Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.236
Filtrar
1.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 23-30, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395201

RESUMO

Nematodes belonging to the Trichuris genus are prevalent soil-transmitted helminths with a worldwide distribution in mammals, while humans are mainly affected in areas with insufficient sanitation such as in Africa, Asia and South America. Traditionally, whipworms infecting primates are referred to Trichuris trichiura, but recent molecular and morphological evidence suggests that more than one species may be able to infect humans and non-human primates. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Trichuris infecting five different non-human primate species kept in captivity using sequencing of three mitochondrial genes (cox1, rrnL and cob). Phylogenetic analyses of both single and concatenated datasets suggested the presence of two main evolutionary lineages and several highly supported clades likely existing as separate taxa. The first lineage included Trichuris infecting the mantled guereza (Colobus guereza kikuyensis), the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and the green monkeys (Chlorocebus spp.), clustering together with Trichuris suis; the second lineage included Trichuris infecting the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), clustering together with Trichuris spp. infecting humans. These results were supported by the genetic distance between samples, which suggested that at least two taxa are able to infect macaques, baboons and humans. The present study improves our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships among Trichuris spp. infecting primates. It moreover suggests that multiple Trichuris spp. may circulate among host species and that Trichuris in non human primates (NHPs) may be zoonotic. Further studies are important to better understand the epidemiology of Trichuris in primates and for implementing appropriate control and/or conservation measures.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Primatas/parasitologia , Tricuríase/veterinária , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Primatas , Tricuríase/parasitologia
2.
Neuron ; 103(3): 360-363, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394060

RESUMO

Deciding when to exploit what is already known and when to explore new possibilities is crucial for adapting to novel and dynamic environments. Using reinforcement-based decision making, Costa et al. (2019) in this issue of Neuron find that neurons in the amygdala and ventral-striatum differentially signal the benefit from exploring new options and exploiting familiar ones.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Estriado Ventral , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Animais , Primatas , Reforço (Psicologia)
3.
Neuron ; 103(4): 549-551, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437448

RESUMO

In most neurons, all spikes look alike. However, in this issue of Neuron, Rhoades et al. (2019) describe a ganglion cell in primate retina that reports visual input to different regions of its receptive field with distinct action potential waveforms.


Assuntos
Células Ganglionares da Retina , Campos Visuais , Animais , Lógica Fuzzy , Estimulação Luminosa , Primatas , Retina
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 414-420, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260208

RESUMO

The usefulness of a human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological diagnosis of Baylisascaris procyonis larva migrans was assessed in nonhuman primates (NHP). The test was originally developed as an assay performed on human samples at Purdue University. Six participating zoos submitted 258 NHP serum samples, spanning these major phylogenetic groups: 1) great apes (n = 84), 2) lesser apes (n = 17), 3) Old World monkeys (n = 84), 4) New World monkeys (n = 20), and 5) prosimians (n = 53). Sera were tested in duplicate using a microtiter-well ELISA with B. procyonis larval excretory-secretory proteins as antigen, and serum from an experimentally infected baboon (Papio anubis) served as positive control. The ELISA clearly identified seropositive animals in all zoos. With putative cutoffs of optical density (OD) measured at 405 nm (OD405) of <0.150 = negative, 0.150-0.250 = indeterminate, and >0.250 = positive, 149 of 258 (57.8%) were clearly negative (mean OD 0.046), and 78 of 258 (30.2%) were clearly positive (mean OD 0.657, range 0.253-1.773), the rest being indeterminate. Of these, 15 were high positive with OD 1.095-1.773 (mean 1.314). Positive animals were seen from all zoos; 76 (97.4%) were great apes, lesser apes, or Old World monkeys. The four highest ODs were in a siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), and western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), all from different zoos. Prosimians had a mean OD of 0.039 and New World monkeys 0.021, indicating that human reagents either did not work for these groups or few infected animals were represented. These results indicate that the human ELISA for B. procyonis works well for at least higher phylogeny NHP and that serologic evidence of infection is surprisingly common, correlating with what is known for exposure to this parasite in zoos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças dos Primatas/parasitologia , Primatas/sangue , Envelhecimento , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças dos Primatas/sangue , Doenças dos Primatas/diagnóstico , Primatas/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 807-813, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289254

RESUMO

Cognitive abilities of humans are superior to that of non-human primates (NHP). Differences in genes, gene expression, cellular composition and response, neural circuit, and brain volume between humans and NHP underlying cognitive abilities are discussed, with a focus on cortical expansion, prefrontal expansion, language-related areas, and the adaptation of longer life spans in humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Humanos , Primatas
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 705-716, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301510

