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1.
Neuron ; 106(6): 884-889, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883486

RESUMO

In a candid interview with Neuron, Nikos K. Logothetis shares memories about his rich scientific past and argues about the importance of animal research and the role of science in society. He also talks about his new job and future plans as co-director of the International Center for Primate Brain Research in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Encéfalo , Neurociências , Direitos dos Animais , Animais , Humanos , Primatas , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201655, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900315

RESUMO

The fossil record of 'lesser apes' (i.e. hylobatids = gibbons and siamangs) is virtually non-existent before the latest Miocene of East Asia. However, molecular data strongly and consistently suggest that hylobatids should be present by approximately 20 Ma; thus, there are large temporal, geographical, and morphological gaps between early fossil apes in Africa and the earliest fossil hylobatids in China. Here, we describe a new approximately 12.5-13.8 Ma fossil ape from the Lower Siwaliks of Ramnagar, India, that fills in these long-standing gaps with implications for hylobatid origins. This ape represents the first new hominoid species discovered at Ramnagar in nearly a century, the first new Siwalik ape taxon in more than 30 years, and likely extends the hylobatid fossil record by approximately 5 Myr, providing a minimum age for hylobatid dispersal coeval to that of great apes. The presence of crown hylobatid molar features in the new species indicates an adaptive shift to a more frugivorous diet during the Middle Miocene, consistent with other proposed adaptations to frugivory (e.g. uricase gene silencing) during this time period as well.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Hylobatidae , Animais , Índia , Filogenia , Primatas
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933166

RESUMO

The glycans on enveloped viruses are synthesized by host-cell machinery. Some of these glycans on zoonotic viruses of mammalian reservoirs are recognized by human natural antibodies that may protect against such viruses. These antibodies are produced mostly against carbohydrate antigens on gastrointestinal bacteria and fortuitously, they bind to carbohydrate antigens synthesized in other mammals, neutralize and destroy viruses presenting these antigens. Two such antibodies are: anti-Gal binding to α-gal epitopes synthesized in non-primate mammals, lemurs, and New World monkeys, and anti-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (anti-Neu5Gc) binding to N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) synthesized in apes, Old World monkeys, and many non-primate mammals. Anti-Gal appeared in Old World primates following accidental inactivation of the α1,3galactosyltransferase gene 20-30 million years ago. Anti-Neu5Gc appeared in hominins following the inactivation of the cytidine-monophosphate-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid hydroxylase gene, which led to the loss of Neu5Gc <6 million-years-ago. It is suggested that an epidemic of a lethal virus eliminated ancestral Old World-primates synthesizing α-gal epitopes, whereas few mutated offspring lacking α-gal epitopes and producing anti-Gal survived because anti-Gal destroyed viruses presenting α-gal epitopes, following replication in parental populations. Similarly, anti-Neu5Gc protected few mutated hominins lacking Neu5Gc in lethal virus epidemics that eliminated parental hominins synthesizing Neu5Gc. Since α-gal epitopes are presented on many zoonotic viruses it is suggested that vaccines elevating anti-Gal titers may be of protective significance in areas endemic for such zoonotic viruses. This protection would be during the non-primate mammal to human virus transmission, but not in subsequent human to human transmission where the virus presents human glycans. In addition, production of viral vaccines presenting multiple α-gal epitopes increases their immunogenicity because of effective anti-Gal-mediated targeting of vaccines to antigen presenting cells for extensive uptake of the vaccine by these cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Evolução Molecular , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Primatas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798444

RESUMO

The explosive spread of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that a vaccine will be required to end this global pandemic. Progress in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development to date has been faster than for any other pathogen in history. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have been evaluated in preclinical models and are currently in clinical trials. In this Perspective, we discuss three topics that are critical for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development: antigen selection and engineering, preclinical challenge studies in non-human primate models, and immune correlates of protection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Inata , Modelos Animais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Primatas , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008991, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797042

