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1.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1294-1305, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556879

RESUMO

Development of effective human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) vaccines requires synergy between innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we show that induction of the transcription factor CREB1 and its target genes by the recombinant canarypox vector ALVAC + Alum augments immunogenicity in non-human primates (NHPs) and predicts reduced HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 trial. These target genes include those encoding cytokines/chemokines associated with heightened protection from simian immunodeficiency virus challenge in NHPs. Expression of CREB1 target genes probably results from direct cGAMP (STING agonist)-modulated p-CREB1 activity that drives the recruitment of CD4+ T cells and B cells to the site of antigen presentation. Importantly, unlike NHPs immunized with ALVAC + Alum, those immunized with ALVAC + MF59, the regimen in the HVTN702 trial that showed no protection from HIV infection, exhibited significantly reduced CREB1 target gene expression. Our integrated systems biology approach has validated CREB1 as a critical driver of vaccine efficacy and highlights that adjuvants that trigger CREB1 signaling may be critical for efficacious HIV-1 vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Primatas/imunologia , Primatas/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1881-1889, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490832

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has been the causative pathogen of the pandemic of COVID-19, resulting in catastrophic health issues globally. It is important to develop human-like animal models for investigating the mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect humans and cause COVID-19. Several studies demonstrated that the non-human primate (NHP) is permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection to cause typical clinical symptoms including fever, cough, breathing difficulty, and other diagnostic abnormalities such as immunopathogenesis and hyperplastic lesions in the lung. These NHP models have been used for investigating the potential infection route and host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as testing vaccines and drugs. This review aims to summarize the benefits and caveats of NHP models currently available for SARS-CoV-2, and to discuss key topics including model optimization, extended application, and clinical translation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
3.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410047

RESUMO

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Primatas/virologia , Saúde Pública , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/classificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Saúde Global , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
4.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1306-1315, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417590

RESUMO

B.1.351 is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant most resistant to antibody neutralization. We demonstrate how the dose and number of immunizations influence protection. Nonhuman primates received two doses of 30 or 100 µg of Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine, a single immunization of 30 µg, or no vaccine. Two doses of 100 µg of mRNA-1273 induced 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution neutralizing antibody titers against live SARS-CoV-2 p.Asp614Gly and B.1.351 of 3,300 and 240, respectively. Higher neutralizing responses against B.1.617.2 were also observed after two doses compared to a single dose. After challenge with B.1.351, there was ~4- to 5-log10 reduction of viral subgenomic RNA and low to undetectable replication in bronchoalveolar lavages in the two-dose vaccine groups, with a 1-log10 reduction in nasal swabs in the 100-µg group. These data establish that a two-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 will be critical for providing upper and lower airway protection against major variants of concern.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero , Carga Viral/métodos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009496, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097704

RESUMO

Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The rapid spread of dengue could lead to a global pandemic, and so the geographical extent of this spread needs to be assessed and predicted. There are also reasons to suggest that transmission of dengue from non-human primates in tropical forest cycles is being underestimated. We investigate the fine-scale geographic changes in transmission risk since the late 20th century, and take into account for the first time the potential role that primate biogeography and sylvatic vectors play in increasing the disease transmission risk. We apply a biogeographic framework to the most recent global dataset of dengue cases. Temporally stratified models describing favorable areas for vector presence and for disease transmission are combined. Our models were validated for predictive capacity, and point to a significant broadening of vector presence in tropical and non-tropical areas globally. We show that dengue transmission is likely to spread to affected areas in China, Papua New Guinea, Australia, USA, Colombia, Venezuela, Madagascar, as well as to cities in Europe and Japan. These models also suggest that dengue transmission is likely to spread to regions where there are presently no or very few reports of occurrence. According to our results, sylvatic dengue cycles account for a small percentage of the global extent of the human case record, but could be increasing in relevance in Asia, Africa, and South America. The spatial distribution of factors favoring transmission risk in different regions of the world allows for distinct management strategies to be prepared.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Zoonoses Virais , Aedes , Animais , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/veterinária , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Primatas/virologia
7.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803830

