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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 211(3): 257-65, 2012 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22521833

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a ligand with high affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It suppresses 17ß-estradiol (E2)-induced cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. Although it has been theorized that the AhR is involved in TCDD-induced antiestrogenic activity and antiproliferation in human breast cancer cells, some evidence suggests that these activities of chlorinated aromatic compounds also occur by AhR-independent pathways. Here, we investigated the possibility of TCDD-induced antiproliferative responses in human breast cancer cells through AhR-independent pathways. Compared with that in vehicle-treated controls, DNA synthesis was significantly suppressed in MCF-7 cells and ZR75-1 cells treated with TCDD at a very low concentration (0.01 nM), whereas that in human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR3 cells, human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells was unaffected, even by exposure to 10 nM TCDD. The suppression induced by TCDD was not associated with the estrogen receptor α-signaling pathway. Another AhR agonist, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, had no effect on DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells at concentrations high enough to induce the transactivation function of the AhR. Furthermore, in MCF-7 cells, knockdown of the AhR by RNA interference had no effect on TCDD-induced antiproliferation. These findings suggest that the principal pathways of TCDD-induced antiproliferation in breast cancer cells are not AhR dependent.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Actinas/biossíntese , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/biossíntese , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Timidina/metabolismo , Transfecção
2.
PLoS One ; 6(12): e27890, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22164217

RESUMO

Inflammatory response is a kind of nonspecific immune response, with the central link of vascular response, which is mainly manifested by changes in neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells. In recent years, the in vivo and in vitro role of intravenous anesthetic propofol in inhibiting inflammatory response has been attracting more and more attention, but the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of propofol for mononuclear cells still remain undefined. In this study, proteomics analysis was applied to investigate protein expression profile changes in serum mononuclear cells following intervention of rats with endotoxemia using propofol. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric identification, it has been found that the protein Annexin A1 was up-regulated in the propofol intervention group. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid-dependent anti-inflammatory protein. After detection using ELISA and Western blot assays, it has also been found that propofol can not only promote the expression of Annexin A1, but also inhibit the phosphorylation level of p38 and release of inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) in rats with endotoxemia. In order to further determine the role of up-regulated expression of Annexin A1 in anti-inflammation of propofol, this gene was silenced in vitro in human THP-1 cells, to detect the phosphorylation status of p38 and release of inflammatory factors. The results show that Annexin A1 can negatively regulate phosphorylation of p38 and release of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells following propofol intervention and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results clearly indicate that propofol can up-regulate Annexin A1 to inhibit the phosphorylation level of p38 and release of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, so as to inhibit inflammatory response. Therefore, it can be speculated that Annexin A1 might be the key signaling protein in the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory mechanisms of propofol.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/biossíntese , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Propofol/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Animais , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leucócitos/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Fosforilação , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
3.
J Proteome Res ; 10(10): 4597-612, 2011 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21800909

RESUMO

The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a classic example of a resurgent pest induced by insecticides. It has been demonstrated that triazophos treatment causes an increase in the content of male accessory gland proteins (Acps) that can be transferred to females via mating, influencing female reproduction. However, the mechanism of this type of insecticide-induced Acps in males and the subsequent stimulation of reproduction in females are not well understood. To identify changes in the types of Acps and reproductive proteins in mated females, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis. Six samples were categorized into four different groups: (1) untreated unmated males compared to treated unmated males (UUM vs TUM); (2) treated unmated males compared to treated mated males (TUM vs TMM); (3) untreated unmated females compared to treated unmated females (UUF vs TUF); (4) treated unmated females compared to treated mated females (TUF vs TMF). Protein expression changes among the four different groups were examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the 500-600 reproducibly detected protein spots on each gel, 107 protein spots were differentially expressed between the four different groups. Of the 63 proteins identified by LC-MS/MS analysis, 38 were up-regulated and 25 were down-regulated in the four different groups. Some novel proteins related to fecundity were observed including spermatogenesis-associated protein 5, testis development protein NYD-SP6, arginine kinase, actin-5C, vitellogenin, and ovarian serine protease nudel. The elevated expression of novel fecundity proteins in six samples of N. lugens females and males due to exposure to triazophos was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results suggest that these proteins may participate in the reproductive process of N. lugens adult females and males. Our findings fill a gap in understanding the relationship between insecticide-treated males and the stimulated reproduction of N. lugens females.