RESUMO

Accounting for continual evolution of deleterious L1 retrotransposon families, which can contain hundreds to thousands of members remains a major issue in mammalian biology. L1 activity generated upwards of 40% of some mammalian genomes, including humans where they remain active, causing genetic defects and rearrangements. L1 encodes a coiled coil-containing protein that is essential for retrotransposition, and the emergence of novel primate L1 families has been correlated with episodes of extensive amino acid substitutions in the coiled coil. These results were interpreted as an adaptive response to maintain L1 activity, however its mechanism remained unknown. Although an adventitious mutation can inactivate coiled coil function, its effect could be buffered by epistatic interactions within the coiled coil, made more likely if the family contains a diverse set of coiled coil sequences-collectively referred to as the coiled coil sequence space. Amino acid substitutions that do not affect coiled coil function (i.e., its phenotype) could be "hidden" from (not subject to) purifying selection. The accumulation of such substitutions, often referred to as cryptic genetic variation, has been documented in various proteins. Here we report that this phenomenon was in effect during the latest episode of primate coiled coil evolution, which occurred 30-10 MYA during the emergence of primate L1Pa7-L1Pa3 families. First, we experimentally demonstrated that while coiled coil function (measured by retrotransposition) can be eliminated by single epistatic mutations, it nonetheless can also withstand extensive amino acid substitutions. Second, principal component and cluster analysis showed that the coiled coil sequence space of each of the L1Pa7-3 families was notably increased by the presence of distinct, coexisting coiled coil sequences. Thus, sampling related networks of functional sequences rather than traversing discrete adaptive states characterized the persistence L1 activity during this evolutionary event.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Primatas/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008646, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776974

RESUMO

Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) potently stimulates HIV-1 particle assembly in vitro and infectious particle production in vivo. However, knockout cells lacking inositol-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPPK-KO), the enzyme that produces IP6 by phosphorylation of inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), were still able to produce infectious HIV-1 particles at a greatly reduced rate. HIV-1 in vitro assembly can also be stimulated to a lesser extent with IP5, but until recently, it was not known if IP5 could also function in promoting assembly in vivo. Here we addressed whether there is an absolute requirement for IP6 or IP5 in the production of infectious HIV-1 particles. IPPK-KO cells expressed no detectable IP6 but elevated IP5 levels and displayed a 20-100-fold reduction in infectious particle production, correlating with lost virus release. Transient transfection of an IPPK expression vector stimulated infectious particle production and release in IPPK-KO but not wildtype cells. Several attempts to make IP6/IP5 deficient stable cells were not successful, but transient expression of the enzyme multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-1 (MINPP1) into IPPK-KOs resulted in near ablation of IP6 and IP5. Under these conditions, we found that HIV-1 infectious particle production and virus release were essentially abolished (1000-fold reduction) demonstrating an IP6/IP5 requirement. However, other retroviruses including a Gammaretrovirus, a Betaretrovirus, and two non-primate Lentiviruses displayed only a modest (3-fold) reduction in infectious particle production from IPPK-KOs and were not significantly altered by expression of IPPK or MINPP1. The only other retrovirus found to show a clear IP6/IP5 dependence was the primate (macaque) Lentivirus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, which displayed similar sensitivity as HIV-1. We were not able to determine if producer cell IP6/IP5 is required at additional steps beyond assembly because viral particles devoid of both molecules could not be generated. Finally, we found that loss of IP6/IP5 in viral target cells had no effect on permissivity to HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Lentivirus de Primatas/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Vírion/fisiologia , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/genética , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Fosforilação , Primatas
8.
Gene ; 760: 145020, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755656