RESUMO

Non-human primates (NHP) are an important source of viruses that can spillover to humans and, after adaptation, spread through the host population. Whereas HIV-1 and HTLV-1 emerged as retroviral pathogens in humans, a unique class of retroviruses called foamy viruses (FV) with zoonotic potential are occasionally detected in bushmeat hunters or zookeepers. Various FVs are endemic in numerous mammalian natural hosts, such as primates, felines, bovines, and equines, and other animals, but not in humans. They are apathogenic, and significant differences exist between the viral life cycles of FV and other retroviruses. Importantly, FVs replicate in the presence of many well-defined retroviral restriction factors such as TRIM5α, BST2 (Tetherin), MX2, and APOBEC3 (A3). While the interaction of A3s with HIV-1 is well studied, the escape mechanisms of FVs from restriction by A3 is much less explored. Here we review the current knowledge of FV biology, host restriction factors, and FV-host interactions with an emphasis on the consequences of FV regulatory protein Bet binding to A3s and outline crucial open questions for future studies.


Assuntos
Desaminases APOBEC/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Proteínas dos Retroviridae/metabolismo , Spumavirus/genética , Spumavirus/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Mutação , Primatas/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Proteínas dos Retroviridae/classificação , Proteínas dos Retroviridae/genética , Spumavirus/imunologia
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(583)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658355

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza vaccines confer protection against specific viral strains but have restricted breadth that limits their protective efficacy. The H1 and H3 subtypes of influenza A virus cause most of the seasonal epidemics observed in humans and are the major drivers of influenza A virus-associated mortality. The consequences of pandemic spread of COVID-19 underscore the public health importance of prospective vaccine development. Here, we show that headless hemagglutinin (HA) stabilized-stem immunogens presented on ferritin nanoparticles elicit broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses to diverse H1 and H3 viruses in nonhuman primates (NHPs) when delivered with a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, AF03. The neutralization potency and breadth of antibodies isolated from NHPs were comparable to human bnAbs and extended to mismatched heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Although NHPs lack the immunoglobulin germline VH1-69 residues associated with the most prevalent human stem-directed bnAbs, other gene families compensated to generate bnAbs. Isolation and structural analyses of vaccine-induced bnAbs revealed extensive interaction with the fusion peptide on the HA stem, which is essential for viral entry. Antibodies elicited by these headless HA stabilized-stem vaccines neutralized diverse H1 and H3 influenza viruses and shared a mode of recognition analogous to human bnAbs, suggesting that these vaccines have the potential to confer broadly protective immunity against diverse viruses responsible for seasonal and pandemic influenza infections in humans.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Primatas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/química , COVID-19 , Ferritinas/química , Ferritinas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Primatas/virologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , SARS-CoV-2 , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008923, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507996

RESUMO

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has a history of nonhuman primate (NHP) consumption and exposure to simian retroviruses yet little is known about the extent of zoonotic simian retroviral infections in DRC. We examined the prevalence of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), a retrovirus group of simian origin, in a large population of persons with frequent NHP exposures and a history of simian foamy virus infection. We screened plasma from 3,051 persons living in rural villages in central DRC using HTLV EIA and western blot (WB). PCR amplification of HTLV tax and LTR sequences from buffy coat DNA was used to confirm infection and to measure proviral loads (pVLs). We used phylogenetic analyses of LTR sequences to infer evolutionary histories and potential transmission clusters. Questionnaire data was analyzed in conjunction with serological and molecular data. A relatively high proportion of the study population (5.4%, n = 165) were WB seropositive: 128 HTLV-1-like, 3 HTLV-2-like, and 34 HTLV-positive but untypeable profiles. 85 persons had HTLV indeterminate WB profiles. HTLV seroreactivity was higher in females, wives, heads of households, and increased with age. HTLV-1 LTR sequences from 109 persons clustered strongly with HTLV-1 and STLV-1 subtype B from humans and simians from DRC, with most sequences more closely related to STLV-1 from Allenopithecus nigroviridis (Allen's swamp monkey). While 18 potential transmission clusters were identified, most were in different households, villages, and health zones. Three HTLV-1-infected persons were co-infected with simian foamy virus. The mean and median percentage of HTLV-1 pVLs were 5.72% and 1.53%, respectively, but were not associated with age, NHP exposure, village, or gender. We document high HTLV prevalence in DRC likely originating from STLV-1. We demonstrate regional spread of HTLV-1 in DRC with pVLs reported to be associated with HTLV disease, supporting local and national public health measures to prevent spread and morbidity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I/transmissão , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/classificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiologia , Primatas/virologia , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Criança , República Democrática do Congo , Características da Família , Feminino , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano , Humanos , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Filogenia , Provírus , Saúde Pública , Infecções por Retroviridae/transmissão , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 de Símios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143114

