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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168357

RESUMO

In this event-related potential (ERP) study we reevaluate syntax-first approaches to sentence processing by implementing a novel paradigm in French that includes correct sentences, pure syntactic category violations, lexical-semantic anomalies, and combined anomalies. Our balanced design systematically controlled for target word (noun vs. verb) and the context immediately preceding it. Group results from 36 native speakers of Quebec French revealed that, up to 300 ms, ERPs elicited by syntactic category violations were comparable with ERP responses to correct sentences, showing that there is no early activation reflecting syntactic category identification. Instead, in response to all anomalous conditions, we observed an N400 followed by a P600. Combined anomalies yielded additive effects of syntactic category and lexical-semantic anomalies on the N400, and a large P600 effect similar to the one observed in the pure syntactic condition. These results provide strong evidence against the hypothesis that (i) syntactic categories are processed first, and (ii) that syntactic category errors "block" lexical-semantic processing. Further, the N400 effect in response to pure syntactic category violations reflects a mismatch detection between a predicted word-stem and the actual target. This mechanism takes place simultaneously (and potentially in parallel) with lexical-semantic processing. In contrast, an interaction of syntax and semantics for the P600 reveals that the same neurocognitive resources are recruited for syntactic and semantic integration, both promoted by the implementation of an acceptability judgement task in our design. Additional analyses of individual data complemented these observations: during sentence processing, participants did not rely on one single cognitive mechanism reflected by either the N400 or the P600 effect but on both, suggesting that the biphasic N400-P600 ERP wave can indeed be considered to be an index of phrase-structure violations in most individuals, at least if they are realized on content words.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Quebeque , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Vis ; 20(3): 3, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181859

RESUMO

In paradigms of visual search where the search feature (say color) can change from trial to trials, responses are faster for trials where the search color is repeated than when it changes. This is a clear example of "priming" of attention. Here we test whether the priming effects can be revealed by pupillometry, and also whether they are related to autistic-like personality traits, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). We repeated Maljkovic and Nakayama's (1994) classic priming experiment, asking subjects to identify rapidly the shape of a singleton target defined by color. As expected, reaction times were faster when target color repeated, and the effect accumulated over several trials; but the magnitude of the effect did not correlate with AQ. Reaction times were also faster when target position was repeated, again independent of AQ. Presentation of stimuli caused the pupil to dilate, and the magnitude of dilation was greater for switched than repeated trials. This effect did not accumulate over trials, and did not correlate with the reaction times difference, suggesting that the two indexes measure independent aspects of the priming phenomenon. Importantly, the amplitude of pupil modulation correlated negatively with AQ, and was significant only for those participants with low AQ. The results confirm that pupillometry can track perceptual and attentional processes, and furnish useful information unobtainable from standard psychophysics, including interesting dependencies on personality traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofísica , Tempo de Reação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 128-136, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035848

RESUMO

The auditory system allows us to monitor background environmental sound patterns and recognize deviations that may indicate opportunities or threats. The mismatch negativity and P3a potentials have generators in the auditory and inferior frontal cortex and index expected sound patterns (standards) and any aberrations (deviants). The mismatch negativity and P3a waveforms show increased positivity for consecutive standards and deviants preceded by more standards. We hypothesized attenuated repetition effects in older participants, potentially because of differences in prefrontal functions. Young (23 ± 5 years) and older (75 ± 5 years) adults were tested in 2 oddball paradigms with pitch or location deviants. Significant repetition effects were observed in the young standard and deviant waveforms at multiple time windows. Except the earliest time window (30-100 ms), repetition effects were absent in the older group. Repetition effects were significant at frontal but not temporal lobe sites and did not differ among pitch and location deviants. However, P3a repetition was evident in both ages. Findings suggest age differences in the dynamic updating of sensory memory for background sound patterns.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Som , Adulto Jovem
4.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101411, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864960

