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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 121-128, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a full-mouth disinfection protocol (FMD) on periodontal parameters, glycaemic control and subgingival microbiota of periodontal patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as those without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 33 patients with periodontitis. Eleven of them were type 1 diabetes patients, 11 were type 2 diabetes patients, and 11 were non-diabetics. At baseline and 3 months after the FMD, the periodontal parameters of each patient were recorded, samples of capillary blood for the chairside assessment of HbA1c were taken, and plaque samples from the two deepest periodontal pockets were collected to test for the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) and Treponema denticola (Td). RESULTS: Bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased statistically significantly (p < 0.05) in all three groups 3 months after FMD. Only the proportion of Pg in the control group decreased statistically significantly (p < 0.05), while the proportion of other bacteria decreased or remained the same, whereby the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the proportion of Aa in type 1 diabetics increased statistically significantly (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FMD protocol improves periodontal parameters and glycaemic control of type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbiota , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Desinfecção , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 15-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the subgingival microbiological profiles of patients with periodontitis, to determine their stage and grade scores and to evaluate the differences in the microbiota among different stages and grades. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven (n = 67) periodontitis patients were selected. Periodontitis staging and grading, following the 2018 classification system, were defined. Following a clinical examination, subgingival samples were taken from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant for cultivation, identification and quantification. The prevalence, proportion and counts of nine selected periodontal pathogens were determined, and differences between periodontitis stages III and IV and grades B and C were assessed. Results: All nine cultivable periodontal bacteria were detected, of which the most prevalent was P. intermedia (91.0%) and the least prevalent were E. corrodens (9.0%) and C. ochracea (9.0%). The frequency of detection of the two main target pathogens, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, was 41.8% and 76.1%, respectively. The prevalence (grade B: 80.6%, grade C: 55.6%, p = 0.035) and total counts (grade B: 19.8 colony forming units - CFU/ml-4 (1.9-52.8); grade C: 4.0 CFU/ml-4 (0.0-26.4); p = 0.022) of F. nucleatum were statistically significantly higher in grade B than in grade C periodontitis patients, whereas the counts of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were similar between grades and stages. Conclusion: Our study suggests that relevant differences between the various grades of periodontitis exist only in the numbers of F. nucleatum. Prevalence and quantities of other cultivable species between different stages and grades of periodontitis seem to be similar.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Periodontite , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
3.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(4): 390-395, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089288

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the osteosclerin level and bacterial distribution in periodontitis patients at different stages, and to analyze the correlation between osteosclerin and the parameters of conventional periodontal examination. METHODS: Patients with periodontitis admitted to Guangzhou Huadu Maternal and Child Health Hospital from March 2017 to June 2019 were selected and divided into stage Ⅱ group (n=27), stage Ⅲ group (n=42) and stage Ⅳ group (n=22) according to the severity of periodontitis; meanwhile, 30 healthy individuals underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Gingival crevicular fluid and plaque at buccal and lingual sites were collected for bacterial culture. The expression of osteosclerotin in gingival crevicular fluid was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were processed by SPSS 23.0 software package. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between BI grade and osteosclerin, and correlation between PD, CAL and osteosclerin was determined by Pearson analysis. RESULTS: The mean PD and mean CAL of patients in stage Ⅱ group before and after treatment were significantly smaller than those in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ group (P<0.05). The mean CAL of stage Ⅳ group before treatment was significantly greater than that of stage Ⅲ group (P<0.05). After treatment, the mean PD and mean CAL of three groups were all significantly smaller than those before treatment (P<0.05). The mean PD in stage Ⅲ group was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅳ group after treatment (P<0.05). Before treatment, the proportion of BI grade 2 in stage Ⅱ group was significantly higher than that in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ group (85.19%, 19.05%, 18.18%, P<0.05). Before treatment, the proportion of BI grade 3 in stage Ⅲ group was significantly higher than that in stage Ⅱ group (64.29%, 14.81%, P<0.05). Before the treatment, the expression of osteosclerosis protein in stage Ⅱ group was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ group (P<0.05). The levels of osteosclerin expression of three groups after treatment were all significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The expression of osteosclerosis protein in stage Ⅱ group was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ group after treatment (P<0.05). PD, CAL and BI of patients with different stages of periodontitis were positively correlated with osclerosin in gingival crevicular fluid before and after treatment (P<0.05). The number of bacteria detected in stage Ⅳ group was significantly higher than that in stage Ⅲ group and stage Ⅱ group. The main bacteria in each group were anaerobic bacteria. The dominant bacteria were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetes, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella melaninogenicus. CONCLUSIONS: The expression level of osteosclerosin is closely related to PD, CAL and BI grades in patients with periodontitis, and bacterial colonization levels in gingival crevicular fluid and dental plaque in patients with periodontitis at different stages are different. Detection of osclerosin level and identification of periodontal microorganism culture have high clinical value in clinical diagnosis of periodontitis severity and can provide reference for selection of subsequent treatment plan.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Osteosclerose , Criança , Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
4.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(5): 759-764, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897213