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF) is a re-emerging viral zoonosis caused by the Yellow Fever virus (YFV), affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP). YF is endemic in South America and Africa, being considered a burden for public health worldwide despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Acute infectious disease can progress to severe hemorrhagic conditions and has high rates of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In 2016, Brazil started experiencing one of the most significant YF epidemics in its history, with lots of deaths being reported in regions that were previously considered free of the disease. Here, we reviewed the historical aspects of YF in Brazil, the epidemiology of the disease, the challenges that remain in Brazil's public health context, the main lessons learned from the recent outbreaks, and our perspective for facing future YF epidemics.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/mortalidade , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Febre Amarela
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008658, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2016 until the beginning of 2019, Brazil faced a massive sylvatic yellow fever (YF) outbreak. The 2016-2019 YF epidemics affected densely populated areas, especially the Southeast region, causing thousands of deaths of humans and non-human primates (NHP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a molecular investigation of yellow fever virus (YFV) RNA in 781 NHP carcasses collected in the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas of Minas Gerais state, from January 2017 to December 2018. Samples were analyzed according to the period of sampling, NHP genera, sampling areas, and sampling areas/NHP genera to compare the proportions of YFV-positive carcasses and the estimated YFV genomic loads. YFV infection was confirmed in 38.1% of NHP carcasses (including specimens of the genera Alouatta, Callicebus, Callithrix, and Sapajus), from the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas. YFV RNA detection was positively associated with epidemic periods (especially from December to March) and the rural environment. Higher median viral genomic loads (one million times) were estimated in carcasses collected in rural areas compared to urban ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed the wide occurrence of YF in Minas Gerais in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. According to the sylvatic pattern of YF, a gradient of viral dissemination from rural towards urban areas was observed. A high YF positivity was observed for NHP carcasses collected in urban areas with a widespread occurrence in 67 municipalities of Minas Gerais, including large urban centers. Although there was no documented case of urban/Aedes YFV transmission to humans in Brazil during the 2016-2019 outbreaks, YFV-infected NHP in urban areas with high infestation by Aedes aegypti poses risks for YFV urban/Aedes transmission and urbanization.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Alouatta/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callicebus/virologia , Callithrix/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Epidemias , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Sapajus/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119638

RESUMO

An anti-Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify the serum levels of anti-EBOV IgG in human and non-human primate (NHP) serum following vaccination and/or exposure to EBOV. This method was validated for testing human serum samples as previously reported. However, for direct immunobridging comparability between humans and NHPs, additional testing was warranted. First, method feasibility experiments were performed to assess cross-species reactivity and parallelism between human and NHP serum samples. During these preliminary assessments, the goat anti-human IgG secondary antibody conjugate used in the previous human validation was found to be favorably cross-reactive with NHP samples when tested at the same concentrations previously used in the validated assay for human sample testing. Further, NHP serum samples diluted in parallel with human serum when tested side-by-side in the ELISA. A subsequent NHP matrix qualification and partial validation in the anti-GP IgG ELISA were performed based on ICH and FDA guidance, to characterize assay performance for NHP test samples and supplement the previous validation for human sample testing. Based on our assessments, the anti-EBOV GP IgG ELISA method is considered suitable for the intended use of testing with both human and NHP serum samples in the same assay for immunobridging purposes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Primatas/virologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência
13.
Nature ; 586(7830): 509-515, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967005

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Mesocricetus/virologia , Camundongos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15751, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978448