RESUMO

Wildlife physiological responses to environmental and human-related stressors provide useful clues on animal welfare. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), allow researchers to assess whether variations in habitat quality, behavior, and climate influence the animals' physiological stress. We examined the role of fragment size, ambient temperature, ripe fruit availability and consumption, percentage of records moving, sex, female reproductive state, and group composition as predictors of the level of fGCM in adult brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We collected bimonthly behavioral data and fecal samples from adult individuals over three years, and used a multimodel inference framework to identify the main predictors of fGCM. We found that the mean (±SD) fGCM in the study groups ranged from 57 ±â€¯49 ng/g to 93 ±â€¯58 ng/g, which were within the known range for howler monkeys. We found 10 best models including five of the 17 tested variables. Sex and reproductive state were the only variables included in all these models. We found that fGCM was higher in nursing females (mean ±â€¯SD = 104 ±â€¯73 ng/g) than in non-nursing females (64 ±â€¯55 ng/g) and males (53 ±â€¯40 ng/g, P < 0.05) and that it decreased with increasing ripe fruit consumption and minimum temperature. However, fragment size did not predict fGCM concentration (groups in small fragments = 71 ±â€¯58 ng/g vs. groups in large fragments = 63 ±â€¯54 ng/g, P > 0.05). We conclude that factors related to the energetic balance of individuals play major roles in modulating the physiological stress of brown howler monkeys. Future studies should investigate the consequences of higher levels of stress hormones on howler monkey health and demography.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Primatas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Alouatta , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Primatas/psicologia
7.
Anim Cogn ; 22(4): 453-459, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278622

RESUMO

This paper is an introduction to the special issue entitled Evolving the study of gesture: evaluating and unifying theories of gesture acquisition in great apes. The gestures of great apes have been recorded in scientific literature for over 100 years, but the ways in which apes acquire their gestures remains a highly debated topic. Through this historical framework, we summarize and contextualize contemporary research on the development of ape gesture. We describe the papers presented in this special issue, grouping them into three themes: assessing theories, methodological innovation, and new empirical approaches. Each of the papers is a significant contribution to the literature on ape gesture, but the collection of work together represents a unique collaboration across labs, theories, and studied species. By considering the papers side-by-side, we hope that readers will see the authors as engaging in a true dialogue, one which will help the field of primate gesture research make significant advances in the years to come.


Assuntos
Gestos , Primatas , Comportamento Social , Animais , Hominidae , Humanos
8.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(2): 88-97, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220833

RESUMO

Human chromosome 7 has been the focus of many behavioral, genetic, and medical studies because it carries genes related to cancer and neurodevelopment. We examined the evolution of the chromosome 7 homologs, and the 7q31 region in particular, using chromosome painting analyses and 3 paint probes derived from (i) the whole of chimpanzee chromosome VII (wcVII), (ii) human 7q31 (h7q31), and (iii) the chimpanzee homolog VIIq31 (cVIIq31). The wcVII probe was used instead of the whole human chromosome 7 because the chimpanzee contains additional C-bands and revealed large areas of synteny conservation as well as fragmentation across 20 primate species. Analyses focusing specifically on the 7q31 homolog and vicinity revealed considerable conservation across lineages with 2 exceptions. First, the probes verified an insertion of repetitive sequence at VIIq22 in chimpanzees and bonobos and also detected the sequence in most subtelomeres of the African apes. Second, a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint in the cVIIq31 block was found in the common marmoset, confirming earlier studies. Subsequent in silico comparative genome analysis of 17 primate species revealed that VIIq31.1 is more significantly conserved at the sequence level than other regions of chromosome VII, which indicates that its components are likely responsible for critical shared traits across the order, including conditions necessary for proper human development and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Coloração Cromossômica/métodos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pan paniscus/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Primatas/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
9.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2165-2170, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154511

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) circulation occurs between non-human primates (NHPs) in a sylvatic transmission cycle. To investigate evidence of flavivirus infection in NHPs in Zambia, we performed a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to quantify neutralizing antibodies. PRNT revealed that sera from NHPs (African green monkeys and baboons) exhibited neutralizing activity against ZIKV (34.4%; 33/96), whereas a PRNT for yellow fever virus using NHP sera showed no neutralization activity. ZIKV genomic RNA was not detected in splenic tissues from NHPs, suggesting that the presence of anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibodies represented resolved infections. Our evidence suggests that ZIKV is maintained in NHP reservoirs in Zambia.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Primatas , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Zâmbia
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2405, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160560