Assuntos
Proteômica/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hemípteros , Inseticidas/química , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Organotiofosfatos/química , Proteínas/química , Proteoma , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Triazóis/química
4.
Pathol Biol (Paris) ; 59(6): e119-23, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19896289

RESUMO

The cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease which represents a serious problem for the public health not only in Tunisia but also all over the world. Its diagnosis is based on the techniques which are usually used, direct examination and in vitro culture. Because of several factors, these techniques lack sensitivity. The molecular biology, which is indeed more rapid and more sensitive, has proved its effectiveness in diagnosis of the CL. There are two main aims for our research work. First, to show the contribution of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) during the diagnosis of CL (of course by comparing the results obtained when using this technique with those found through the direct examination); second, to compare the two pairs of primers which amplify the leishmanien gene coding for the 18s ribosomal sub-unit: the pair R221/R332 (PCR1) and the pair Lei70L/Lei70R (PCR2). Our work was carried out upon 299 samples. One hundred and eighty-eight of them were positive using the direct examination and/or the PCR and 111 were negative. Only two samples were positive using of course the direct examination in comparison with 74 which were positive when using only the PCR (PCR1 and/or PCR2). Among these 74 samples, 64 where positive using only PCR2 in comparison with two samples which were positive using only PCR1. The eight remaining samples were at once positive for the PCR1 and the PCR2. The PCR (notably the PCR2) has proved a more significant percentage of positivity in comparison with direct examination: 98.98% for the PCR and 60.6% for direct examination.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento de Escolha , Primers do DNA/química , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Hematol ; 90(1): 73-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721556

RESUMO

Disruption of cell cycle control genes, including p16, is known to contribute to the cancerogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the methylation status of p16 and its association with common cytogenetic changes, clinicolaboratory findings, and survival in MM. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed in 99 newly diagnosed MM patients using two different sets of primers (p16M1 and p16M2). Four patterns of p16 promoter methylation were observed: (1) concurrent methylation of p16M1 and p16M2 (P1P2), 27.3%; (2) methylation of p16M1 alone (P1N2), 7.1%; (3) methylation of p16M2 alone (N1P2), 26.3%; and (4) no methylation (N1N2), 39.4%. Patients with p16P1P1 showed shorter survivals than those with the other methylation patterns (P1N2, N1P2, or N1N2; median survival, 12 vs. 43 months; P < 0.001), regardless of the treatment protocol. In a multivariate analysis, p16P1P2 was an independent prognostic factor of adverse outcome in MM. According to International Staging System (ISS), the study population could be divided into 21.2% (20/94) for stage I, 22.3% (21/94) for stage II, and 56.4% (53/94) for stage III (P = 0.003). ISS can divide patients into prognostic groups. Of note, in patients older than 60 years, ISS was not reflective of disease stage (P = 0.114). If p16P1P2 sets up as stage 4 of ISS, modified ISS could be a more reliable staging system irrespective of age in Korean MM patients (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004 in patients younger than 60 years and in patients older than 60 years, respectively). Our study suggests the potential use of p16 methylation status in predicting the outcome of MM patients and the applicability of demethylating agents in MM.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Genes p16 , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Primers do DNA/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
PLoS One ; 5(12): e15706, 2010 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21187928

