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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 315-331, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191360

RESUMO

La inteligencia artificial y el Big Data se articulan para poder lidiar con diferentes problemas relacionados con el análisis de datos masivos, en particular información de la COVID-19. En el presente artículo se muestran algunos proyectos de investigación relacionados con el aprendizaje profundo, el aprendizaje automático, el Big Data y la ciencia de datos, tendientes a dar soluciones plausibles bien en el monitoreo, detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades asociadas con el virus. Con esto en mente, se muestra la correspondencia entre las tecnologías disruptivas y la información crítica, creando sinergias que permiten elaborar sistemas más avanzados de estudio y análisis facilitando la obtención de datos relevantes para la toma de decisiones sanitarias


Artificial intelligence and Big Data are articulated to be able to deal with different problems related to the analysis of big data, in particular, information from the COVID-19. In this sense, this article shows some research projects related to deep learning, machine learning, Big Data and data science, aimed to provide plausible solutions in monitoring, detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with the virus. The correspondence between disruptive technologies and critical information is shown, creating synergies that allow the development of more advanced systems of study and analysis, facilitating the obtaining of relevant data for health decision-making


La Intel·ligència Artificial I el Big Data s'articulen per poder fer front a diferents problemes relacionats amb l'anàlisi de dades massiu, concretament, informació relativa a la COVID-19. En aquest sentit, en el present article es mostren alguns projectes d'investigació relacionats amb l'aprenentatge profund, l'aprenentatge automàtic, el Big Data I la ciència de dades, capaços de donar solucions plausibles en el monitoratge, detecció, diagnòstic I tractament de les malalties associades amb el virus. Amb això en ment, es mostra la correspondència entre les tecnologies disruptives I la informació crítica, creant sinergies que permeten elaborar sistemes més avançats d'estudi I anàlisi facilitant l'obtenció de dades rellevants per a la presa de decisions sanitàries


Assuntos
Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Tomada de Decisões , Betacoronavirus , Previsões
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 679, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025331

RESUMO

In this study, the impacts of land use/land cover (LULC) and climate change on the streamflow and sediment yield were investigated for the Payaswani River Basin, Western Ghats, India. The LULC was determined using Landsat images, and climate data were procured from five general circulation models for representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 (moderate emission) and 8.5 (high emission). The land change modeler was used to derive the future LULC and its changes from 1988 (historical) to 2030 (future) by using the transition matrix method. The SWAT model was used to assess the impacts of LULC and climate change for the streamflow and sediment yield. The results showed that decrease in forests and grasslands and increase in plantation, agricultural, and urban areas from 1988 to 2030 would lead to an increase in the mean streamflow (11.23%) and sediment yield (17.41%). Under RCP 4.5, climate change would decrease the streamflow by 2.38% in 2030. However, under RCP 8.5, climate change would increase the streamflow by 0.12% in 2030. The sediment yield under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 would increase by 1.23% and 3.33%, respectively. In comparison with the baseline condition, by 2030 future changes in the LULC and climate would increase the streamflow by 7.05% and 11.71% under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively. The sediment yield would increase by 7.92% and 27.11% under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively. The streamflow and sediment yield were predicted to increase in the summer and winter but decrease in the monsoon season.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Previsões , Índia
3.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 475-485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008498

RESUMO

Cancer is a highly complex and heterogeneous disease and immunotherapy has shown promise as a therapeutic approach. The increased resolution afforded by single-cell analysis offers the hope of finding and characterizing previously underappreciated populations of cells that could prove useful in understanding cancer progression and treatment. Urologic and prostate cancers are inherently heterogeneous diseases, and the potential for single-cell analysis to help understand and develop immunotherapeutic approaches to treat these diseases is very exciting. In this review, we view cancer immunotherapy through a single-cell lens and discuss the state-of-the-art technologies that enable advances in this field.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia
4.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 487-510, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008499

RESUMO

The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. Prostate cancer has an immunosuppressive microenvironment and a low tumor mutation burden, resulting in low neoantigen expression. The consensus was that immunotherapy would be less effective in prostate cancer. However, recent studies have reported that prostate cancer does have a high number of DNA damage and repair gene defects. Immunotherapies that have been tested in prostate cancer so far have been mainly vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. A combination of genomically targeted therapies, with approaches to alleviate immune response and thereby make the tumor microenvironment immunologically hot, is promising.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
5.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 511-521, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008500

RESUMO

The age of immuno-oncology has ushered in a rush within the biopharmaceutical industry. This intense focus has been characterized as a frenzy or overhyped, but represents a substantial investment in new products that hope to harness the immune system against cancer. Such agents include next-generation checkpoint antagonists, immune costimulatory agonists, and a diverse array of novel mechanisms of action and therapeutic modalities targeting immune cell types and the interplay of the host and tumor at the immune synapse. This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biotecnologia/tendências , Imunoterapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia
6.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 523-536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008501

RESUMO

Personalized medicine uses a patient's genotype, environment, and lifestyle choices to create a tailored diagnosis and therapy plan, with the goal of minimizing side effects, avoiding lost time with ineffective treatments, and guiding preventative strategies. Although most precision medicine strategies are still within the laboratory phase of development, this article reviews the promising technologies with the greatest potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment options for male infertility, including sperm cell transplantation, genomic editing, and new biomarker assays, based on the latest proteomic and epigenomic studies.


Assuntos
Genômica , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Terapia Combinada , Previsões , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteômica , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 182, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059674

RESUMO

COVID-19 which started in Wuhan, China and swiftly expanded geographically worldwide, including to Low to Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This in turn raised numerous ethical concerns in preparedness, knowledge sharing, intellectual property rights, environmental health together with the serious constraints regarding readiness of health care systems in LMICs to respond to this enormous public health crisis. From the restrictions on public freedom and burgeoning socio-economic impacts to the rationing of scarce medical resources, the spread of COVID-19 is an extraordinary ethical dilemma for resource constrained nations with less developed health and research systems. In the current crisis, scientific knowledge and technology has an important role to play in effective response. Emergency preparedness is a shared responsibility of all countries with a moral obligation to support each other. This review discusses the ethical concerns regarding the national capacities and response strategies in LMICs to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the deep link between the environment and the increasing risk of pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ ; 371: m3588, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To replicate and analyse the information available to UK policymakers when the lockdown decision was taken in March 2020 in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Independent calculations using the CovidSim code, which implements Imperial College London's individual based model, with data available in March 2020 applied to the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) epidemic. SETTING: Simulations considering the spread of covid-19 in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. POPULATION: About 70 million simulated people matched as closely as possible to actual UK demographics, geography, and social behaviours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Replication of summary data on the covid-19 epidemic reported to the UK government Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE), and a detailed study of unpublished results, especially the effect of school closures. RESULTS: The CovidSim model would have produced a good forecast of the subsequent data if initialised with a reproduction number of about 3.5 for covid-19. The model predicted that school closures and isolation of younger people would increase the total number of deaths, albeit postponed to a second and subsequent waves. The findings of this study suggest that prompt interventions were shown to be highly effective at reducing peak demand for intensive care unit (ICU) beds but also prolong the epidemic, in some cases resulting in more deaths long term. This happens because covid-19 related mortality is highly skewed towards older age groups. In the absence of an effective vaccination programme, none of the proposed mitigation strategies in the UK would reduce the predicted total number of deaths below 200 000. CONCLUSIONS: It was predicted in March 2020 that in response to covid-19 a broad lockdown, as opposed to a focus on shielding the most vulnerable members of society, would reduce immediate demand for ICU beds at the cost of more deaths long term. The optimal strategy for saving lives in a covid-19 epidemic is different from that anticipated for an influenza epidemic with a different mortality age profile.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Quarentena/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
F1000Res ; 9: 283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983416

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic that has been affecting Portugal since 2 March 2020. The Portuguese government has been making efforts to contradict the exponential growth through social isolation measures. We have developed a mathematical model to predict the impact of such measures in the number of infected cases and peak of infection. We estimate the peak to be around 2 million infected cases by the beginning of May if no additional measures are taken. The model shows that current measures effectively isolated 25-30% of the population, contributing to some reduction on the infection peak. Importantly, our simulations show that the infection burden can be further reduced with higher isolation degree, providing information for a second intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Portugal/epidemiologia
12.
Global Health ; 16(1): 94, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has rapidly and radically changed the face of human health and social interaction. As was the case with COVID-19, the world is similarly unprepared to respond to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the challenges it will produce. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to examine how the international community might better respond to the growing AMR threat. MAIN BODY: The impacts of COVID-19 have manifested in health system, economic, social, and global political implications. Increasing AMR will also present challenges in these domains. As seen with COVID-19, increasing healthcare usage and resource scarcity may lead to ethical dilemmas about prioritization of care; unemployment and economic downturn may disproportionately impact people in industries reliant on human interaction (especially women); and international cooperation may be compromised as nations strive to minimize outbreaks within their own borders. CONCLUSION: AMR represents a slow-moving disaster that offers a unique opportunity to proactively develop interventions to mitigate its impact. The world's attention is currently rightfully focused on responding to COVID-19, but there is a moral imperative to take stock of lessons learned and opportunities to prepare for the next global health emergency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Previsões , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
Nurs Womens Health ; 24(5): 309-310, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038989
14.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1251-1258, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999204

RESUMO

Natural materials such as crude drugs and foods are mixtures composed of various metabolites. Metabolic profiling is often used to identify possible correlations between a compound's metabolic profile and pharmacologic activity. Direct-injection electron ionization-mass spectrometry (DI-EI-MS) is a novel metabolomics method useful for characterizing biological materials. This review demonstrates the establishment of a DI-EI-MS method for metabolic profiling using several closely related lichen species: Cladonia krempelhuberi, C. gracilis, C. pseudogymnopoda, and C. ramulosa. The qualitative DI-EI-MS method was used to profile major and/or minor constituents in extracts of lichen samples. Each lichen sample could be distinguished by altering the DI-EI-MS electron energy and examining the resulting data using one-way analysis of variance. We also attempted to predict pharmacologic activity using DI-EI-MS metabolomics. Blueberry leaf extracts inhibited the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. Blueberry leaf extracts could be distinguished by principal component analysis based on the absolute intensity of characteristic fragment ions. Twenty cultivars were categorized into four species, and the most appropriate discriminative marker m/z value for identifying each cultivar was selected statistically. Components extracted based on DI-EI-MS analyses could be used to construct a model to predict ATL cell bioactivity. These data suggest that the novel DI-EI-MS metabolomics method is suitable for identifying species of natural materials and predicting their pharmacologic activity. This approach could enhance public health by facilitating evaluations of pharmacologic activity and functionality, leading to the elimination of counterfeit products.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Líquens/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Previsões , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 677-680, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a global crisis which has been led by COVID-19. The patients undergoingdental procedures and dental professionals are at higher risk of contracting this disease owing toaerosols generated and a lot of face to face contact during the procedures. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of dental students of COMS-TH regarding future of dentistry in Nepal amidCOVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at COMS-TH, Bharatpur by sending an online e-survey questionnaire to 146 dental students out of which 99 responded. The e-survey questionnaire consisted of three parts which consisted of questions about demographics, knowledge about COVID-19 and their perceptions about future of dentistry. RESULTS: The results of the study depicted that most of the students thought dentistry is good and noble profession and will recommend it to young medical aspirants. Most of them wanted to pursue post graduation courses in future giving preference to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that most of the dental students were satisfied with dentistry as their profession and wanted National Dental Association to fix the minimum charges of each dental procedure. Also there is a need to start more post graduation courses in existing institutions providing dental education as most of the students want to pursue it in future.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Odontologia/tendências , Economia em Odontologia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudantes de Odontologia , Betacoronavirus , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Previsões , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias , Masculino , Nepal , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/tendências , Cirurgia Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 38-53, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087591

RESUMO

Medical data can be represented in various forms. The most common is visualization, but recent work started to also add sonic representation - sonification. In this study we start with a theoretical background, then focus on medical applications. The discussion synthesizes the authors view about the present state of the domain and tries to foresee future potential developments in medicine. In conclusion we present a set of original recommendations for developing new applications with potential use in medicine and healthcare.


Assuntos
Som , Previsões
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 149-154, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087605

RESUMO

The paper compares two approaches to multi-step ahead glycaemia forecasting. While the direct approach uses a different model for each number of steps ahead, the iterative approach applies one one-step ahead model iteratively. Although it is well known that the iterative approach suffers from the error accumulation problem, there are no clear outcomes supporting a proper choice between those two methods. This paper provides such comparison for different ARX models and shows that the iterative approach outperformed the direct method for one-hour ahead (12-steps ahead) forecasting. Moreover, the classical linear ARX model outperformed more complex non-linear versions for training data covering one-month period.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Previsões , Humanos
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(18): 9705-9711, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the COVID-19 outbreak, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists and dentists have been severely affected, both for the transmission routes and for the diagnostical and therapeutic procedures typical of these disciplines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we discuss the transmission routes, the potential risk of contagion for patients and healthcare providers during procedures, and comment on the changes that will affect head and neck clinical practice in the future of outpatient and surgical activities. RESULTS: Otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists and dentists are at high risk for infection contagion and spread because they perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that generate aerosol and droplets thus facilitating virus transmission. Furthermore, examination involves close doctor-patient contact and otolaryngologists and dentists have to remove patient's protective devices during the visit. CONCLUSIONS: Special attention to prevention protocols for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the use of protective equipment is of utmost importance to limit contagion and prevent a new virus spread in the near future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Clínicas Odontológicas/métodos , Oftalmologia/métodos , Otolaringologia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Previsões , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017421

RESUMO

The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan has significantly impacted the economy and society globally. Countries are in a strict state of prevention and control of this pandemic. In this study, the development trend analysis of the cumulative confirmed cases, cumulative deaths, and cumulative cured cases was conducted based on data from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China from January 23, 2020 to April 6, 2020 using an Elman neural network, long short-term memory (LSTM), and support vector machine (SVM). A SVM with fuzzy granulation was used to predict the growth range of confirmed new cases, new deaths, and new cured cases. The experimental results showed that the Elman neural network and SVM used in this study can predict the development trend of cumulative confirmed cases, deaths, and cured cases, whereas LSTM is more suitable for the prediction of the cumulative confirmed cases. The SVM with fuzzy granulation can successfully predict the growth range of confirmed new cases and new cured cases, although the average predicted values are slightly large. Currently, the United States is the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also used data modeling from the United States to further verify the validity of the proposed models.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , China/epidemiologia , Previsões , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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