RESUMO

The current study investigates categorical priming across modalities in 7-month-old infants using electroencephalographic (EEG) measures. In two experiments, infants were presented with sounds as primes, followed by images of human figures and furniture items as targets. In experiment 1 (N = 20), images were preceded by infant-directed (ID) or adult-directed (AD) speech to explore effects of intermodal categorical mismatches. Furniture targets (mismatching category) elicited an increased amplitude of the Negative central (Nc) component compared to human targets (matching category), p < .01, indicating increased attention. Results did not vary with manner of speaking (ID or AD). Experiment 2 (N = 17) explored whether a categorical mismatch between prime and target would elicit increased positive slow wave (PSW) amplitudes for human targets, indicating increased memory effort. Here, bicycle ringtones and ID speech served as primes. Again, furniture targets elicited an increased Nc regardless of prime category, p < .05, and a categorical change from human speech to furniture target images elicited an increased PSW, p < .05. No PSW effect was found for human targets following bicycle ringtones, however. The experiments reported here suggest that auditory primes may increase infant attention and memory updating particularly for non-social, categorically mismatching stimuli.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
5.
Behav Processes ; 172: 104023, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887340

RESUMO

In the current study we assessed the possibility of developing intraexperimentally behavioral priming and Event Related Potentials (ERP) effects that are often studied with stimuli to which participants typically have a very extensive pre-experimental history, like words. To do so we used abstract geometrical figures in a baseline Lexical Decision Task (LDT), followed by a conditional discrimination-training phase. We then repeated the LDT task to assess the effectiveness of training compared to baseline. We found that participants' reaction time data in the post training LDT session changed, compared to the pre-training LDT session, according to the specific conditional discriminations taught in the training session. Similarly, neural results suggest the presence of an effect due to training that is absent in the baseline neural measures. Moreover, similar effects were also obtained using words. Results point to the possibility that conditional discrimination learning may be sufficient to establish effects that are often considered to be language specific.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Ensino/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102954, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722258

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that the perception of stimulus onset can be accelerated by a match between the contents of visual working memory and the stimulus presented alone in the peripheral visual field. This onset acceleration effect might contribute to previously reported effects of working memory on perceived stimulus duration. However, it remains possible that the contents of visual working memory may also modulate the offset perception of matching visual stimuli, thereby contributing to the modulation of duration perception by working memory. The present study directly tested this possibility by using a simple reaction time task to assess the effect of visual working memory on perceived stimulus offset. Participants were asked to maintain a sample stimulus in working memory and subsequently had to respond to the offset of a single visual target. Across three experiments, we showed that the offset response was reliably slower when the target matched the sample held in visual working memory, as compared with when the target did not. This effect was not likely attributed to the mechanism of repetition priming from the presentation of the sample, because we failed to observe a priming effect either when the sample was only passively viewed without working memory demands or when the sample was initially encoded into memory but did not need to be actively maintained in mind by the time the offset target appeared. The findings provide direct evidence indicating that active maintenance of information in visual working memory delays the perceived offset of matching visual stimuli.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 73(4): 231-241, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343191

RESUMO

Repeated stimuli are generally perceived to be shorter in duration than novel stimuli. Matthews (2015), however, demonstrated that when repetition is predictable, expectations of repetition may expand subjective duration for repeated stimuli. Although this effect is hypothesised to be perceptual, this has yet to be empirically established. The present study, therefore, examined perceptual and decisional factors in the repetition effect by using psychophysical methods while varying probabilities of repetition, in addition to replicating Matthews' original paradigm. Using faces with neutral expressions, 60 participants completed 2 judgment tasks, indicating whether a comparison stimulus was longer or shorter in duration than a standard stimulus preceding it. Comparison stimuli were presented for the same duration as the 500-ms standard in the replication task and for 1 of 7 durations (from 200-1,250 ms) in the crucial extension task, allowing for examination of sensitivity and bias. No evidence of bias was observed, but modulating participants' expectations of repetition affected perception, such that discrimination was more difficult under high than low repetition conditions. Overall, participants were more likely to judge stimuli that met expectations as longer, regardless of whether the expectation was repetition or novelty. Implications for models of repetition, context effects, and time estimation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Vis ; 19(7): 13, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323099