RESUMO

Periodontal pathogens are the main pathogenic factor of periodontitis. Periodontal pathogens have a large variety of virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae and proteases, which enables the pathogens to infect periodontal tissues and stimulate the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, causing chronic systemic inflammation. Periodontal pathogens may invade multiple systems such as the circulatory system, immune system, respiratory system and digestive system to cause systematic diseases. Recent studies have shown that periodontal pathogens may have close relations with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Among the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis can be found in atherosclerotic plaques to impairing the function of the vascular endothelium; Porphyromonas gingivalis may also increase the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α to promote insulin resistance and diabetes. Many of the periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia can be detected in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Fusobacterium nucleatum may cause alterations in the intestinal microbiome in mice and promote the occurrence of intestinal tumors. Herein we review the recent progresses in the relationship between periodontal pathogens and systemic diseases.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Animais , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785473

RESUMO

Information about bacterial diversity, such as the number of each species in the root canals of primary teeth, contributes to improving our effective management of infections of endodontic origin in primary teeth. This study made a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the bacteria in the root canals of primary teeth with necrotic pulp, using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Thirty-one primary teeth with pulp necrosis from 31 children were evaluated using the FISH technique, to detect the presence and density of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Streptococcus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Descriptive measures explained the data related to density, and Student's t-test assessed the differences among the densities of each bacterium, according to signs and symptoms. The bacterial density was paired and correlated. All bacteria tested were detected and identified in all the samples. The average number of bacterial individuals from each species ranged from 1.9 x 108 cells/mL (S. mutans) to 3.1 x 108 cells/mL (F. nucleatum) (p > 0.05). The sum of the mean counts of each bacterium represented almost 80% of the entire microbial community. Patients with pain had significantly more T. denticola, and those with edema showed a greater density of Streptococcus and P. nigrescens (p < 0.05). This study revealed that all 12 bacteria evaluated were found in all primary teeth with pulp necrosis. There was no predominance among the species studied; all species had a similar number of individuals.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Necrose da Polpa Dentária , Dente Decíduo , Criança , DNA Bacteriano , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
6.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 625-632, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently, the prevention of periodontal diseases focuses on mechanical removal of pathogenic biofilms combined with oral antiseptics as supportive chemical antibacterial control. Due to the risk of resistance development and side effects of existing antiseptics, the interest in alternative medicine with naturopathic treatment modalities is growing in dentistry. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of the naturopathic oral care product Repha OS and some of its derivatives, based on medicinal plant extracts and essential oils, with a specific focus on added sweeteners, was investigated on periodontal pathogenic and halitosis-associated bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antibacterial efficacy was investigated by agar dilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the bacterial species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Solobacterium moorei was determined. RESULTS: A concentration-dependent antibacterial effect on oral bacterial species by Repha OS and its derivatives was demonstrated. For the original product, the maximum MIC was 10% of the calculated test solution concentration in agar for all examined bacterial species. The removal of essential oils reduced the antibacterial efficacy, whereas the displacement or replacement of sweeteners had almost no effect. CONCLUSION: In addition to other individual effects of the ingredients, the results of this study show that an antibacterial effect of the naturopathic oral care product on the tested oral bacterial species was achieved in vitro. In vivo, the combination of this antibacterial effect with other properties of the various ingredients may be interesting for a holistic approach in preventive dentistry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Firmicutes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104793, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to quantify pathogenic bacteria isolated from the subgingival oral-biofilm samples collected from cigarette-smokers and ENDS-users with periodontitis, when compared to non-smokers with and without periodontitis. METHODS: Demographic data was collected using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque [PI] and gingival [GI] indices, clinical attachment loss [CAL], probing depth [PD] and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Subgingival oral bio-film samples were collected and assessed for periodontopathogenic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [A. actinomycetemcomitans], Prevotella intermedia [P. intermedia], Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia] and Treponema denticola [T. denticola]). Group-comparisons were performed; and P < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: All cigarette-smokers, ENDS-users and non-smokers with periodontitis had Grade-B periodontitis. The CFU/mL of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P < 0.001) and P. gingivalis (P < 0.001) were significantly higher among cigarette-smokers (P < 0.01) and ENDS-users (P < 0.01) than non-smokers with periodontitis. The CFU/mL of T. denticola were significantly higher among cigarette-smokers (P < 0.001), ENDS-users (P < 0.001) and non-smokers with periodontitis (P < 0.001) compared with non-smokers without periodontitis. There was no statistically significant difference in the CFU/mL of P. intermedia and T. denticola among cigarette-smokers, ENDS-users and non-smokers with periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Counts of periodontopathogenic bacteria in the subgingival oral-biofilm are comparable among cigarette-smokers and individuals using ENDS.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , não Fumantes , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Fumantes , Tannerella forsythia , Treponema denticola
8.
Periodontol 2000 ; 83(1): 90-106, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385879