RESUMO

Culture (behaviour based on socially transmitted information) is present in diverse animal species, yet how it interacts with genetic evolution remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the evidence for gene-culture coevolution in animals, especially birds, cetaceans and primates. We describe how culture can relax or intensify selection under different circumstances, create new selection pressures by changing ecology or behaviour, and favour adaptations, including in other species. Finally, we illustrate how, through culturally mediated migration and assortative mating, culture can shape population genetic structure and diversity. This evidence suggests strongly that animal culture plays an important evolutionary role, and we encourage explicit analyses of gene-culture coevolution in nature.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Evolução Cultural , Evolução Molecular , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Aves , Cetáceos , Ecologia , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Primatas
11.
Parasite ; 26: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several cases of infections due to Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia martis and Taenia crassiceps were recently described in various species of captive non-human primates (NHPs) harbored in the Strasbourg Primate Center (SPC). Furthermore, one of the first cases of human cysticercosis due to T. martis was described in the Strasbourg region. These data suggest the existence of zoonotic cycles of tapeworm infections in the direct environment of the SPC. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of larval cestode infections among intermediate and definitive hosts in the close neighborhood of the center. We analyzed carnivore mammal fecal samples as well as rodent carcasses, collected inside or near the SPC, using PCR. Furthermore, we performed serology for Echinococcus spp. and Taenia spp. on NHP sera. RESULTS: We found that 14.5% (95% CI [8.6; 20.4]) of 138 carnivore feces were positive for E. multilocularis-DNA, as well as 25% (95% CI [5.5; 57.2]) of 12 rodent carcasses, and 5.1% (95% CI [1.4; 8.7]) for T. martis or T. crassiceps. Of all NHPs tested, 10.1% (95% CI [3.8; 16.4]) were seropositive for Echinococcus spp. and 8.2% (95% CI [1.3; 15.1]) for Taenia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the existence of zoonotic cycles of larval cestode infections in the direct environment of the primatology center affecting NHPs harbored in the SPC, potentially threatening the human population living in this area. Since this zoonotic risk is borne by local wildlife, and given the severity of these infections, it seems necessary to put in place measures to protect captive NHPs, and further studies to better assess the risk to human populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Primatas/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/transmissão , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Pesquisa , Roedores/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 661-672, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069507

RESUMO

Tandem repeats (TRs) are widespread in the genomes of all living organisms. In eukaryotes, they are found in both coding and noncoding regions and have potential roles in the regulation of cellular processes such as transcription, translation and in the modification of protein structure. Recent studies have highlighted TRs as a key regulator of gene expression and a potential contributor to human evolution. Thus, TRs are emerging as an important source of variation that can result in differential gene expression at intra- and inter-species levels. In this study, we performed a genome-wide survey to identify TRs that have emerged in the human lineage. We further examined these loci to explore their potential functional significance for human evolution. We identified 152 human-specific TR (HSTR) loci containing a repeat unit of more than ten bases, with most of them showing a repeat count of two. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that HSTR-associated genes were associated with biological functions in brain development and synapse function. In addition, we compared gene expression of human HSTR loci with orthologues from non-human primates (NHP) in seven different tissues. Strikingly, the expression level of HSTR-associated genes in brain tissues was significantly higher in human than in NHP. These results suggest the possibility that de novo emergence of TRs could have resulted in altered gene expression in humans within a short-time frame and contributed to the rapid evolution of human brain function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Primatas/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
13.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043512