RESUMO

Conserved sequences across species have always provided valuable insights to improve our understanding on the human genome's entity and the interplay among different loci. Lymphoma/leukemia related factor (LRF) is encoded by ZBTB7A gene and belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors, implicated in vital cellular functions. The present data, demonstrating the wide-spread and the high overlap of the LRF/ZBTB7A recognition sites with genomic segments identified as CpG islands in the human genome, suggest that its binding capacity strongly depends on a specific sequence-encoded feature within CpGs. We have previously shown that de-methylation of the CpG island 326 lying in the ZBTB7A gene promoter is associated with impaired pharmacological induction of fetal hemoglobin in ß-type hemoglobinopathies patients. Within this context we aimed to investigate the extent of the LRF/ZBTB7A conservation among primates and mouse genome, focusing our interest also on the CpG island flanking the gene's promoter region, in an effort to further establish its epigenetic regulatory role in human hematopoiesis and pharmacological involvement in hematopoietic disorders. Comparative analysis of the human ZBTB7A nucleotide and amino acid sequences and orthologous sequences among non-human primates and mouse, exhibited high conservation scores. Pathway analysis, clearly indicated that LRF/ZBTB7A influences conserved cellular processes. These data in conjunction with the high levels of expression foremost in hematopoietic tissues, highlighted LRF/ZBTB7A as an essential factor operating indisputably during hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sequência Conservada/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Primatas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000764, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780733

RESUMO

Tissue vibrations in the larynx produce most sounds that comprise vocal communication in mammals. Larynx morphology is thus predicted to be a key target for selection, particularly in species with highly developed vocal communication systems. Here, we present a novel database of digitally modeled scanned larynges from 55 different mammalian species, representing a wide range of body sizes in the primate and carnivoran orders. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we demonstrate that the primate larynx has evolved more rapidly than the carnivoran larynx, resulting in a pattern of larger size and increased deviation from expected allometry with body size. These results imply fundamental differences between primates and carnivorans in the balance of selective forces that constrain larynx size and highlight an evolutionary flexibility in primates that may help explain why we have developed complex and diverse uses of the vocal organ for communication.


Assuntos
Canidae/fisiologia , Felidae/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Laringe/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Canidae/anatomia & histologia , Canidae/classificação , Felidae/anatomia & histologia , Felidae/classificação , Feminino , Herpestidae/anatomia & histologia , Herpestidae/classificação , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Mamíferos , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Primatas/classificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Som
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008699, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764827

RESUMO

São Paulo, a densely inhabited state in southeast Brazil that contains the fourth most populated city in the world, recently experienced its largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. YFV does not normally circulate extensively in São Paulo, so most people were unvaccinated when the outbreak began. Surveillance in non-human primates (NHPs) is important for determining the magnitude and geographic extent of an epizootic, thereby helping to evaluate the risk of YFV spillover to humans. Data from infected NHPs can give more accurate insights into YFV spread than when using data from human cases alone. To contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo, we generated and analysed virus genomic data and epizootic case data from NHPs in São Paulo. We report the occurrence of three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the outbreak in São Paulo prior to February 2018. We generated 51 new virus genomes from YFV positive cases identified in 23 different municipalities in São Paulo, mostly sampled from NHPs between October 2016 and January 2018. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in lineage dispersal velocities between phylogenetic branches, continuous phylogeographic analyses of generated YFV genomes suggest that YFV lineages spread in São Paulo at a mean rate of approximately 1km per day during all phases of the outbreak. Viral lineages from the first epizootic phase in northern São Paulo subsequently dispersed towards the south of the state to cause the second and third epizootic phases there. This alters our understanding of how YFV was introduced into the densely populated south of São Paulo state. Our results shed light on the sylvatic transmission of YFV in highly fragmented forested regions in São Paulo state and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in sentinel species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genômica , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Amarela/classificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23173, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662075

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to explore the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on primate-related conservation work. The withdrawal of primatologists and conservation staff from field research can lead to a number of detrimental effects not just on conservation but also on local communities in low- and middle-income countries. Inequalities in access to health and financial insecurities may be drivers for the illegal wildlife trade and the lack of tourism and research activity may allow poachers to work with greater ease. The paper also looks at how conservation organizations and research bodies should modify their field protocols by developing robust occupational health policies that will not only make field work safer but also support local staff as they are likely to face the greatest threats to their physical health, psychological health, and economic loss from COVID-19. By adopting a One Health approach that considers the complex interactions between human and primate health, researchers will be able to find new ways of working not only to protect primates but understand how they adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Primatas , Pesquisa/tendências
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20200807, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635870

