

RESUMO

The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Malaysia on the 25 January 2020. By the 20 January 2021, the cumulative numbers reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 had reached 169,379 including 630 deaths. Malaysia has been hit by three waves of COVID-19. This article reports on the three waves, the current situation and some of the possible factors associated. It outlines the need to reassess the overall situation, re-strategize the approach in order to contain the spread. The first COVID-19 wave lasted from 25 January to 16 February 2020, the second wave occurred between the 27 February 2020 and the 30 June 2020. The current third wave began on 8th September 2020.The sudden surge of cases in the third wave was mainly due to the two largest contributors, namely the Benteng Lahad Datu cluster in Sabah state and Kedah's Tembok cluster. The current situation is critical. The daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 continue to soar. The challengers faced by healthcare workers and other front liners is tremendous. Non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer are the leading cause of death in Malaysia. A paradigm shift in the approach is required to ensure the sustainability of the normal healthcare services provided by the government especially for the lower income groups. There is also a need to expedite the tabling of Tobacco Control Bill in coming parliament session which is long overdue. H.E. the King of Malaysia has called on all Malaysians to put aside political, racial and religious differences and show the spirit of loyalty, humanitarianism and steadfastness in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Política , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(720-1): 38-41, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443829

RESUMO

In Switzerland, tobacco smoking is a major public health problem, especially among pregnant women. Health problems encountered by pregnant women and their fetuses require specific care to assist smoking cessation. A specific consultation to support smoking cessation during pregnancy was created in May 2019 at the maternity ward of the University Hospitals of Geneva, with the support of the Fondation Privée des Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève and Carrefour addictionS/CIPRET-Genève. The creation of a network of health professionnals trained in smoking cessation is an important step to support women during their cessation process.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/métodos , Obstetrícia/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Suíça
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48005

RESUMO

A Organização Mundial da Saúde lançou nesta terça-feira (8) uma campanha mundial com duração de um ano para o Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco de 2021 – intitulada “Comprometa-se a parar de fumar durante a COVID-19”. O novo desafio da OMS via WhatsApp (Quit Challenge) e a publicação “101 razões para parar de fumar” foram divulgados hoje para marcar o início da campanha.