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is central to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, a group of diseases in which arteries become occluded with atheromas that may rupture, leading to different cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. There is a large body of epidemiologic and animal model evidence associating periodontitis with atherosclerotic disease, and many potential mechanisms linking these diseases have been elucidated. This chapter will update knowledge on these mechanisms, which generally fall into 2 categories: microbial invasion and infection of atheromas; and inflammatory and immunologic. With respect to the invasion and infection of atheromas, it is well established that organisms from the subgingival biofilm can enter the circulation and lodge in most distant tissues. Bacteremias resulting from oral interventions, and even oral hygiene activities, are well documented. More recently, indirect routes of entry of oral organisms (via phagocytes or dendritic cells) have been described for many oral organisms, into many tissues. Such organisms include the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Intracellular survival of these organisms with dissemination to distant sites (The Trojan Horse approach) has been described. Their relative contribution to atheroma formation and progression has been studied mainly in experimental research, with results demonstrating that these organisms can invade endothelial cells and phagocytic cells within the atheroma, leading to pathogenic changes and progression of the atheroma lesion. The second category of mechanisms potentially linking periodontitis to atherosclerosis includes the dumping of inflammatory mediators originating from periodontal lesions into the systemic circulation. These inflammatory mediators, such as C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases, fibrinogen, and other hemostatic factors, would further accelerate atheroma formation and progression, mainly through oxidative stress and inflammatory dysfunction. Moreover, direct effects on lipid oxidation have also been described. In summary, the evidence supports the concept that periodontitis enhances the levels of systemic mediators of inflammation that are risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Periodontite , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232912, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392236

