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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101801, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340883

RESUMO

Laser-induced hypertension in nonhuman primates is used to mimic human glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness. In this protocol, we detail steps for laser-induced ocular hypertension in nonhuman primates by laser photocoagulation of the trabecular meshwork and subsequent intracameral injection. We further describe recording and evaluation of intraocular pressure changes and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. This protocol can assist researchers improve the success rate and repeatability of the procedure and reduce the number of nonhuman primates needed. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Sun et al. (2022).


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Hipertensão Ocular , Animais , Humanos , Glaucoma/etiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/etiologia , Pressão Intraocular , Lasers , Primatas
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277440, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367876

RESUMO

Global and spatially explicit information about the interaction between habitat and wildlife species is critical to enhancing conservation efforts. Despite the recognized importance of mangrove forests to non-human primates, the relationship between the two lacks understanding. To counter this, we created the MangPrim-21 database to map and measure the locations of interactions between all non-human primates and all mangrove forests globally. We report our findings across the global, national, and local scales for all inventoried non-human primates and all inventoried mangrove forests. Globally, we find that half of all non-primates potentially use mangrove forests, and more than half of the global mangrove forest falls within the delineated range of at least one non-human primate species. Nationally, we find that Indonesia, Madagascar, Brazil, Cameroon, and Malaysia likely have the most non-human primate and mangrove forest interactions. At the subnational level, we find that several discrete locations in Kalimantan are critical to both mangrove forests and non-human primates. The MangPrim-21 database provides a globally consistent and locally applicable database of non-human primate and mangrove forest interactions. The results presented have broader implications for non-human primate and mangrove conservation and global actions to protect both. Additionally, our results raise questions about the idea that non-human primates primarily use mangrove forests as a refuge from human encroachment and habitat degradation.


Assuntos
Florestas , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Primatas , Ecossistema , Indonésia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
3.
Cell Rep ; 41(5): 111585, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323256

RESUMO

Posttranscriptional RNA modifications by adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing are abundant in the brain, yet elucidating functional sites remains challenging. To bridge this gap, we investigate spatiotemporal and genetically regulated A-to-I editing sites across prenatal and postnatal stages of human brain development. More than 10,000 spatiotemporally regulated A-to-I sites were identified that occur predominately in 3' UTRs and introns, as well as 37 sites that recode amino acids in protein coding regions with precise changes in editing levels across development. Hyper-edited transcripts are also enriched in the aging brain and stabilize RNA secondary structures. These features are conserved in murine and non-human primate models of neurodevelopment. Finally, thousands of cis-editing quantitative trait loci (edQTLs) were identified with unique regulatory effects during prenatal and postnatal development. Collectively, this work offers a resolved atlas linking spatiotemporal variation in editing levels to genetic regulatory effects throughout distinct stages of brain maturation.


Assuntos
Inosina , Edição de RNA , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Edição de RNA/genética , Inosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Primatas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo
4.
J Neurosci ; 42(45): 8508-8513, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351824

RESUMO

Understanding the unique functions of different subregions of primate prefrontal cortex has been a longstanding goal in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the anatomy and function of one of its largest subregions (the frontopolar cortex) remain enigmatic and underspecified. Our Society for Neuroscience minisymposium Primate Frontopolar Cortex: From Circuits to Complex Behaviors will comprise a range of new anatomic and functional approaches that have helped to clarify the basic circuit anatomy of the frontal pole, its functional involvement during performance of cognitively demanding behavioral paradigms in monkeys and humans, and its clinical potential as a target for noninvasive brain stimulation in patients with brain disorders. This review consolidates knowledge about the anatomy and connectivity of frontopolar cortex and provides an integrative summary of its function in primates. We aim to answer the question: what, if anything, does frontopolar cortex contribute to goal-directed cognition and action?