RESUMO

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Axônios/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Biópsia , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Cervos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Controle de Qualidade , RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
7.
J Clin Virol ; 49(4): 277-82, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20846903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of influenza A virus subtypes in clinical specimens is becoming increasingly important for clinical laboratories since seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses can have defined antiviral resistance patterns and subtyping can be used as a surrogate for antiviral resistance testing. OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the combined identification of influenza A subtype and oseltamivir resistance (H275Y) genotype in a combined assay format using Luminex xMAP™ technology. STUDY DESIGN: The M-PCR assay employed five degenerate primers to amplify the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and eight tagged primers in a target specific primer extension reaction (TSPE). Products were analysed using xTAG™ beads containing specific anti-tag oligonucleotides. RESULTS: M-PCR correctly identified the subtype for 54/54 specimens that were influenza A positive, including 13/13 seasonal H3N2, 17/17 seasonal H1N1 and 24/24 pandemic H1N1 for both HA and NA genes. For oseltamivir resistance the M-PCR assay correctly identified 41/41 H1N1 viruses as oseltamivir sensitive (H275) or resistant (H275Y). Analysis of sequential specimens from two immunocompromised patients revealed the appearance of the H275Y allele at earlier time points after infection compared with Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The combined M-PCR assay correctly subtyped seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses and accurately detected the H275Y oseltamivir resistance allele. This assay should provide useful information to clinicians for appropriate patient management.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Hemaglutininas Virais/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Microesferas , Neuraminidase/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
9.
Arch Pharm Res ; 31(10): 1303-11, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18958421

RESUMO

Mast cells participate in allergy and inflammation by secreting inflammatory mediators such as histamine and proinflammatory cytokines. Flavonoids are naturally occurring molecules with antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiinflammatory actions. However, effect of flavonoids on the release of histamine and proinflammatory mediator, and their comparative mechanism of action in mast cells were not well defined. Here, we compared the effect of six flavonoids (astragalin, fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin) on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin inhibited IgE or phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-mediated histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells. These five flavonoids also inhibited elevation of intracellular calcium. Gene expressions and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were assessed in PMACI-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Fisetin, quercetin, and rutin decreased gene expression and production of all the proinflammatory cytokines after PMACI stimulation. Myricetin attenuated TNF-alpha and IL-6 but not IL-1beta and IL-8. Fisetin, myricetin, and rutin suppressed activation of NF-kappaB indicated by inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB/DNA binding, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene reporter assay. The pharmacological actions of these flavonoids suggest their potential activity for treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Citocinas/biossíntese , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Liberação de Histamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Luciferases/metabolismo , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transfecção
10.
Curr Drug Metab ; 9(4): 285-303, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18473747

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The effects of four compounds, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP); diisodecylphthalate (DIP); 4-n-octylphenol (OP); 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP), on gene expression (steady-state mRNA levels) across the whole human genome were studied in human TE671 cells. Effects were studied using the Affymetrics GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0, HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, The array analyses the expression of 47,000 transcripts and variants, including approximately 38,500 well characterised. All four compounds exerted statistically significant actions, affecting between 4 and 6.5% of all genes. Each compound had its own expression signature. In most instances where there was an effect, steady-state mRNA levels were decreased, although not always. CMP treatment caused most increases in mRNA levels. A mixture of DIP and CMP caused fewer changes in mRNA levels than either of the individual compounds. CONCLUSIONS: These plasticisers affected the steady-state mRNA levels of many human genes. Exposure to these compounds over many years has the potential to influence human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Genômica , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Biotinilação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA/biossíntese , DNA/genética , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Desoxirribonuclease I/biossíntese , Desoxirribonuclease I/genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Poli A/genética , RNA Complementar/biossíntese , RNA Complementar/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 8(5): 764-8, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18387520

RESUMO

The mast cells have been suggested to be a cellular source of nitric oxide (NO) which level is increased in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, isoforms of the NO generating enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in primary human mast cells have not been defined due to the lack of a suitable model. We hence examined directly the expression of NOS mRNA and proteins in primary human cultured mast cells (HCMC). Mature HCMC were cultured from CD34+ progenitors isolated from buffy coat preparations and were subjected to IgE sensitisation, IgE receptor mediated activation and cytokines induced stimulation. While expression of NOS mRNA was detected by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitatively analyzed with real-time RT-PCR, expression of NOS proteins was detected by immunostaining. In non-stimulated HCMC incubated in medium alone, expressions of NOS were not detected. While overnight incubation of HCMC with IgE significantly increased the expression of NOS2 and NOS3, only NOS2 expression was up-regulated after overnight incubation with a mixture of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta. Cross-linking of IgE with anti-IgE further increased NOS2 expression with a concomitant decrease in NOS3 expression. NOS1 was not detected in all treatments. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that NOS2 and NOS3 expressions are induced in primary human mast cells following appropriate stimulations. Comparisons between the differential expressions of NOS isoforms in HCMC to the changes in NOS expressions in asthma models suggest that the mast cell is a source of NO in asthmatic airways.