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is among the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and efforts to develop protective measures against the pathogen are ongoing. One of the few defined virulence factors targeted for vaccine development is the capsule polysaccharide (CPS). We have developed a capsule conjugate vaccine against C. jejuni strain 81-176 (CPS-CRM) that is immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) but only moderately immunogenic in humans when delivered alone or with aluminum hydroxide. To enhance immunogenicity, two novel liposome-based adjuvant systems, the Army Liposome Formulation (ALF), containing synthetic monophosphoryl lipid A, and ALF plus QS-21 (ALFQ), were evaluated with CPS-CRM in this study. In mice, ALF and ALFQ induced similar amounts of CPS-specific IgG that was significantly higher than levels induced by CPS-CRM alone. Qualitative differences in antibody responses were observed where CPS-CRM alone induced Th2-biased IgG1, whereas ALF and ALFQ enhanced Th1-mediated anti-CPS IgG2b and IgG2c and generated functional bactericidal antibody titers. CPS-CRM + ALFQ was superior to vaccine alone or CPS-CRM + ALF in augmenting antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine responses and a significantly higher proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ IL-2+ TNF-α+ and CD4+ IL-4+ IL-10+ T cells. ALFQ also significantly enhanced anti-CPS responses in NHPs when delivered with CPS-CRM compared to alum- or ALF-adjuvanted groups and showed the highest protective efficacy against diarrhea following orogastric challenge with C. jejuni This study provides evidence that the ALF adjuvants may provide enhanced immunogenicity of this and other novel C. jejuni capsule conjugate vaccines in humans.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, and currently no preventative interventions are available. C. jejuni is an invasive mucosal pathogen that has a variety of polysaccharide structures on its surface, including a capsule. In phase 1 studies, a C. jejuni capsule conjugate vaccine was safe but poorly immunogenic when delivered alone or with aluminum hydroxide. Here, we report enhanced immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine delivered with liposome adjuvants containing monophosphoryl lipid A without or with QS-21, known as ALF and ALFQ, respectively, in preclinical studies. Both liposome adjuvants significantly enhanced immunity in mice and nonhuman primates and improved protective efficacy of the vaccine compared to alum in a nonhuman primate C. jejuni diarrhea model, providing promising evidence that these potent adjuvant formulations may enhance immunogenicity in upcoming human studies with this C. jejuni conjugate and other malaria and HIV vaccine platforms.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Primatas , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 32, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of natural infections of Schistosoma mansoni in a number of species of nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa, coupled with the substantial overlap of NHP habitats and human schistosomiasis endemic areas, has led to concerns about the role of NHPs in the transmission of human schistosomiasis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the current scope of knowledge for Africa, for the NHP species implicated, their geographical distribution, infection rates with S. mansoni, and to discuss the implications for public health and conservation. MAIN TEXT: A systematic search of the literature was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the World Health Organization (WHO) library database, World Cat, and ScienceDirect without any language restriction. Studies examining S. mansoni infection of any African NHP species were included. Study types, primate species, their geographical distribution, and parasite diagnostic techniques reported in the studies were qualitatively summarized. Data for species with sample sizes ≥10 were included in the meta-analysis. We assessed the reported infection rate, and used a random-effects model to estimate the summary infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed heterogeneity among studies using the I2 statistics. Twenty-nine publications, from 1960 to 2018, were identified and included in the review. The studies examined a total of 2962 primates belonging to 22 species in 11 genera across ten countries (Cameroon, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe), and S. mansoni infections were found in nine species of five genera in all countries. When we excluded studies with sample sizes < 10, data from 24 studies on 11 species of primates in three genera in ten countries remained in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled estimate of infection rate was 10% (95% CI: 6-16%) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 94.77%) across countries and species/genera. Among the three genera, Pan had the highest infection rate of 15% (95% CI: 0-55%), followed by Papio at 11% (95% CI: 6-18%), and Cercopithecus at 5% (95% CI: 0-14%). The association between NHP and human infections was positive, but not significant, due to low study sample matches and high variation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that S. mansoni infection rate is high in African NHPs, with substantial heterogeneities across species/genera and countries in Africa. Given the evidence for potential spillover and spillback of S. mansoni between African NHPs and humans, further research is urgently needed to understand ecology and mechanisms of transmission of the parasite between NHP and human hosts, in order to inform control strategies of this important neglected tropical disease.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/veterinária , Primatas/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , África , Animais , Geografia , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/transmissão
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1953, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028254

RESUMO

Malaria vaccine design and prioritization has been hindered by the lack of a mechanistic correlate of protection. We previously demonstrated a strong association between protection and merozoite-neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination of non-human primates against Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5). Here, we test the mechanism of protection. Using mutant human IgG1 Fc regions engineered not to engage complement or FcR-dependent effector mechanisms, we produce merozoite-neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-PfRH5 chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and perform a passive transfer-P. falciparum challenge study in Aotus nancymaae monkeys. At the highest dose tested, 6/6 animals given the neutralizing PfRH5-binding mAb c2AC7 survive the challenge without treatment, compared to 0/6 animals given non-neutralizing PfRH5-binding mAb c4BA7 and 0/6 animals given an isotype control mAb. Our results address the controversy regarding whether merozoite-neutralizing antibody can cause protection against P. falciparum blood-stage infections, and highlight the quantitative challenge of achieving such protection.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Vacinas Antimaláricas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Primatas
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 818-823, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028411