RESUMO

The study of oral disease progression, in relation to the accumulation of subgingival biofilm in gingivitis and periodontitis is limited, due to either the ability to monitor plaque in vitro. When compared, optical spectroscopic techniques offer advantages over traditional destructive or biofilm staining approaches, making it a suitable alternative for the analysis and continued development of three-dimensional structures. In this work, we have developed a confocal Raman spectroscopy analysis approach towards in vitro subgingival plaque models. The main objective of this study was to develop a method for differentiating multiple oral subgingival bacterial species in planktonic and biofilm conditions, using confocal Raman microscopy. Five common subgingival bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella dispar, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella nigrescens) were used and differentiated using a 2-way orthogonal Partial Least Square with Discriminant Analysis (O2PLS-DA) for the collected spectral data. In addition to planktonic growth, mono-species biofilms cultured using the 'Zürich Model' were also analyzed. The developed method was successfully used to predict planktonic and mono-species biofilm species in a cross validation setup. The results show differences in the presence and absence of chemical bands within the Raman spectra. The O2PLS-DA model was able to successfully predict 100% of all tested planktonic samples and 90% of all mono-species biofilm samples. Using this approach we have shown that Confocal Raman microscopy can analyse and predict the identity of planktonic and mono-species biofilm species, thus enabling its potential as a technique to map oral multi-species biofilm models.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gengivite/microbiologia , Microscopia Óptica não Linear/métodos , Periodontite/microbiologia , Actinomyces , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Gengiva/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microbiota , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Plâncton , Prevotella intermedia , Streptococcus mutans , Veillonella
10.
Arch Oral Biol ; 116: 104734, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate three licorice-derived polyphenols (glabridin, licochalcone A, licoricidin) as well as cinnamon oil for their antimicrobial activities against major endodontic pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces israelii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Candida albicans. The synergistic interactions between the four compounds and chlorhexidine were assessed on E. faecalis. Lastly, the biocompatibility of the tested compounds was assessed using human gingival fibroblasts. DESIGN: Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) were determined using a microplate dilution assay. A luminescence assay monitoring adenosine triphosphate was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of the tested compounds against E. faecalis biofilm. The synergistic effects of the tested compounds in association with chlorhexidine were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. Cytotoxicity toward human gingival fibroblasts was assessed by determination of cell metabolic activity using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Cinnamon oil showed the strongest microbicidal activity. Licochalcone A, licoricidin, and glabridin had MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mL against the six endodontic bacterial pathogens. The natural plant compounds were active to various extents against E. faecalis embedded in a biofilm. Synergistic antibacterial effects between chlorhexidine and the compounds, mainly glabridin, were observed against E. faecalis. Following a 2-h exposure, licochalcone A, licoricidin, and glabridin demonstrated no cytotoxicity toward gingival fibroblasts at concentrations up to 50 µg/mL, while cinnamon oil and, to a lesser extent, chlorhexidine displayed some cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that the natural plant compounds tested show promise as root canal disinfection agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Clorexidina , Fibroblastos , Extratos Vegetais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prevotella intermedia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19698, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal bacteria is the major pathogens in the oral cavity and the main cause of adult chronic periodontitis, but their association with incidence and prognosis in cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal bacteria infection on incidence and prognosis of cancer. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to obtain 39 studies comprising 7184 participants. The incidence of cancer was evaluated as odd ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using Review Manager 5.2 software. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival, which were measured as hazard ratios (HR) with a 95% CI using Review Manager 5.2 software. RESULTS: Our results indicated that periodontal bacteria infection increased the incidence of cancer (OR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.03-1.52) and was associated with poor overall survival (HR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.40-2.20), disease-free survival (HR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.24-3.84) and cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.44-2.39). Subgroup analysis indicted that the risk of cancer was associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection (OR = 2.16; 95%CI: 1.34-3.47) and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) infection (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.01-1.63) but not Tannerella forsythia (Tf) (OR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.8-1.41), Treponema denticola (Td) (OR = 1.30; 95%CI: 0.99-1.72), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) (OR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.48-2.08) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) (OR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0.32-1.16). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed periodontal bacteria infection increased the incidence of cancer and predicted poor prognosis of cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Dent ; 95: 103299, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the change of six periodontal pathogens around short locking-taper implants and adjacent teeth in patients with different periodontal conditions for three years. METHODS: Sixty implants and 62 adjacent teeth from 24 patients with different periodontal conditions were included: 5 patients with history of aggressive periodontitis (AgP group), 14 patients with history of chronic periodontitis (CP group), and 5 patients with healthy condition or slight gingivitis (H group). Subgingival samples were collected at five timepoints: before implant placement (T1); before second stage operation (T2); one month after restoration (T3); one year after functional loading (T4) and two years after functional loading (T5). Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Pathogens were hardly found around implants or adjacent teeth until T4. The detection rates of five pathogens other than A. actinomycetemcomitans raised up from T3 to T5. F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis were mostly detected followed by P. intermedia, T. forsythia, and T. denticola. The detection rate of P. gingivalis in implants were higher than natural teeth. There was significant correlation between pathogenic bacteria from implants and adjacent teeth. A. actinomycetemcomitans were only detected positively in peri-implant sites of AgP group. Peri-implantitis sites showed significantly higher detection rates of T. denticola, F. nucleatum at T4, and P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum at T5 than peri-implant mucositis and healthy groups. CONCLUSION: This three-year longitudinal study demonstrated that periodontal pathogens accumulate over time around short locking-taper implants and adjacent natural teeth after restoration. Adjacent teeth may become the microbial reservoir for peri-implant bacteria. Therefore, periodontally compromised patients may face higher risk for peri-implant disease. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Plaque control of implant should be intensified with time instead of diminished. Patients with history of periodontitis need more frequent and individualized implant maintenance. Treatment and maintenance for adjacent teeth is as important as for implants..