Assuntos
Citocinas/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina E/farmacologia , Mastócitos/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/biossíntese , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases , Humanos , Isoenzimas/biossíntese , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
12.
Protein Sci ; 17(1): 34-42, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18156466

RESUMO

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli carboxyltransferase component of ACC revealed an alpha(2)beta(2) subunit composition with two active sites and, most importantly, a unique zinc domain in each alphabeta pair that is absent in the eukaryotic enzyme. We show here that carboxyltransferase binds DNA. Half-maximal saturation of different single-stranded or double-stranded DNA constructs is seen at 0.5-1.0 muM, and binding is cooperative and nonspecific. The substrates (malonyl-CoA and biocytin) inhibit DNA:carboxyltransferase complex formation. More significantly, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, and heparin inhibit the reaction catalyzed by carboxyltransferase, with single-stranded DNA and heparin acting as competitive inhibitors. However, double-inhibition experiments revealed that both DNA and heparin can bind the enzyme in the presence of a bisubstrate analog (BiSA), and the binding of BiSA has a very weak synergistic effect on the binding of the second inhibitor (DNA or heparin) and vice versa. In contrast, DNA and heparin can also bind to the enzyme simultaneously, but the binding of either molecule has a strong synergistic effect on binding of the other. An important mechanistic implication of these observations is that the dual active sites of ACC are functionally connected.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/química , Carboxil e Carbamoil Transferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Carboxil e Carbamoil Transferases/química , DNA/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , DNA de Cadeia Simples/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Heparina/farmacologia , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Eletricidade Estática
13.
AIDS ; 21(6): 665-75, 2007 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17413687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the diminished viral replicative capacity associated with K65R/M184V-containing viruses. METHODS: We studied the efficiency of (-)ssDNA synthesis by recombinant wild-type and mutated HIV-1 reverse transcriptases in cell-free assays. In addition, we determined susceptibility levels to nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) both in cell-free and cell culture assays. RESULTS: We observed that the K65R/M184V mutations in reverse transcriptase caused reductions in the efficiency of initiation of (-)ssDNA synthesis by increasing pausing at positions +3 and +5 as well as diminished RNA usage. These findings were confirmed in cell culture data using MT-4 cells and cord blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous presence of K65R and M184V in reverse transcriptase has a negative impact with regard to the efficiency of initiation of (-)ssDNA synthesis and RNA usage, that exceeds the effect of either mutation on its own. These mechanisms, among others, are responsible for the diminished viral replicative capacity observed in tissue culture when K65R/M184V-containing viruses are studied.


Assuntos
HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , DNA de Cadeia Simples/biossíntese , DNA de Cadeia Simples/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/biossíntese , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zidovudina/farmacologia
14.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 102(3): 288-95, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17072102

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that spironolactone reduced cytokine production in cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with angiotensin (Ang) II stimulation. To address the mechanisms underlying this effect, we examined the contribution of aldosterone to cytokine production in cultured human PBMCs with Ang II stimulation. PBMCs expressed the messenger RNA (mRNA) of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) both spontaneously and after Ang II stimulation, but expressed Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) under neither condition. After 24 h of incubation, exogenous Ang II induced the expression of CYP11B2 (a key enzyme of aldosterone synthesis) mRNA and caused aldosterone synthesis. CV-11974 (an AT1R antagonist) reduced Ang II-induced aldosterone synthesis, whereas PD-123319 (an AT2R antagonist) had no effect. The concentration of aldosterone peaked earlier than those of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). After 48 h of incubation (under the influence of synthesized aldosterone), CV-11974 and spironolactone significantly reduced the Ang II-enhanced production of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, whereas PD-123319 also had no effect. In conclusion, Ang II induces aldosterone synthesis through AT1R and enhances cytokine production through an AT1R-dependent mechanism and, at least partly, through a MR-dependent mechanism in human PBMCs.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/biossíntese , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II , Citocinas/biossíntese , Monócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Angiotensina II/antagonistas & inibidores , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/biossíntese , Citocromo P-450 CYP11B2/biossíntese , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 140(15): 1637-43, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16835927