RESUMO

Large brains are a defining feature of primates, as is a clear allometric trend between body mass and brain size. However, important questions on the macroevolution of brain shape in primates remain unanswered. Here we address two: (i), does the relationship between the brain size and its shape follow allometric trends and (ii), is this relationship consistent over evolutionary time? We employ three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods to answer these questions, based on a large sample representing 151 species and most primate families. We found two distinct trends regarding the relationship between brain shape and brain size. Hominoidea and Cercopithecinae showed significant evolutionary allometry, whereas no allometric trends were discernible for Strepsirrhini, Colobinae or Platyrrhini. Furthermore, we found that in the taxa characterized by significant allometry, brain shape evolution accelerated, whereas for taxa in which such allometry was absent, the evolution of brain shape decelerated. We conclude that although primates in general are typically described as large-brained, strong allometric effects on brain shape are largely confined to the order's representatives that display more complex behavioural repertoires.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Primatas , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Filogenia
18.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686188

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 and human responses to the resulting COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 have rapidly changed many aspects of human behavior, including our interactions with wildlife. In this commentary, we identify challenges and opportunities at human-primate interfaces in light of COVID-19, focusing on examples from Asia, and make recommendations for researchers working with wild primates to reduce zoonosis risk and leverage research opportunities. First, we briefly review the evidence for zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss risks of zoonosis at the human-primate interface. We then identify challenges that the pandemic has caused for primates, including reduced nutrition, increased intraspecific competition, and increased poaching risk, as well as challenges facing primatologists, including lost research opportunities. Subsequently, we highlight opportunities arising from pandemic-related lockdowns and public health messaging, including opportunities to reduce the intensity of problematic human-primate interfaces, opportunities to reduce the risk of zoonosis between humans and primates, opportunities to reduce legal and illegal trade in primates, new opportunities for research on human-primate interfaces, and opportunities for community education. Finally, we recommend specific actions that primatologists should take to reduce contact and aggression between humans and primates, to reduce demand for primates as pets, to reduce risks of zoonosis in the context of field research, and to improve understanding of human-primate interfaces. Reducing the risk of zoonosis and promoting the well-being of humans and primates at our interfaces will require substantial changes from "business as usual." We encourage primatologists to help lead the way.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Primatas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Elife ; 92020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609086

RESUMO

A new genetic marker enables precise control over a group of inhibitory neurons in monkeys.


Assuntos
Macaca , Optogenética , Animais , Córtex Cerebral , Neurônios GABAérgicos , Primatas
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(555)2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690628

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is having a deleterious impact on health services and the global economy, highlighting the urgent need for an effective vaccine. Such a vaccine would need to rapidly confer protection after one or two doses and would need to be manufactured using components suitable for scale up. Here, we developed an Alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine candidate, repRNA-CoV2S, encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The RNA replicons were formulated with lipid inorganic nanoparticles (LIONs) that were designed to enhance vaccine stability, delivery, and immunogenicity. We show that a single intramuscular injection of the LION/repRNA-CoV2S vaccine in mice elicited robust production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG antibody isotypes indicative of a type 1 T helper cell response. A prime/boost regimen induced potent T cell responses in mice including antigen-specific responses in the lung and spleen. Prime-only immunization of aged (17 months old) mice induced smaller immune responses compared to young mice, but this difference was abrogated by booster immunization. In nonhuman primates, prime-only immunization in one intramuscular injection site or prime/boost immunizations in five intramuscular injection sites elicited modest T cell responses and robust antibody responses. The antibody responses persisted for at least 70 days and neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at titers comparable to those in human serum samples collected from individuals convalescing from COVID-19. These data support further development of LION/repRNA-CoV2S as a vaccine candidate for prophylactic protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Alphavirus/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/genética , Replicon/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Compostos Inorgânicos/química , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Primatas
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