Assuntos
Cognição , Objetivos , Animais , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Primatas , Haplorrinos
5.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 77, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While of predominant abundance across vertebrate genomes and significant biological implications, the relevance of short tandem repeats (STRs) (also known as microsatellites) to speciation remains largely elusive and attributed to random coincidence for the most part. Here we collected data on the whole-genome abundance of mono-, di-, and trinucleotide STRs in nine species, encompassing rodents and primates, including rat, mouse, olive baboon, gelada, macaque, gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo, and human. The collected data were used to analyze hierarchical clustering of the STR abundances in the selected species. RESULTS: We found massive differential STR abundances between the rodent and primate orders. In addition, while numerous STRs had random abundance across the nine selected species, the global abundance conformed to three consistent < clusters>, as follows: <rat, mouse>, <gelada, macaque, olive baboon>, and <gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo, human>, which coincided with the phylogenetic distances of the selected species (p < 4E-05). Exceptionally, in the trinucleotide STR compartment, human was significantly distant from all other species. CONCLUSION: Based on hierarchical clustering, we propose that the global abundance of STRs is non-random in rodents and primates, and probably had a determining impact on the speciation of the two orders. We also propose the STRs and STR lengths, which predominantly conformed to the phylogeny of the selected species, exemplified by (t)10, (ct)6, and (taa4). Phylogenetic and experimental platforms are warranted to further examine the observed patterns and the biological mechanisms associated with those STRs.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla , Roedores , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Roedores/genética , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Pan paniscus , Primatas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Macaca
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(11): e1010654, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413523

RESUMO

Primates constantly explore their surroundings via saccadic eye movements that bring different parts of an image into high resolution. In addition to exploring new regions in the visual field, primates also make frequent return fixations, revisiting previously foveated locations. We systematically studied a total of 44,328 return fixations out of 217,440 fixations. Return fixations were ubiquitous across different behavioral tasks, in monkeys and humans, both when subjects viewed static images and when subjects performed natural behaviors. Return fixations locations were consistent across subjects, tended to occur within short temporal offsets, and typically followed a 180-degree turn in saccadic direction. To understand the origin of return fixations, we propose a proof-of-principle, biologically-inspired and image-computable neural network model. The model combines five key modules: an image feature extractor, bottom-up saliency cues, task-relevant visual features, finite inhibition-of-return, and saccade size constraints. Even though there are no free parameters that are fine-tuned for each specific task, species, or condition, the model produces fixation sequences resembling the universal properties of return fixations. These results provide initial steps towards a mechanistic understanding of the trade-off between rapid foveal recognition and the need to scrutinize previous fixation locations.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Movimentos Sacádicos , Animais , Humanos , Campos Visuais , Primatas , Sinais (Psicologia)
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113937, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411624

RESUMO

Over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by altered redox regulation of signaling pathways is common in many types of cancers. While PET imaging is recognized as the standard tool for cancer imaging, there are no clinically-approved PET radiotracers for ROS-imaging in cancer diagnosis and treatment. An ascorbate-based radio ligand promises to meet this urgent need. Our laboratory recently synthesized [18F] KS1, a fluoroethoxy furanose ring-containing ascorbate derivative, to track ROS in prostate tumor-bearing mice. Here we report cell uptake assays of [18F]KS1 with different ROS-regulating agents, PET imaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) mice, and doxorubicin-induced rats; PET imaging in healthy and irradiated hepatic tumor-bearing rhesus to demonstrate its translational potential. Our preliminary evaluations demonstrated that KS1 do not generate ROS in tumor cells at tracer-level concentrations and tumor-killing properties at pharmacologic doses. [18F]KS1 uptake was low in HNSCC pretreated with ROS blockers, and high with ROS inducers. Tumors in high ROS-expressing SCC-61 took up significantly more [18F]KS1 than rSCC-61 (low-ROS expressing HNSCC); high uptake in doxorubicin-treated rats compared to saline-treated controls. Rodent biodistribution and PET imaging of [18F]KS1 in healthy rhesus monkeys demonstrated its favorable safety, pharmacokinetic properties with excellent washout profile, within 3.0 h of radiotracer administration. High uptake of [18F]KS1 in liver tumor tissues of the irradiated hepatic tumor-bearing monkey showed target selectivity. Our strong data in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo here supports the high translational utility of [18F]KS1 to image ROS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Camundongos , Ligantes , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Roedores/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Doxorrubicina , Primatas/metabolismo
8.
Primates ; 63(6): 557-558, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322268
9.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101784, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386869

RESUMO

It is technically challenging to generate large doses of regulatory T cells (Tregs) engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in non-human primates (NHP). Here, we have optimized the manufacturing of CAR Tregs by stringent sorting of Tregs, stimulation by artificial antigen-presenting cells, transduction by simian tropic lentiviral vectors, and antigen-specific expansion. The result of this method is highly suppressive CAR Tregs for use in a pre-clinical, large animal model of transplant tolerance. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ellis et al. (2022).