RESUMO

We describe two boys with cytogenetically identical interstitial deletions in the q42.11-q42.13 region of the long arm of chromosome 1 detected by high-resolution G-banding analysis. These children share some phenotypic features but also exhibit distinct morphologic differences. We further characterized the deletions using a new technical strategy--microdissection-based high-resolution genomic array (MHGA) analysis--to define the breakpoints, genomic sizes, and gene contents of the deletions. This showed that the patients had distinguishable deletions that were adjacent but did not overlap, thus explaining the observed phenotypic differences. These results were surprising because we expected at least some degree of overlap to explain the features that were shared. MHGA can quickly give precise and detailed information about any rearrangement in the genome using as little material as a single cell. This novel strategy provides unique advantages for both clinical diagnosis and genomic research.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Deleção de Genes , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Pré-Escolar , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Citogenética , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Masculino , Microdissecção , Fenótipo
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 29(5): 911-8, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16651718

RESUMO

The roles of metalloprotease (VvpE) and catechol-siderophore (vulnibactin) in the uptake of iron from human transferrins by Vibrio vulnificus have been determined using different experimental conditions and methods. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to elucidate the roles of VvpE and vulnibactin using the same methods and experimental conditions, in an in vitro and a human ex vivo system, and in accordance with the molecular version of Koch's postulates. Neither vvpE mutation nor in trans vvpE complementation affected vulnibactin production, iron-assimilation from human holotransferrin (HT), and bacterial growth in a HT-containing deferrated Heart-Infusion medium (HT-DF-HI) or a HT-containing cirrhotic ascites (HT-CA). In contrast, the mutation of fur gene encoding Fur, a repressor regulating expression of the vulnibactin-mediated iron-uptake system, derepressed vulnibactin production, and facilitated iron-assimilation from HT and bacterial growth in HT-DF-HI or HT-CA. The mutation of vis gene encoding isochorismate synthase required for vulnibactin synthesis abolished vulnibactin production, iron-assimilation from HT and bacterial growth in HT-DF-HI or HT-CA. These results demonstrate that vulnibactin is essentially required for iron-assimilation from transferrin, and that VvpE has no direct effect on facilitating vulnibactin-mediated iron-assimilation from transferrin in vitro or in a human ex vivo system.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/farmacologia , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Transferrina/metabolismo , Vibrio vulnificus/enzimologia , Meios de Cultura , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação/fisiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
17.
Biotechniques ; 39(4): 511-5, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16235563

RESUMO

While DNA of good quality and sufficient amount can be obtained easily from whole blood, buccal swabs, surgical specimens, or cell lines, these DNA-rich sources are not always available. This is particularly the case in studies for which biological specimens were collected when genotyping assays were not widely available. In those studies, serum or plasma is often the only source of DNA. Newly developed whole genome amplification (WGA) methods, based on phi29 polymerase, may play a significant role in recovering DNA in such instances. We tested a total of 528 plasma samples kept in storage at -40 degrees C for approximately 10 years for 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the 5' exonuclease (TaqMan) assay. These specimens yielded undetectable levels of DNA following extraction with an affinity column but produced an average 52.7 microg (standard deviation of 31.2 microg) of DNA when column-extracted DNA was used as a template for WGA. This increased the genotyping success rate from 54% to 93%. There were only 3 disagreements out of 364 paired genotyping results for pre- and post-WGA DNAs, indicating an error rate of 0.82%. These results are encouraging for expanding the use of poor DNA resources in genotyping studies.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Genoma Humano , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Alelos , Fagos Bacilares/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , DNA/metabolismo , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes , Temperatura
18.
BMC Biotechnol ; 5: 23, 2005 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16137330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splicing of DNA molecules is an important task in molecular biology that facilitates cloning, mutagenesis and creation of chimeric genes. Mutagenesis and DNA splicing techniques exist, some requiring restriction enzymes, and others utilize staggered reannealing approaches. RESULTS: A method for DNA splicing and mutagenesis without restriction enzymes is described. The method is based on mild template-dependent polymerization arrest with two molecules of cytosine arabinose (Ara-C) incorporated into PCR primers. Two rounds of PCR are employed: the first PCR produces 5' overhangs that are utilized for DNA splicing. The second PCR is based on polymerization running through the Ara-C molecules to produce the desired final product. To illustrate application of the run through stop mutagenesis and DNA splicing technique, we have carried out splicing of two segments of the human cofilin 1 gene and introduced a mutational deletion into the product. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated the utility of a new PCR-based method for carrying out DNA splicing and mutagenesis by incorporating Ara-C into the PCR primers.