RESUMO

Strains YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T were isolated from the feces of Macaca mulatta and Hylobates hoolock, respectively, living in the Yunnan Wild Animal Park, Yunnan province of China. The two strains were Gram-stain-negative, non-gliding, produced flexirubin pigments, non-flagellated and aerobic bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicate that both YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T are members of the genus Flavobacterium, closely related to F. ummariense DS-12T (95.9% similarity) and F. ceti 454-2T (93.8% similarity), respectively. The two strains shared 95.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between the two strains were 76.5% and 22.9%, respectively, indicating that they are separate species. DNA G+C contents of YIM 102796T and YIM 102701-2T were 32.3 mol% and 34.0 mol%, respectively. Strains are able to grow at 4-37 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in 0-2% (w/v) NaCl. Predominant fatty acid constituents (>7 %) were iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or 10-methylC16:0). Menaquinone 6 is major respiratory quinone. The predominant polar lipids were very similar to each other, comprising phosphatidylethanolamine, and multiple unknown aminolipids and unidentified polar lipids, and an unidentified aminophospholipid. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, it is suggested that the two strains represent two novel Flavobacterium species with strain YIM 102796T (=KCTC 52101T=CCTCC AB 2016015T) as the type strain of Flavobacterium viscosus sp. nov. and strain YIM 102701-2T (=KCTC 52100T=CCTCC AB 2016028T) as the type strain of Flavobacterium tangerina sp. nov.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/classificação , Primatas/microbiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Flavobacterium/genética , Flavobacterium/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007313, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995227

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide relevance. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum with Lutzomyia longipalpis being the most important invertebrate vector. Non-human primates are susceptible to L. infantum infection. However, little is known about the role of these species as reservoirs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmissibility potential of visceral leishmaniasis by non-human primates through xenodiagnosis using the phlebotomine Lu. longipalpis as well as to identify phlebotomine species prevalent in the area where the primates were kept in captivity, and assess infection by Leishmania in captured phlebotomine specimens. Fifty two non-human primates kept in captivity in an endemic area for leishmaniasis were subjected to xenodiagnosis. All primates were serologically tested for detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. Additionally, an anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva ELISA was performed. Sand flies fed on all animals were tested by qPCR to identify and quantify L. infantum promastigotes. Eight of the 52 non-human primates were positive by xenodiagnosis, including three Pan troglodytes, three Leontopithecus rosalia, one Sapajus apella, and one Miopithecus talapoin, with estimated numbers of promastigotes ranging from 5.67 to 1,181.93 per µg of DNA. Positive animals had higher levels of IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva when compared to negative animals, prior to xenodiagnosis. Captive non-human primates are capable of infecting Lu. longipalpis with L. infantum. Our findings also demonstrate the relevance of non-human primates as sentinels to zoonotic diseases. Several phlebotomine species, including Lu. longipalpis, have been identified in the area where the primates were maintained, but only one pool of Lutzomyia lenti was infected with L. infantum. This study has implications for public health strategies and conservation medicine.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Primatas/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Brasil , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia
18.
Zoo Biol ; 38(4): 389-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020706

RESUMO

For the management of captive populations of zoo animals, it is important to elucidate factors that affect the offspring birth sex ratio. On the basis of the sex allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard and mate attractive/quality hypotheses predict that maternal and paternal conditions affect offspring birth sex ratios. We examined these predictions for the birth sex ratio of aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis (Gmelin) by analyzing the pedigree information in the International Studbook. We found that the birth sex ratio of the aye-aye was affected by the paternal age, but not maternal age and other environmental factors (birth year, season, and institution). The younger the sire, the more the offspring sex ratio was biased toward males. These results are useful for the effective population management of captive aye-aye and illustrated the usefulness of the sex allocation theory in the sex ratio management of zoo animals.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Idade Paterna , Primatas/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez
19.
Primates ; 60(4): 375-381, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968257

RESUMO

Urbanisation is an important factor driving species and biodiversity decline. Although habitat alterations can be detrimental for species, studies have shown that many diurnal primates are able to adapt to novel environments. Little is known about the ability of nocturnal primates to survive within an urban environment. To increase our understanding on this topic, we present ad libitum observations on group movement and sociality from urban and rural populations of the African lesser bushbaby (Galago moholi) in South Africa from 2014-2018. Our data show considerable changes in the social dynamics within urban bushbaby populations. In contrast to rural individuals, which spent the majority of their activity period solitarily or in pairs, urban individuals displayed a larger degree of sociality throughout their active period, forming groups of up to ten individuals. Furthermore, urban individuals spent less time moving around, while increasing social (communication/pair-grooming), foraging and feeding behaviour. Urban individuals fed on a range of different anthropogenic and natural food sources (insects/tree gum/nectar) compared to their rural counterparts. In summary, urban bushbabies showed a large degree of behavioural plasticity, with changes in social dynamics and structure frequently observed. Such alterations in sociality, along with the ability to utilise different feeding resources, may explain the ability of the species to survive within a highly altered environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Escuridão , Primatas/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Urbanização , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , África do Sul
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA