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1.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1294-1305, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556879

RESUMO

Development of effective human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) vaccines requires synergy between innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we show that induction of the transcription factor CREB1 and its target genes by the recombinant canarypox vector ALVAC + Alum augments immunogenicity in non-human primates (NHPs) and predicts reduced HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 trial. These target genes include those encoding cytokines/chemokines associated with heightened protection from simian immunodeficiency virus challenge in NHPs. Expression of CREB1 target genes probably results from direct cGAMP (STING agonist)-modulated p-CREB1 activity that drives the recruitment of CD4+ T cells and B cells to the site of antigen presentation. Importantly, unlike NHPs immunized with ALVAC + Alum, those immunized with ALVAC + MF59, the regimen in the HVTN702 trial that showed no protection from HIV infection, exhibited significantly reduced CREB1 target gene expression. Our integrated systems biology approach has validated CREB1 as a critical driver of vaccine efficacy and highlights that adjuvants that trigger CREB1 signaling may be critical for efficacious HIV-1 vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Primatas/imunologia , Primatas/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1881-1889, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490832

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has been the causative pathogen of the pandemic of COVID-19, resulting in catastrophic health issues globally. It is important to develop human-like animal models for investigating the mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect humans and cause COVID-19. Several studies demonstrated that the non-human primate (NHP) is permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection to cause typical clinical symptoms including fever, cough, breathing difficulty, and other diagnostic abnormalities such as immunopathogenesis and hyperplastic lesions in the lung. These NHP models have been used for investigating the potential infection route and host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as testing vaccines and drugs. This review aims to summarize the benefits and caveats of NHP models currently available for SARS-CoV-2, and to discuss key topics including model optimization, extended application, and clinical translation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
3.
J Neural Eng ; 18(4)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352736

RESUMO

Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that record neural activity using intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have shown promise for mitigating disability associated with neurological injuries and disorders. While the chronic performance and failure modes of MEAs have been well studied and systematically described in non-human primates, there is far less reported about long-term MEA performance in humans. Our group has collected one of the largest neural recording datasets from a Utah MEA in a human subject, spanning over 5 years (2014-2019). Here we present both long-term signal quality and BCI performance as well as highlight several acute signal disruption events observed during the clinical study.Approach. Long-term Utah array performance was evaluated by analyzing neural signal metric trends and decoding accuracy for tasks regularly performed across 448 clinical recording sessions. For acute signal disruptions, we identify or hypothesize the root cause of the disruption, show how the disruption manifests in the collected data, and discuss potential identification and mitigation strategies for the disruption.Main results. Neural signal quality metrics deteriorated rapidly within the first year, followed by a slower decline through the remainder of the study. Nevertheless, BCI performance remained high 5 years after implantation, which is encouraging for the translational potential of this technology as an assistive device. We also present examples of unanticipated signal disruptions during chronic MEA use, which are critical to detect as BCI technology progresses toward home usage.Significance. Our work fills a gap in knowledge around long-term MEA performance in humans, providing longevity and efficacy data points to help characterize the performance of implantable neural sensors in a human population. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01997125) and conformed to institutional requirements for the conduct of human subjects research.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Animais , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Primatas , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 464, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinal regenerative therapies hold great promise for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs). Studies in preclinical lower mammal models of IRDs have suggested visual improvement following retinal photoreceptor precursors transplantation, but there is limited evidence on the ability of these transplants to rescue retinal damage in higher mammals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of photoreceptor precursors derived from clinically compliant induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). METHODS: Photoreceptor precursors were sub-retinally transplanted into non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). The cells were transplanted both in naïve and cobalt chloride-induced retinal degeneration models who had been receiving systemic immunosuppression for one week prior to the procedure. Optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, electroretinography, ex vivo histology and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate retinal structure, function and survival of transplanted cells. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects of iPSC-derived photoreceptor precursors on retinal structure or function in naïve NHP models, indicating good biocompatibility. In addition, photoreceptor precursors injected into cobalt chloride-induced retinal degeneration NHP models demonstrated an ability both to survive and to mature into cone photoreceptors at 3 months post-transplant. Optical coherence tomography showed restoration of retinal ellipsoid zone post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the safety and therapeutic potential of clinically compliant iPSC-derived photoreceptor precursors as a cell replacement source for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Humanos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados , Primatas , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360862

RESUMO

Human placentation differs from that of other mammals. A suite of characteristics is shared with haplorrhine primates, including early development of the embryonic membranes and placental hormones such as chorionic gonadotrophin and placental lactogen. A comparable architecture of the intervillous space is found only in Old World monkeys and apes. The routes of trophoblast invasion and the precise role of extravillous trophoblast in uterine artery transformation is similar in chimpanzee and gorilla. Extended parental care is shared with the great apes, and though human babies are rather helpless at birth, they are well developed (precocial) in other respects. Primates and rodents last shared a common ancestor in the Cretaceous period, and their placentation has evolved independently for some 80 million years. This is reflected in many aspects of their placentation. Some apparent resemblances such as interstitial implantation and placental lactogens are the result of convergent evolution. For rodent models such as the mouse, the differences are compounded by short gestations leading to the delivery of poorly developed (altricial) young.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Placenta , Placentação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônios Placentários/metabolismo , Gravidez , Primatas , Artéria Uterina
7.
Redox Biol ; 46: 102078, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333284

RESUMO

ACE2 plays a pivotal role in the balance between the pro-oxidative pro-inflammatory and the anti-oxidative anti-inflammatory arms of the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, ACE2 is the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Clarification of ACE2-related mechanisms is crucial for the understanding of COVID-19 and other oxidative stress and inflammation-related processes. In rat and monkey brain, we discovered that the intracellular ACE2 and its products Ang 1-7 and alamandine are highly concentrated in the mitochondria and bind to a new mitochondrial Mas-related receptor MrgE (MrgE) to produce nitric oxide. We found MrgE expressed in neurons and glia of rodents and primates in the substantia nigra and different brain regions. In the mitochondria, ACE2 and MrgE expressions decreased and NOX4 increased with aging. This new ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may play a major role in mitochondrial regulation of oxidative stress in neurons, and possibly other cells. Therefore, dysregulation of the mitochondrial ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may play a major role in neurodegenerative processes of dopaminergic neurons, where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role. Since ACE2 binds SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the mitochondrial ACE2/MrgE/NO axis may also play a role in SARS-CoV-2 cellular effects.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19 , Humanos , Primatas , Ratos , Roedores , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1306-1315, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417590

RESUMO

B.1.351 is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant most resistant to antibody neutralization. We demonstrate how the dose and number of immunizations influence protection. Nonhuman primates received two doses of 30 or 100 µg of Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine, a single immunization of 30 µg, or no vaccine. Two doses of 100 µg of mRNA-1273 induced 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution neutralizing antibody titers against live SARS-CoV-2 p.Asp614Gly and B.1.351 of 3,300 and 240, respectively. Higher neutralizing responses against B.1.617.2 were also observed after two doses compared to a single dose. After challenge with B.1.351, there was ~4- to 5-log10 reduction of viral subgenomic RNA and low to undetectable replication in bronchoalveolar lavages in the two-dose vaccine groups, with a 1-log10 reduction in nasal swabs in the 100-µg group. These data establish that a two-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 will be critical for providing upper and lower airway protection against major variants of concern.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero , Carga Viral/métodos
9.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410047

RESUMO

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Primatas/virologia , Saúde Pública , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/classificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Saúde Global , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149268, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333432