Assuntos
Citarabina/farmacologia , DNA/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Processamento Alternativo , Composição de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Códon de Terminação , Cofilina 1/genética , Citidina/química , DNA/química , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Primers do DNA/química , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/farmacologia , DNA Recombinante , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Mutagênese , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Biomacromolecules ; 6(5): 2703-7, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16153109

RESUMO

To develop a high-performance method for measuring the length of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments, the capability of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was examined. To omit troublesome and time-consuming labeling operations such as PCR with fluorescently labeled mononucleotides or primers, intercalation of dimeric cyanine dye YOYO-1 iodide (YOYO) to dsDNA was utilized as a simple labeling method. Various lengths of dsDNA fragments were prepared and mixed with YOYO prior to FCS, and the dependence of the diffusion time of a dsDNA-YOYO complex on the length of dsDNA fragment and the dsDNA/YOYO ratio was investigated. It was successfully demonstrated that the dsDNA length can be measured using YOYO and FCS, and the calibration curve was developed taking into account the rewinding and expansion of the dsDNA fragment caused by YOYO intercalation.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas/farmacologia , DNA/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Calibragem , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Difusão , Dimerização , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Iodetos/farmacologia , Modelos Químicos , Fótons , Compostos de Quinolínio/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 20(9): 1637-46, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16059635

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: We used the patch-clamp technique and RT-PCR to study the molecular and functional expression of VOCCs in undifferentiated hMSCs and in cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation. L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine did not influence alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium, and phosphate accumulation of hMSCs during osteogenic differentiation. This study suggests that osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs does not require L-type Ca2+ channel function. INTRODUCTION: During osteogenic differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSCs) must adopt the calcium handling of terminally differentiated osteoblasts. There is evidence that voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs), including L-type calcium channels, are involved in regulation of osteoblast function. We therefore studied whether VOCCs play a critical role during osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteogenic differentiation was induced in hMSCs cultured in maintenance medium (MM) by addition of ascorbate, beta-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone (ODM) and was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, RANKL, and mineralization. Expression of Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunits was shown by semiquantitative or single cell RT-PCR. Voltage-activated calcium currents of hMSCs were measured with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. RESULTS: mRNA for the pore-forming alpha1C and alpha1G subunits of the L-type and T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively, was found in comparable amounts in cells cultured in MM or ODM. The limitation of L-type Ca2+ currents to a subpopulation of hMSCs was confirmed by single cell RT-PCR, where mRNA for the alpha1C subunits was detectable in only 50% of the cells cultured in MM. Dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ currents were found in 13% of cells cultured in MM and in 12% of the cells cultured in ODM. Under MM and ODM culture conditions, the cells positive for L-type Ca2+ currents were significantly larger than cells without Ca2+ currents as deduced from membrane capacitance; thus, current densities were comparable. Addition of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine to the culture media did not influence alkaline phosphatase activity and the extent of mineralization. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, in the majority of hMSCs, Ca2+ entry through the plasma membrane is mediated by some channels other than VOCCs, and blockade of the L-type Ca2+ channels does not affect early osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/biossíntese , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/biossíntese , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Primers do DNA/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Glicerofosfatos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas/biossíntese , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteopontina , Osteoprotegerina , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fosfatos/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ligante RANK , RNA/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/biossíntese , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sialoglicoproteínas/biossíntese
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