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Animais , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Primatas , Tolerância ao Transplante
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7178, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418324

RESUMO

The human genome contains more than 4.5 million inserts derived from transposable elements (TEs), the result of recurrent waves of invasion and internal propagation throughout evolution. For new TE copies to be inherited, they must become integrated in the genome of the germline or pre-implantation embryo, which requires that their source TE be expressed at these stages. Accordingly, many TEs harbor DNA binding sites for the pluripotency factors OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, and KLFs and are transiently expressed during embryonic genome activation. Here, we describe how many primate-restricted TEs have additional binding sites for lineage-specific transcription factors driving their expression during human gastrulation and later steps of fetal development. These TE integrants serve as lineage-specific enhancers fostering the transcription, amongst other targets, of KRAB-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) of comparable evolutionary age, which in turn corral the activity of TE-embedded regulatory sequences in a similarly lineage-restricted fashion. Thus, TEs and their KZFP controllers play broad roles in shaping transcriptional networks during early human development.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Animais , Humanos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Primatas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Genoma Humano
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2548-2551, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417997

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates living in proximity to humans increase risks for sylvatic arbovirus transmission. We collected serum samples from nonhuman primates in Hlawga National Park near Yangon, Myanmar, and detected antibodies against chikungunya (33%) and Japanese encephalitis (4%) viruses. Buffer zones between primate and human communities might reduce cross-species arbovirus transmission.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Primatas
12.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2145997, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418217

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) deliver great benefits to patients with chronic and/or severe diseases thanks to their strong specificity to the therapeutic target. As a result of this specificity, non-human primates (NHP) are often the only preclinical species in which therapeutic antibodies cross-react with the target. Here, we highlight the value and limitations that NHP studies bring to the design of safe and efficient early clinical trials. Indeed, data generated in NHPs are integrated with in vitro information to predict the concentration/effect relationship in human, and therefore the doses to be tested in first-in-human trials. The similarities and differences in the systems defining the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of mAbs in NHP and human define the nature and the potential of the preclinical investigations performed in NHPs. Examples have been collated where the use of NHP was either pivotal to the design of the first-in-human trial or, inversely, led to the termination of a project prior to clinical development. The potential impact of immunogenicity on the results generated in NHPs is discussed. Strategies to optimize the use of NHPs for PKPD purposes include the addition of PD endpoints in safety assessment studies and the potential re-use of NHPs after non-terminal studies or cassette dosing several therapeutic agents of interest. Efforts are also made to reduce the use of NHPs in the industry through the use of in vitro systems, alternative in vivo models, and in silico approaches. In the case of prediction of ocular PK, the body of evidence gathered over the last two decades renders the use of NHPs obsolete. Expert perspectives, advantages, and pitfalls with these alternative approaches are shared in this review.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Animais , Humanos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Primatas , Anticorpos Monoclonais
13.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; 56: 209-231, Nov. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210244

RESUMO

En la actualidad, la investigación en grandes simios ha dejado de realizarse en prácticamente todo el mundo. En este contexto, cabe preguntarse si es que ha llegado el tiempo de prohibir o restringir severamente la investigación con toda clase de primates no humanos. Una manera de abordar esta pregunta es evaluando si es que las razones que fueron esgrimidas—con éxito—en favor de restringir la investigación con grandes simios, pueden ser extendidas al caso de los demás primates no humanos. Teniendo como base una reciente revisión del debate sobre la restricción de la investigación con grandes simios (Aguilera, Perez Gomez, y DeGrazia, 2021), el presente artículo lleva a cabo esta tarea, analizando dominios de razones relacionados con el estatus moral, la ciencia, el bienestar animal, las actitudes de los expertos y el público, la conservación y el retiro de los primates, los costos financieros, y la atribución de respeto y derechos a los primates no humanos. De esta manera, se pretende iluminar el debate en torno a la restricción de la investigación con toda clase de primates no humanos, aportando herramientas estratégicas, persuasivas y filosóficas para quienes deseen avanzar en esta dirección.(AU)


En l'actualitat, la recerca en grans simis ha deixat de realitzar-se en pràcticament tothom. En aquest context, cal preguntar-se si és que ha arribat el temps de prohibir o restringir severament la recerca amb tota mena deprimats no humans. Una manera d'abordar aquesta pregunta és avaluant si és que les raons que van ser esgrimides—amb èxit—en favor de restringir la recerca amb grans simis, poden ser esteses al cas dels altres primats no humans. Tenint com a base una recent revisió del debat sobre la restricció de la recerca amb grans simis (Aguilera, Perez Gomez, i DeGrazia, 2021), el present article duu a terme aquesta tasca, analitzant dominis de raons relacionats amb l'estatus moral, la ciència, el benestar animal, les actituds dels experts i el públic, la conservació i el retir dels primats, els costos financers, i l'atribució de respecte i drets als primats no humans. D'aquesta manera, es pretén il·luminar el debat entorn de la restricció de la recerca amb tota classe de primats no humans, aportant eines estratègiques, persuasives i filosòfiques per qui desitgi avançar en aquesta direcció.(AU)