RESUMO

Yellow Fever (YF) is a severe disease caused by Yellow Fever Virus (YFV), endemic in some parts of Africa and America. In Brazil, YFV is maintained by a sylvatic transmission cycle involving non-human primates (NHP) and forest canopy-dwelling mosquitoes, mainly Haemagogus-spp and Sabethes-spp. Beginning in 2016, Brazil faced one of the largest Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in recent decades, mainly in the southeastern region. In São Paulo city, YFV was detected in October 2017 in Aloutta monkeys in an Atlantic Forest area. From 542 NHP, a total of 162 NHP were YFV positive by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, being 22 Callithrix-spp. most from urban areas. Entomological collections executed did not detect the presence of strictly sylvatic mosquitoes. Three mosquito pools were positive for YFV, 2 Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and 1 Aedes scapularis. In summary, YFV in the São Paulo urban area was detected mainly in resident marmosets, and synanthropic mosquitoes were likely involved in viral transmission.


Assuntos
Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Filogenia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008699, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764827

RESUMO

São Paulo, a densely inhabited state in southeast Brazil that contains the fourth most populated city in the world, recently experienced its largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. YFV does not normally circulate extensively in São Paulo, so most people were unvaccinated when the outbreak began. Surveillance in non-human primates (NHPs) is important for determining the magnitude and geographic extent of an epizootic, thereby helping to evaluate the risk of YFV spillover to humans. Data from infected NHPs can give more accurate insights into YFV spread than when using data from human cases alone. To contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo, we generated and analysed virus genomic data and epizootic case data from NHPs in São Paulo. We report the occurrence of three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the outbreak in São Paulo prior to February 2018. We generated 51 new virus genomes from YFV positive cases identified in 23 different municipalities in São Paulo, mostly sampled from NHPs between October 2016 and January 2018. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in lineage dispersal velocities between phylogenetic branches, continuous phylogeographic analyses of generated YFV genomes suggest that YFV lineages spread in São Paulo at a mean rate of approximately 1km per day during all phases of the outbreak. Viral lineages from the first epizootic phase in northern São Paulo subsequently dispersed towards the south of the state to cause the second and third epizootic phases there. This alters our understanding of how YFV was introduced into the densely populated south of São Paulo state. Our results shed light on the sylvatic transmission of YFV in highly fragmented forested regions in São Paulo state and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in sentinel species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genômica , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Amarela/classificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
17.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
18.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23158, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495390

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has radically changed the human activities worldwide. Although we are still learning about the disease, it is necessary that primatologists, veterinarians, and all that are living with nonhuman primates (NHP) be concerned about the probable health impacts as these animals face this new pandemic. We want to increase discussion with the scientific community that is directly involved with these animals, because preliminary studies report that NHP may become infected and develop symptoms similar to those in human beings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doenças dos Primatas/sangue , Doenças dos Primatas/etiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/veterinária , Perda de Peso
19.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 408-411, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371403

RESUMO

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/transmissão , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224891

RESUMO

In the last decade, Flaviviruses such as yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) have expanded their transmission areas. These viruses originated in Africa, where they exhibit both sylvatic and interhuman transmission cycles. In Brazil, the risk of YFV urbanization has grown, with the sylvatic transmission approaching the most densely populated metropolis, while concern about ZIKV spillback to a sylvatic cycle has risen. To investigate these health threats, we carried out extensive collections and arbovirus screening of 144 free-living, non-human primates (NHPs) and 5219 mosquitoes before, during, and after ZIKV and YFV outbreaks (2015-2018) in southeast Brazil. ZIKV infection was not detected in any NHP collected at any time. In contrast, current and previous YFV infections were detected in NHPs sampled between 2017 and 2018, but not before the onset of the YFV outbreak. Mosquito pools screened by high-throughput PCR were positive for YFV when captured in the wild and during the YFV outbreak, but were negative for 94 other arboviruses, including ZIKV, regardless of the time of collection. In conclusion, there was no evidence of YFV transmission in coastal southeast Brazil before the current outbreak, nor the spread or establishment of an independent sylvatic cycle of ZIKV or urban Aedes aegypti transmission of YFV in the region. In view of the region's receptivity and vulnerability to arbovirus transmission, surveillance of NHPs and mosquitoes should be strengthened and continuous.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Febre Amarela/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
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