Assuntos
Organização Mundial da Saúde , Tabaco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/organização & administração
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD010216, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. People who smoke report using ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organisations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare providers and regulators want to know if ECs can help people quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of using electronic cigarettes (ECs) to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant records to January 2020, together with reference-checking and contact with study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized cross-over trials in which people who smoke were randomized to an EC or control condition. We also included uncontrolled intervention studies in which all participants received an EC intervention. To be included, studies had to report abstinence from cigarettes at six months or longer and/or data on adverse events (AEs) or other markers of safety at one week or longer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcome measures were abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, AEs, and serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcomes included changes in carbon monoxide, blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, lung function, and levels of known carcinogens/toxicants. We used a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences. Where appropriate, we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We include 50 completed studies, representing 12,430 participants, of which 26 are RCTs. Thirty-five of the 50 included studies are new to this review update. Of the included studies, we rated four (all which contribute to our main comparisons) at low risk of bias overall, 37 at high risk overall (including the 24 non-randomized studies), and the remainder at unclear risk. There was moderate-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than in those randomized to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (risk ratio (RR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25 to 2.27; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 1498 participants). In absolute terms, this might translate to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 2 to 8). There was low-certainty evidence (limited by very serious imprecision) of no difference in the rate of adverse events (AEs) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.19; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 485 participants). SAEs occurred rarely, with no evidence that their frequency differed between nicotine EC and NRT, but very serious imprecision led to low certainty in this finding (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.41: I2 = n/a; 2 studies, 727 participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence, again limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than to non-nicotine EC (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.92; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 802 participants). In absolute terms, this might again lead to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 0 to 12). These trials used EC with relatively low nicotine delivery. There was low-certainty evidence, limited by very serious imprecision, that there was no difference in the rate of AEs between these groups (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.36; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 346 participants). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether rates of SAEs differed between groups, due to very serious imprecision (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.19; I2 = n/a; 4 studies, 494 participants). Compared to behavioural support only/no support, quit rates were higher for participants randomized to nicotine EC (RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 5.04; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 2312 participants). In absolute terms this represents an increase of six per 100 (95% CI 1 to 14). However, this finding was very low-certainty, due to issues with imprecision and risk of bias. There was no evidence that the rate of SAEs varied, but some evidence that non-serious AEs were more common in people randomized to nicotine EC (AEs: RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.31; I2 = 28%; 3 studies, 516 participants; SAEs: RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 6.96; I2 = 17%; 5 studies, 842 participants). Data from non-randomized studies were consistent with RCT data. The most commonly reported AEs were throat/mouth irritation, headache, cough, and nausea, which tended to dissipate over time with continued use. Very few studies reported data on other outcomes or comparisons and hence evidence for these is limited, with confidence intervals often encompassing clinically significant harm and benefit. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to ECs without nicotine and compared to NRT. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the degree of effect, particularly when using modern EC products. Confidence intervals were wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect any clear evidence of harm from nicotine EC, but longest follow-up was two years and the overall number of studies was small. The main limitation of the evidence base remains imprecision due to the small number of RCTs, often with low event rates. Further RCTs are underway. To ensure the review continues to provide up-to-date information for decision-makers, this review is now a living systematic review. We will run searches monthly from December 2020, with the review updated as relevant new evidence becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the review's current status.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vaping
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing. In this study, we reexamined (1) parental knowledge or suspicion of their children's tobacco use and (2) associations of household tobacco-free rules with youth initiation. METHODS: Participants were youth (aged 12-17) in waves 1 to 4 (2013-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. A pseudo cross-sectional time-series analysis (N = 23 170) was used to examine parent or guardian knowledge or suspicion of their child's tobacco use according to youth-reported use categories: cigarette only, electronic cigarette only, smokeless tobacco only, noncigarette combustible only, and poly use. A longitudinal analysis among wave 1 never users (n = 8994) was used to examine rules barring tobacco inside the home and whether parents talked with youth about not using tobacco as predictors of youth tobacco initiation after 1 to 3 years. Survey-weighted multivariable models were adjusted for tobacco use risk factors. RESULTS: In all waves, parents or guardians much less often knew or suspected that their children used tobacco if youth only reported use of electronic cigarettes, noncigarette combustible products, or smokeless tobacco compared with cigarettes. Youth tobacco initiation was lower when youth and parents agreed that rules prohibited all tobacco use throughout the home (1-year adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.94) but not when parents talked with youth about tobacco (adjusted odds ratio: 1.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Many parents are unaware of their children's noncigarette tobacco use. Setting expectations for tobacco-free environments appears more effective at preventing youth tobacco initiation than parents advising children not to use tobacco.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais , Política Antifumo , Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S26-S30, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of a hospital is to promote/improve and restore health, thus smoking, whether in its passive or active form, should be banned in all hospital premises for the benefit of employees and patients alike. The Global Network for Tobacco Free Healthcare Services (GNTH) is an international non-profit association formed in 1999. The GNTH's mission is to implement tobacco-free policies to create a healthy workplace and patients' environment; help physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers to stop smoking; and educate all caregivers about tobacco dependence treatment and support them in providing smoking cessation interventions. METHODS: Implementation standards and a system of their self-audit for all participating hospitals were developed by the GNTH. We describe both the international and Czech networks, recommended methods for programme implementation and results of self-audit questionnaires completed by Czech participating hospitals. RESULTS: Worldwide, there are 19 national networks with 1,672 members including 56 gold forum members. To date, the largest network has been formed in France (670 members), followed by Spain (580) and Taiwan (209). After the first Czech institution (Prague-based General University Hospital) joined GNTH in 2010, the Czech Republic established its national network in 2017 currently comprising 10 members, of this number 1 gold, 3 silver and 6 bronze national certification level members. The main barriers to better outcomes in the Czech Republic include smoking on outdoor hospital grounds, lack of pharmacotherapy reimbursement and time, and inadequate staff education in the field of tobacco dependence treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The Global Network's mission is to advocate, recruit and enable healthcare services and professionals to implement and sustain effective tobacco management and cessation policies in accordance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A systematic approach supports the quality of care and treatment outcomes for patients as well as healthy workplace conditions for the staff.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Política Antifumo , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52793