Currently, research on great apes has been phased out in practically all the world. In this context, the question arises as to whether it is time to ban or restrict research on all non-human primates. One way to address this question is to assess whether the reasons that were successfully put forward in favor of restricting research on great apes can be extended to other non-human primates. Based on a recent review of the debate on the restriction of research with great apes (Aguilera, Perez Gomez, y DeGrazia, 2021), the present article carriesout this task, analyzing domains of reasons related to moral status, science, animal welfare, attitudes of experts and the public, conservation and retirement of primates, financial costs, and the attribution of respect and rights to non-human primates. This way, the aim is to shed light on the debate around the restriction of research with all types of non-human primates, offering strategic, persuasive, and philosophical tools for those who would like to move forward in this direction.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Primatas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Bem-Estar do Animal , Eticistas , Moral , Bioética , Princípios Morais , Ética
15.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(11): 2392-2408, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306783

RESUMO

Transplantation of embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retina (ESC/iPSC-retina) restores host retinal ganglion cell light responses in end-stage retinal degeneration models with host-graft synapse formation. We studied the immunological features of iPSC-retina transplantation using major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-homozygote monkey iPSC-retinas in monkeys with laser-induced retinal degeneration in MHC-matched and -mismatched transplantation. MHC-mismatched transplantation without immune suppression showed no evident clinical signs of rejection and histologically showed graft maturation without lymphocytic infiltration, although immunological tests using peripheral blood monocytes suggested subclinical rejection in three of four MHC-mismatched monkeys. Although extensive photoreceptor rosette formation was observed on histology, evaluation of functional integration using mouse models such as mouse ESC-retina (C57BL/6) transplanted into rd1(C3H/HeJ, MHC-mismatched model) elicited light responses in the host retinal ganglion cells after transplantation but with less responsiveness than that in rd1-2J mice (C57BL/6, MHC-matched model). These results suggest the reasonable use of ESC/iPSC-retina in MHC-mismatched transplantation, albeit with caution.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Degeneração Retiniana , Camundongos , Animais , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Retina/patologia , Primatas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Haplorrinos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade
16.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 978344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36247729

RESUMO

The interest in studying the neural circuits related to mating behavior and mate choice in monogamous species lies in the parallels found between human social structure and sexual behavior and that of other mammals that exhibit social monogamy, potentially expanding our understanding of human neurobiology and its underlying mechanisms. Extensive research has suggested that social monogamy, as opposed to non-monogamy in mammals, is a consequence of the neural encoding of sociosensory information from the sexual partner with an increased reward value. Thus, the reinforced value of the mate outweighs the reward value of mating with any other potential sexual partners. This mechanism reinforces the social relationship of a breeding pair, commonly defined as a pair bond. In addition to accentuated prosocial behaviors toward the partner, other characteristic behaviors may appear, such as territorial and partner guarding, selective aggression toward unfamiliar conspecifics, and biparental care. Concomitantly, social buffering and distress upon partner separation are also observed. The following work intends to overview and compare known neural and functional circuits that are related to mating and sexual behavior in monogamous mammals. We will particularly discuss reports on Cricetid rodents of the Microtus and Peromyscus genus, and New World primates (NWP), such as the Callicebinae subfamily of the titi monkey and the marmoset (Callithrix spp.). In addition, we will mention the main factors that modulate the neural circuits related to social monogamy and how that modulation may reflect phenotypic differences, ultimately creating the widely observed diversity in social behavior.


Assuntos
Ligação do Par , Primatas , Animais , Humanos , Mamíferos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Social
17.
Primates ; 63(6): 559-573, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241937

RESUMO

In this paper I recall some of the significant moments of my career as a primatologist, including some of the intellectual conflicts I encountered between anthropology, sociology and zoology. From an initial interest in ethics and evolution, I undertook research on rhesus monkeys in captivity and then on chimpanzees in the wild. Influenced by Japanese primatology as well as Western approaches, this led to my work on the problems of describing primate behaviour, but this more theoretical approach was superseded by empirical work embodied in the founding of the Budongo Conservation Field Station. I describe the initial creation of the field station in 1990 and some of the research directions we have followed since that time. The paper ends with a focus on conservation, this being of increasing importance as the Budongo Forest faces ever increasing threats from industry.