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a public health concern; but antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and integrons that link to AMR of Escherichia coli from non-human primates remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance, emerging environmental pollutants ARGs, and integrons factors (intI1, intI2 and intI3) in 995 E. coli isolates obtained from 50 species of captive non-human primates of 13 zoos in China. Our result showed 83.62% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 47.94% isolates showed multiple drug resistances (MDR). The E. coli isolates mainly showed resistance to tetracycline (tetracycline 62.71%, doxycycline 61.11%), ß-lactams (ampicillin 54.27%, amoxicillin 52.36%), and sulfonamide (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 36.78%). A total of 423 antibiotic resistance patterns were observed, of which DOX/TET (49 isolates, 4.92%) was the most common pattern. Antibiotic resistance rates among 13 zoos had a significant difference (P < 0.01). We further detected 22 ARGs in the 995 E. coli isolates, of which tetA had the highest occurrence (70.55%). The presence of integrons class 1 and 2 were 24.22% and 1.71%, respectively, while no class 3 integron was found. Significant positive associations were observed among integrons and antibiotics, of which the strongest association was observed for integrons / Gentamicin (OR, 2.642) and integrons / Cefotaxime (OR, 2.512). In addition, cassette arrays were detected in 64 strains of class 1 integron-positive isolates (26.56%) and 10 strains of class 2 integron-positive isolates (58.82%). Eighteen cassette arrays were found within 64 class 1 integron isolates, while 3 cassette arrays were identified within 10 class 2 integron isolates. Our results indicate a high diversity of antibiotic resistance phenotypes in non-human primate E. coli isolates, which carry multiple ARGs and integrons. Corresponding preventive measures should be taken to prevent the spread of integron-mediated ARGs in non-human primates and their living environments in zoos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Integrons , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Primatas
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 600, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotide excision repair is the primary DNA repair mechanism that removes bulky DNA adducts such as UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Correspondingly, genome-wide mapping of nucleotide excision repair with eXcision Repair sequencing (XR-seq), provides comprehensive profiling of DNA damage repair. A number of XR-seq experiments at a variety of conditions for different damage types revealed heterogenous repair in the human genome. Although human repair profiles were extensively studied, how repair maps vary between primates is yet to be investigated. Here, we characterized the genome-wide UV-induced damage repair in gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, in comparison to human. RESULTS: We derived fibroblast cell lines from mouse lemur, exposed them to UV irradiation, and analyzed the repair events genome-wide using the XR-seq protocol. Mouse lemur repair profiles were analyzed in comparison to the equivalent human fibroblast datasets. We found that overall UV sensitivity, repair efficiency, and transcription-coupled repair levels differ between the two primates. Despite this, comparative analysis of human and mouse lemur fibroblasts revealed that genome-wide repair profiles of the homologous regions are highly correlated, and this correlation is stronger for highly expressed genes. With the inclusion of an additional XR-seq sample derived from another human cell line in the analysis, we found that fibroblasts of the two primates repair UV-induced DNA lesions in a more similar pattern than two distinct human cell lines do. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mouse lemurs and humans, and possibly primates in general, share a homologous repair mechanism as well as genomic variance distribution, albeit with their variable repair efficiency. This result also emphasizes the deep homologies of individual tissue types across the eukaryotic phylogeny.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Dímeros de Pirimidina , Animais , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Primatas/genética , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356005

RESUMO

The family Arteriviridae comprises enveloped RNA viruses with a linear, positive-sense genome of approximately 12.7 to 15.7 kb. The spherical, pleomorphic virions have a median diameter of 50-74 nm and include eight to eleven viral proteins. Arteriviruses infect non-human mammals in a vector-independent manner. Infections are often persistent and can either be asymptomatic or produce overt disease. Some arteriviruses are important veterinary pathogens while others infect particular species of wild rodents or African non-human primates. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Arteriviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/arteriviridae.


Assuntos
Arteriviridae/classificação , Arteriviridae/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Arteriviridae/ultraestrutura , Arterivirus/classificação , Arterivirus/genética , Endocitose , Genoma Viral , Primatas , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vírion/classificação , Vírion/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Ligação Viral , Replicação Viral
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(602)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261800

RESUMO

Although substantial progress has been made with Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine measures, the immune correlates of vaccine-mediated protection remain uncertain. Here, five mucosal vaccine vectors based on human and avian paramyxoviruses provided nonhuman primates with varying degrees of protection, despite expressing the same EBOV glycoprotein (GP) immunogen. Each vaccine produced antibody responses that differed in Fc-mediated functions and isotype composition, as well as in magnitude and coverage toward GP and its conformational and linear epitopes. Differences in the degree of protection and comprehensive characterization of the response afforded the opportunity to identify which features and functions were elevated in survivors and could therefore serve as vaccine correlates of protection. Pairwise network correlation analysis of 139 immune- and vaccine-related parameters was performed to demonstrate relationships with survival. Total GP-specific antibodies, as measured by biolayer interferometry, but not neutralizing IgG or IgA titers, correlated with survival. Fc-mediated functions and the amount of receptor binding domain antibodies were associated with improved survival outcomes, alluding to the protective mechanisms of these vaccines. Therefore, functional qualities of the antibody response, particularly Fc-mediated effects and GP specificity, rather than simply magnitude of the response, appear central to vaccine-induced protection against EBOV. The heterogeneity of the response profile between the vaccines indicates that each vaccine likely exhibits its own protective signature and the requirements for an efficacious EBOV vaccine are complex.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Primatas
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1555-1573, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304724

RESUMO

To curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple platforms have been employed toward a safe and highly effective vaccine. Here, we develop a novel cell-based vaccine candidate, namely K562-S, by utilizing human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the membrane. Analogous to the traditional inactivated vaccine, K562-S cells can be propagated to a large scale by culturing and completely lose their viability after exposure to X-ray irradiation or formalin. We in turn demonstrated high immunogenicity of formalin-inactivated K562-S vaccine in both mouse and non-human primates and its protective efficacy in mice. In mice, immunization with inactivated K562-S vaccines can elicit potent neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses persisting longer than 5 months. We consequently showed in a hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that a two-shot vaccination with adjuvanted K562-S rendered greater than 3 log reduction in viral lung load and concomitant ameliorated lung pathology. Of importance, the administration of the same regimen in non-human primates was able to induce a neutralizing antibody titer averaging three-fold higher relative to human convalescent serum. These results together support the promise of K562-based, S-protein-expressing vaccines as a novel vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, with a powerful capacity to carry external genes for cell-based vectors, this platform could rapidly generate two- and multiple-valent vaccines by incorporating SARS-CoV-2 mutants, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células K562 , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Primatas , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 423, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a promising cell source for retinal cell replacement therapy but often lack standardized cell production and live-cell shipment logistics as well as rigorous analyses of surgical procedures for cell transplantation in the delicate macula area. We have previously established a xeno- and feeder cell-free production system for hPSC differentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and herein, a novel immunosuppressed non-human primate (NHP) model with a disrupted ocular immune privilege is presented for transplanting human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE on a scaffold, and the safety and submacular graft integration are assessed. Furthermore, the feasibility of intercontinental shipment of live hESC-RPE is examined. METHODS: Cynomolgus monkeys were systemically immunosuppressed and implanted with a hESC-RPE monolayer on a permeable polyester-terephthalate (PET) scaffold. Microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (miOCT)-guided surgery, postoperative follow-up incorporated scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, spectral domain (SD-) OCT, and full-field electroretinography (ERG) were used as outcome measures. In addition, histology was performed after a 28-day follow-up. RESULTS: Intercontinental cell shipment, which took >30 h from the manufacturing to the transplantation site, did not alter the hESC-RPE quality. The submacular hESC-RPE xenotransplantation was performed in 11 macaques. The miOCT typically revealed foveal disruption. ERG showed amplitude and peak time preservation in cases with favorable surgical outcomes. Histology confirmed photoreceptor preservation above the grafts and in vivo phagocytosis by hESC-RPE, albeit evidence of cytoplasmic redistribution of opsin in photoreceptors and glia hypertrophy. The immunosuppression protocol efficiently suppressed retinal T cell infiltration and microglia activation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest both structural and functional submacular integrations of hESC-RPE xenografts. It is anticipated that surgical technique refinement will further improve the engraftment of macular cell therapeutics with significant translational relevance to improve future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Primatas , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Transplante Heterólogo
17.
J Neurosci Methods ; 361: 109283, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technological advances in developing experimentally controlled models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are prevalent in rodent models and these models have proven invaluable in characterizing temporal changes in brain and behavior after trauma. To date no long-term studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have been published using an experimentally controlled impact device to follow behavioral performance over time. NEW METHOD: We have employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device to create a focal contusion to the hand area in primary motor cortex (M1) of three New World monkeys to characterize changes in reach and grasp function assessed for 3 months after the injury. RESULTS: The CCI destroyed most of M1 hand representation reducing grey matter by 9.6 mm3, 12.9 mm3, and 15.5 mm3 and underlying corona radiata by 7.4 mm3, 6.9 mm3, and 5.6 mm3 respectively. Impaired motor function was confined to the hand contralateral to the injury. Gross hand-use was only mildly affected during the first few days of observation after injury while activity requiring skilled use of the hand was impaired over three months. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): This study is unique in establishing a CCI model of TBI in an NHP resulting in persistent impairments in motor function evident in volitional use of the hand. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing an NHP model of TBI is essential to extend current rodent models to the complex neural architecture of the primate brain. Moving forward this model can be used to investigate novel therapeutic interventions to improve or restore impaired motor function after trauma.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Córtex Motor , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Força da Mão , Primatas
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206571