RESUMO

Este conjunto de herramientas se preparó a partir del módulo 4 de capacitación de la OMS sobre el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud para tratar la dependencia del tabaco a nivel de la atención primaria. La publicación está dirigida a los prestadores de atención primaria, y su objetivo es servir de guía de referencia rápida para ayudarles a suministrar intervenciones breves contra el consumo de tabaco como parte de su práctica habitual. El contenido de esta caja de herramientas se divide de la siguiente manera: 1. El consumo de tabaco: Una dependencia letal 2. Papel protagónico del personal de salud en el control del tabaco 3. Aspectos básicos del consumo y la dependencia del tabaco 4. Modelo de las 5A para ayudar a las personas que están listas para dejar de fumar 5. Modelo de las 5R para aumentar la motivación para dejar de fumar 6. Uso de las 5A para evitar la exposición al humo de tabaco


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Tabaco , Violência , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47858

RESUMO

Este ano, relações entre fumar e maior exposição ao coronavírus também são abordadas em campanha de conscientização


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Institutos de Câncer
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47864

RESUMO

A organização aponta a relação entre o fim do hábito de fumar e a redução de riscos de infecção e sintomas graves do coronavírus


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47848

RESUMO

Informação é de pesquisa do INCA, apresentada durante webinar em comemoração ao Dia Nacional de Combate ao Fumo


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47850

RESUMO

"Cigarro: a indústria fica com os lucros, você paga pelos prejuízos". Esta é uma das mensagens da nova fase da campanha Conta do Cigarro, da ACT Promoção da Saúde, que mostra os custos do tabagismo para a saúde e apoia o processo que tramita na 1ª Vara Federal de Porto Alegre pedindo ressarcimento aos cofres públicos. A ação judicial inédita, apresentada ano passado pela Advocacia Geral da União, pede também a responsabilização civil da indústria do cigarro


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Indústria do Tabaco
12.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47851

RESUMO

O tabagismo é considerado pela OMS uma epidemia mundial que mata 8 milhões de pessoas por ano


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Pandemias
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47857

RESUMO

41% dos entrevistados disseram ter largado o cigarro por causa da pandemia


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Reino Unido
15.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 757-763, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895659

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the experience of specific oral and dental symptoms or side effects as reported by patients following the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved paper-based confidential survey questionnaires accessible for a period of 8 months to patients attending the School of Dentistry Dental Clinic, Griffith University, Australia. This study recorded demography, smoking history, NRT use history, and specific oral and systemic symptoms. The data was assessed and grouped into three divisions: those with no history of NRT use, current and former users of NRT, and current users of NRT. RESULTS: Current users of NRT reported a statistically significantly higher incidence of all oral symptoms and increased incidence of systemic symptoms, as compared to those with no history of NRT use. There was no statistically significant difference between current and former users of NRT for almost all symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A correlative relationship has been observed between the use of NRT products and patients' reported oral symptoms. This study showed a statistically significantly higher incidence of oral symptoms in current and former NRT users. The reported oral side effects and compounding risk profiles show an imperative need for further research into nicotine replacement therapy products' impact on oral health status and treatment outcomes in dental patients using NRT.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Austrália , Humanos , Nicotina , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1478, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four decades of population-based tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial reduction in smoking prevalence in Australia. However, smoking prevalence is still double in socially disadvantaged groups compared to those that are not. But not all tobacco control strategies successfully used in the general population is effective in specific high-risk population groups. Hence, an effective way to reduce smoking in high risk population groups may include targeting them specifically to identify and support smokers to quit. In this backdrop, we examined whether tobacco control interventions at the population-level are more effective in increasing life expectancy among Australians compared to interventions targeting a high risk group or a combination of the two when smoking prevalence is reduced to 10 and 0% respectively. METHODS: Using the risk percentiles approach, analyses were performed separately for men and women using data from various sources such as the 2014-15 National Health Survey linked to death registry, simulated data for high risk groups, and the Australian population and deaths data from the census. Indigenous status was simulated by preferentially assigning those who are indigenous to lower SES quintiles. The age-sex distribution of mental disorder status was simulated using its distribution from 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey with 25.9% of mentally ill being assigned to current smoking category and the rest to non-smoking category. The age-sex distribution of prisoners was simulated based on 2014 ABS Prisoners Australia survey with 74% of prisoners being assigned to current smoker category and the rest to non-smoker category. Homelessness status was simulated according to age, sex and indigenous status for 2011 census with all homeless being allocated to the lowest SES category. The age-sex distribution of total cholesterol level was simulated based on 2011-13 Australian Health Survey. RESULTS: The results showed that the combined approach for reducing smoking is most effective for improving life expectancy of Australians particularly for the socially disadvantaged and mentally ill groups both of which have high fraction of smokers in the population. For those who were mentally ill the gain in ALE due to reduction of smoking to 10% was 0.53 years for males and 0.36 years for females which were around 51 and 42% respectively of the maximal gains in ALE that could be achieved through complete cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting high-risk population groups having substantial fraction of smokers in the population can strongly complement the existing population-based smoking reduction strategies. As population and high risk approaches are both important, the national prevention policies should make judicious use of both to maximize health gain.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933121