Assuntos
Primatas , Zoologia , Animais , Pan troglodytes , Florestas , Macaca mulatta
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2210627119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279427

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in chronometric techniques (e.g., Uranium-Lead [U-Pb], cosmogenic nuclides, electron spin resonance spectroscopy [ESR]), considerable uncertainty remains regarding the age of many Plio-Pleistocene hominin sites, including several in South Africa. Consequently, biochronology remains important in assessments of Plio-Pleistocene geochronology and provides direct age estimates of the fossils themselves. Historically, cercopithecid monkeys have been among the most useful taxa for biochronology of early hominins because they are widely present and abundant in the African Plio-Pleistocene record. The last major studies using cercopithecids were published over 30 y ago. Since then, new hominin sites have been discovered, radiometric age estimates have been refined, and many changes have occurred in cercopithecid taxonomy and systematics. Thus, a biochronological reassessment using cercopithecids is long overdue. Here, we provide just such a revision based on our recent study of every major cercopithecid collection from African Plio-Pleistocene sites. In addition to correlations based on shared faunal elements, we present an analysis based on the dentition of the abundant cercopithecid Theropithecus oswaldi, which increases in size in a manner that is strongly correlated with geological age (r2 ∼0.83), thereby providing a highly accurate age-estimation tool not previously utilized. In combination with paleomagnetic and U-Pb data, our results provide revised age estimates and suggest that there are no hominin sites in South Africa significantly older than ∼2.8 Ma. Where conflicting age estimates exist, we suggest that additional data are needed and recall that faunal estimates have ultimately proved reliable in the past (e.g., the age of the KBS Tuff).


Assuntos
Hominidae , Theropithecus , Urânio , Animais , África do Sul , Chumbo , Fósseis , Primatas
19.
Elife ; 112022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286251

RESUMO

The human brain is distinct from those of other species in terms of size, organization, and connectivity. How do structural evolutionary differences drive patterns of neural activity enabling brain function? Here, we combine brain imaging and biophysical modeling to show that the anatomical wiring of the human brain distinctly shapes neural dynamics. This shaping is characterized by a narrower distribution of dynamic ranges across brain regions compared with that of chimpanzees, our closest living primate relatives. We find that such a narrow dynamic range distribution supports faster integration between regions, particularly in transmodal systems. Conversely, a broad dynamic range distribution as seen in chimpanzees facilitates brain processes relying more on neural interactions within specialized local brain systems. These findings suggest that human brain dynamics have evolved to foster rapid associative processes in service of complex cognitive functions and behavior.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Humanos , Animais , Conectoma/métodos , Pan troglodytes , Encéfalo , Cognição , Evolução Biológica , Primatas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa
20.
Am J Primatol ; 84(11): e23438, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193566

RESUMO

Animal self-medication is thought to provide an adaptive advantage, as species would actively respond to a disease state or homeostatic imbalances. In wild nonhuman primates, it is challenging to differentiate plant use as part of the diet or as medication, especially because self-medication can be preventive or therapeutic. Here, we aimed to compile the available potential evidence on primate self-medication modes, investigating which proposed requirements are fulfilled for each plant species reported to date. We systematically reviewed the scientific literature on plant use for potential self-medication in wild nonhuman primates. To construct the extensive database, we extracted data on the primate species, study area, plant/plant's part used, the requirement(s) met for demonstrating self-medication modes, and self-medicative behavioral patterns. We also updated available information on plant's biological compounds and/or physical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and ethnomedical uses. We identified 575 plant species (135 families), used by 25 primate species (9 families). Plants were used by Old World monkeys (46.5%, n = 268 plant species), followed by apes (41%, n = 235), New World monkeys (13.4%, n = 77), and prosimians (1%, n = 6). We found three general types of self-medicative behaviors: ingestion (including, but not limited to, leaf-swallowing, seed-swallowing, and bitter pith chewing), topical (fur-rubbing), and nest fumigation. Plant uses were associated with antiparasitic, antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, among other properties. Self-medication is widespread in nonhuman primate species across Central and South America, Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Long-term field research efforts and studies integrating different research sites and topics are urgent to advance our knowledge into the evolution of plant selection, medical traditions, and to bring insights into potentially novel medicinal plants and bioactive compounds to treat emergent or established primate and human diseases.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Hominidae , Repelentes de Insetos , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Primatas
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