Assuntos
Peri-Implantite , Treponema denticola , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109938

RESUMO

Periodontal disease, the most prevalent infectious disease in the world, is caused by biofilms formed in periodontal pockets. No specific bacterial species that can cause periodontitis alone has been found in any study to date. Several periodontopathic bacteria are associated with the progress of periodontal disease. Consequently, it is hypothesized that dysbiosis of subgingival microbiota may be a cause of periodontal disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the subgingival microbiota and the clinical status of periodontal pockets in a quantitative and clinically applicable way with the newly developed Oral Care Chip. The Oral Care Chip is a DNA microarray tool with improved quantitative performance, that can be used in combination with competitive PCR to quantitatively detect 17 species of subgingival bacteria. Cluster analysis based on the similarity of each bacterial quantity was performed on 204 subgingival plaque samples collected from periodontitis patients and healthy volunteers. A significant difference in the number of total bacteria, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus intermedia bacteria in any combination of the three clusters indicated that these bacteria gradually increased in number from the stage before the pocket depth deepened. Conversely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus constellatus, which had significant differences only in limited clusters, were thought to increase in number as the pocket depth deepened, after periodontal pocket formation. Furthermore, in clusters where healthy or mild periodontal disease sites were classified, there was no statistically significant difference in pocket depth, but the number of bacteria gradually increased from the stage before the pocket depth increased. This means that quantitative changes in these bacteria can be a predictor of the progress of periodontal tissue destruction, and this novel microbiological test using the Oral Care Chip could be effective at detecting dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Microbiota , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Adulto , Campylobacter rectus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Índice Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus constellatus/isolamento & purificação , Tannerella forsythia/isolamento & purificação , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Oral Biosci ; 62(2): 169-174, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to isolate the active antibacterial compounds from Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) against periodontopathic bacteria. METHODS: The acetone soluble fraction of Bilberry was extracted from the oil layer by oil/water separation. The extract was then purified by a silica gel open column chromatography. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the total extract or purified fractions against bacteria was measured at each step. RESULTS: The MIC of the total extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis was 500 µg/mL. The fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis was called NU4-TDC, and its MICs against P. gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia were 26.0 ± 7.8 µg/mL, 59.0 ± 10.4 µg/mL, and 45.1 ± 16.5 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC against Streptococcus mutans was >62.5 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Bilberry contains antibacterial components against periodontopathic bacteria, such as P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and P. intermedia.


Assuntos
Vaccinium myrtillus , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e921633, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Acute bacterial pericarditis is rare, and the incidence numbers have been declining in the modern antibiotic era. Purulent bacterial pericarditis is a fatal disease in which mortality rates can reach 100% if left untreated. CASE REPORT We present a case of primary purulent bacterial pericarditis with polymicrobial growth including Micromonas micro, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium species, all of which are anaerobic flora of the oral cavity. Constant re-accumulation of the purulent pericardial effusion led the patient to have recurrent echocardiographic and clinical cardiac tamponade requiring recurrent pericardiocentesis' and eventually a pericardial window. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, bacterial pericarditis has been noted to lead to clinical and echocardiographic tamponade. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for improving clinical outcomes. It is important to have a suspicion for purulent pericarditis, due to its high level of mortality, in patients who present with non-specific symptoms and pleuritic chest pain.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamponamento Cardíaco/microbiologia , Tamponamento Cardíaco/terapia , Pericardite/microbiologia , Pericardite/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fusobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pericardiocentese , Prevotella intermedia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Raras
16.
Biochem J ; 477(2): 381-405, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899475

RESUMO

As part of the infective process, Porphyromonas gingivalis must acquire heme which is indispensable for life and enables the microorganism to survive and multiply at the infection site. This oral pathogenic bacterium uses a newly discovered novel hmu heme uptake system with a leading role played by the HmuY hemophore-like protein, responsible for acquiring heme and increasing virulence of this periodontopathogen. We demonstrated that Prevotella intermedia produces two HmuY homologs, termed PinO and PinA. Both proteins were produced at higher mRNA and protein levels when the bacterium grew under low-iron/heme conditions. PinO and PinA bound heme, but preferentially under reducing conditions, and in a manner different from that of the P. gingivalis HmuY. The analysis of the three-dimensional structures confirmed differences between apo-PinO and apo-HmuY, mainly in the fold forming the heme-binding pocket. Instead of two histidine residues coordinating heme iron in P. gingivalis HmuY, PinO and PinA could use one methionine residue to fulfill this function, with potential support of additional methionine residue/s. The P. intermedia proteins sequestered heme only from the host albumin-heme complex under reducing conditions. Our findings suggest that HmuY-like family might comprise proteins subjected during evolution to significant diversification, resulting in different heme coordination modes. The newer data presented in this manuscript on HmuY homologs produced by P. intermedia sheds more light on the novel mechanism of heme uptake, could be helpful in discovering their biological function, and in developing novel therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Heme/genética , Hemeproteínas/genética , Periodontite/genética , Prevotella intermedia/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heme/química , Hemeproteínas/química , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/patologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Prevotella intermedia/patogenicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
17.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The design of the orthodontic bracket or appliance is 1 of the most important factors for creating retentive areas for biofilm formation. In orthodontics, this would be the first study to compare the microbial level changes in 3 different types of orthodontic appliances using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the extent of appearance of orange and red microbial complexes in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using aligners, conventional metallic fixed labial appliances, and lingual fixed appliances. METHODS: A total of 60 patients, of which 20 patients were undergoing treatment with aligners, 20 patients with labial fixed appliances, and 20 patients with lingual fixed appliances, were included in our study. After 30 days, debonded brackets and rinsed aligners were stored and processed for analysis with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. RESULTS: Most bacterial species showed moderate counts, with the exception of Treponema denticola, which showed a higher count in all 3 types of appliances. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and T denticola were present in a higher percentage in the lingual appliance. Fusobacterium periodontium and Prevotella intermedia were present in a higher percentage in the labial fixed appliance. Campylobacter rectus, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella melaninogenica counts were moderate in all 3 appliances, with the first 2 microbes showing slightly higher counts in aligners. The association between all the microorganisms were statistically insignificant, with the exception of F nucleatum, which showed a strong statistically significant association in all 3 types of appliances. CONCLUSIONS: The microbial contamination in metallic brackets was higher than that of aligners, when used for a month. Lingual fixed appliances showed more microbial contamination than labial fixed appliances followed by aligners.