RESUMO

In recent years, a large population of immature neurons has been documented in the paralaminar nucleus of the primate amygdala. A substantial fraction of these immature neurons differentiate into mature neurons during postnatal development or following selective lesion of the hippocampus. Notwithstanding a growing number of studies on the origin and fate of these immature neurons, fundamental questions about the life and death of these neurons remain. Here, we briefly summarize what is currently known about the immature neurons present in the primate ventral amygdala during development and in adulthood, as well as following selective hippocampal lesions. We provide evidence confirming that the distribution of immature neurons extends to the anterior portions of the entorhinal cortex and layer II of the perirhinal cortex. We also provide novel arguments derived from stereological estimates of the number of mature and immature neurons, which support the view that the migration of immature neurons from the lateral ventricle accompanies neuronal maturation in the primate amygdala at all ages. Finally, we propose and discuss the hypothesis that increased migration and maturation of neurons in the amygdala following hippocampal dysfunction may be linked to behavioral alterations associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Células , Morte Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Primatas , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201151

RESUMO

In order to address the large percentage of unexplained male infertility in humans, more detailed investigations using sperm functional tests are needed to identify possible causes for compromised fertility. Since many environmental and lifestyle factors might be contributing to infertility, future studies aiming to elucidate the effect of such factors on male fertility will need the use of appropriate research models. The current study aimed to assess the effects of two heavy metals, namely copper sulphate, and cadmium chloride, on non-human primate (NHP) sperm function in order to establish the possibility of using these primate species as models for reproductive studies. Our combined results indicated that the functionality of NHP spermatozoa is inhibited by the two heavy metals investigated. After in vitro exposure, detrimental effects, and significant lowered values (p < 0.05) were obtained for sperm motility, viability and vitality, acrosome intactness, and hyperactivation. These metals, at the tested higher concentrations, therefore, have the ability to impair sperm quality thereby affecting sperm fertilizing capability in both humans and NHPs.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio , Motilidade Espermática , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre , Humanos , Masculino , Primatas , Espermatozoides
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