RESUMO

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in Finland and Slovakia. This is a two-country comparative study of tobacco control policy based on implementation of the FCTC in Slovakia and Finland. Compliance with the FCTC was measured similarly in Slovakia and Finland in terms of their institutional structure supporting a smoking free environment and implementation of selected articles of the FCTC. In Finland the responsibilities for anti-tobacco policy are clearly assigned. Slovakia does not have specifically responsible institutions. Finland has a clear plan for achieving the goal of a smoking-free country based on empirical evidence. Slovakia meets only the minimum standard resulting from its commitment as ratified in the FCTC and data are out of date or missing completely.


Assuntos
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Comparação Transcultural , Finlândia , Regulamentação Governamental , Cooperação Internacional , Eslováquia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 854-866, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910907

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease that often starts in childhood. Genomic and environmental factors as well as aberrant immune maturation early in life can contribute to the onset of disease, with great disparity over time and geographical regions. Epidemiological studies have scrutinised environmental exposures and attempted to translate these exposures into prevention strategies. Some approaches for patients with asthma have been successful (eg, smoking ban, the Finnish Asthma Programme), and primary prevention of wheeze in pre-school children (age 0-5 years) by the supplementation of vitamin D or fish oil, or both, to pregnant women seems promising. Several recent prevention initiatives are based on strong asthma-protective environmental microbial exposures associated with traditional rural lifestyles. Preclinical studies with various bacterial lysates, bacterial and dietary metabolites, or helminthic compounds have yielded promising results that await translation into clinical practice. Given the immense societal and individual burden of asthma, there is an urgent need to further develop novel strategies to eradicate the disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Asma/dietoterapia , Asma/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/provisão & distribução
19.
Rev Prat ; 70(2): 191-194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877139

RESUMO

Preventing tobacco sales to minors. Since 2009, selling tobacco products in France to minors less than 18 years of age is forbidden by law, but this law is poorly enforced even though tobacco use mainly begins at adolescence. The aim of this study was to identify measures implemented by foreign countries leading to a better enforcement of tobacco sale ban to minors. The main measures are: organizing tobacco retailers training programs; using automated age-verification systems; requiring a valid photo ID from anyone who looks under the age of 25; developing communication campaigns directed to the general public in order to explain and promote age control for customers. Furthermore, in all studied countries, the only effective controls rely on "mystery shopping" with underage shoppers accompanied by dedicated inspectors, attempting to purchase tobacco products. In case of non-compliance with the law, these controls must lead to dissuasive financial as well as administrative penalties. In all studied countries, an efficient implementation of these measures has led to reduced tobacco sales to minors, and thus contributed to bring down underage smoking.


Assuntos
Menores de Idade , Tabaco , Adolescente , Comércio , França , Humanos , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
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