Assuntos
Aparelhos Ortodônticos , DNA , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
18.
J Periodontol ; 91(1): 46-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of multibacterial etiology that affects the protective and supporting tissues surrounding teeth, can influence the course of respiratory diseases, such as asthma, due to epithelial alterations arising from inflammatory and immunological processes, bronchial remodeling, or by the aspiration of pathogenic colonizers found in periodontal pockets. This study evaluated the levels of periodontal pathogens Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilm of individuals with and without severe asthma. METHODS: A case-control study enrolling 457 individuals (220 with asthma and 237 without asthma) was conducted at the Program for Control of Asthma in Bahia (ProAR) Clinic located in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on sociodemographic, health status, and lifestyle habits. A clinical periodontal assessment was performed, including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. Subgingival biofilm was collected at the deepest site of each sextant, and bacterial DNA was extracted. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect and relatively quantify periodontopathogens in the biofilm. RESULTS: Statistically significant positive associations were found between periodontitis and severe asthma, (odds ratio [OR]adjusted] : 4.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.26 to 7.10). High levels of P. intermedia were found in association with the presence of severe asthma (ORadjusted : 2.64; 95% CI: 1.62 to 4.39; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that periodontitis and P. intermedia are associated with severe asthma. However, the functional consequences of this dysbiosis upon asthma susceptibility and its phenotypes remain unclear.


Assuntos
Asma , Periodontite , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
19.
Odontology ; 108(1): 25-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214897

RESUMO

Periodontitis is modulated by a complex dysbiotic microbiota, these species stimulate upward the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, which, in turn, upregulates the production of bone resorption molecules. Enzymes such as MMP-8 and 9 have been associated with the destructive disease. This study evaluated the composition of periodontal microbiota with the checkerboard hybridization technique and its correlation with TNF-α, MMP-8, and MMP-9 evaluated with ELISA, of 80 patients (45 healthy, and 35 with chronic periodontitis). The frequency of the 18 species evaluated was higher in patients with bone loss compared with control group. TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in bone loss group (p < 0.01); MMP-8 (p = 0.34) by MMP-9 (p < 0.05) in bone loss group obtained lower values than in control group. Positive correlation of TNF-α was obtained with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (rho = 0.38; p < 0.01), Fusobacterium nucleatum (rho = 0.25; p < 0.05) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (rho = 0.26; p < 0.05); negative correlation of MMP-8 with A. actinomycetemcomitans (rho = 0.26; p < 0.01), Capnocytophaga sputigena (rho = 0.33; p < 0.01), and F. nucleatum (rho = 0.21; p < 0.05); also negative correlation of MMP-9 with F. nucleatum (rho = 0.23; p < 0.05), P. gingivalis (rho = 0.23; p < 0.05), and Tannerella forsythia (rho = 0.26; p < 0.01). TNF-α increased due to the increase in each count of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ß = 0.57; p = 0.00). The presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ß = 1.88; p = 0.00), Campylobacter rectus (ß = 0.78; p = 0.01), F. nucleatum (ß = 0.65; p = 0.04), and P. gingivalis (ß = 0.65; p = 0.04) significantly increases TNF-α levels. TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid, despite the minimal amounts collected, is a good biomarker of periodontal disease; since levels of TNF-α increases with the increase of the most harmful species to the periodontium.


Assuntos
Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Microbiota , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
20.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(2): 173-181, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765020

RESUMO

AIM: Periodontitis has been identified as a moderate but independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression. The objective of this study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01045070) was to assess subgingival colonization with selected periodontal pathogens on the occurrence of further adverse CV events in a cohort of CV patients. METHODS: The prevalence of severe periodontitis including the detection of 11 periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, P. intermdia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Capnocytophaga ochracea; HAIN-Diagnostica® ) was analysed in 1,002 CV patients The prognostic impact of periodontal pathogens for combined CV endpoint (stroke/TIA, myocardial infarction, CV death, death from stroke) was evaluated after a 3-year follow-up period. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for established CV risk factors applying Cox regression. RESULTS: In the Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test: p < .001) and Cox regression (HR: 0.545, 95%-CI: 0.387-0.773; p = .001), the decreased occurrence of E. corrodens was shown to be an independent predictor for adverse CV events after 3 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of E. corrodens was associated with a reduced risk of adverse CV events in patients with CV disease. The pathophysiological background underlying this association should be investigated in further studies.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Capnocytophaga , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
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