RESUMO

Visual prime stimuli can affect the processing of following target stimuli even if their visibility is reduced due to visual masking. Prime visibility depends on the stimulus parameters of the prime and those of the mask. Here we explored the effects of prime stimuli and modulated their visibility by continuous flash suppression (CFS). CFS reduces the visibility of a stimulus presented to one eye by simultaneously presenting a series of high-contrast masking stimuli to the other eye. We manipulated the strength of CFS effects on perception and examined how action priming effects of the masked stimuli varied under the same conditions. Prime visibility was modulated by the contrast of the primes (Experiments 1 and 2), the contrast of the masks (Experiments 2 and 3), and by the stimulus onset asynchrony between prime and target stimuli (all experiments). Surprisingly, action priming effects were modulated by these experimental variables in a parallel way. In addition, individual differences between participants in prime visibility correlated with individual differences in action priming. Our findings suggest that action priming and prime perception depend in similar ways on prime contrast, mask contrast, stimulus onset asynchrony, and individual dispositions in CFS. These findings distinguish CFS from other perceptual suppression techniques, such as backward masking, that allow reducing prime visibility without parallel effects on action priming. Our results corroborate the view that CFS interferes with visual processing at early stages in the cortical hierarchy with similar effects on later processing for perception and action.


Assuntos
Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
9.
J Vis ; 19(7): 14, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323664

RESUMO

The staircase method has been widely used in measuring perceptual learning. Recently, Zhao, Lesmes, and Lu (2017, 2019) developed the quick Change Detection (qCD) method and applied it to measure the trial-by-trial time course of dark adaptation. In the current study, we conducted two simulations to evaluate the performance of the 3-down/1-up staircase and qCD methods in measuring perceptual learning in a two-alternative forced-choice task. In Study 1, three observers with different time constants (40, 80, and 160 trials) of an exponential learning curve were simulated. Each simulated observer completed staircases with six step sizes (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60%) and a qCD procedure, each starting at five levels (+50%, +25%, 0, -25%, and -50% different from the true threshold in the first trial). We found the following results: Staircases with 1% and 5% step sizes failed to generate more than five reversals half of the time; and the bias and standard deviations of thresholds estimated from the post hoc segment-by-segment qCD analysis were much smaller than those from the staircase method with the other four step sizes. In Study 2, we simulated thresholds in the transfer phases with the same time constants and 50% transfer for each observer in Study 1. We found that the estimated transfer indexes from qCD showed smaller biases and standard deviations than those from the staircase method. In addition, rescoring the simulated data from the staircase method using the Bayesian estimation component of the qCD method resulted in much-improved estimates. We conclude that the qCD method characterizes the time course of perceptual learning and transfer more accurately, precisely, and efficiently than the staircase method, even with the optimal 10% step size.


Assuntos
Adaptação à Escuridão/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia
10.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 290: 22-29, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that the comparison of expected and incoming sensory stimuli (the prediction-error (ε) processing) is impaired in schizophrenia patients (SZ). For example, in studies of mismatch negativity, an ERP component that signals ε, SZ patients show deficits in the auditory and visual modalities. To test the role of impaired ε processing further in SZ, using neuroimaging methods, we applied a repetition-suppression (RS) paradigm. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SZ (n = 17) as well as age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects (HC, n = 17) were presented with pairs of faces, which could either repeat or alternate. Additionally, the likelihood of repetition/alternation trials was modulated in individual blocks of fMRI recordings, testing the effects of repetition probability (P(rep)) on RS. RESULTS: We found a significant RS in the fusiform and occipital face areas as well as in the lateral occipital cortex that was similar in healthy controls and SZ patients SZ. More importantly, we observed similar P(rep) effects (larger RS in blocks with high frequency of repetitions than in blocks with low repetition likelihood) in both the control and the patient group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that repetition_probability modulations affect the neural responses in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants similarly. This suggests that the neural mechanisms determining perceptual inferences based on stimulus probabilities remain unimpaired in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Ondas Encefálicas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Probabilidade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107714, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185245

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of the automatic activation of gender stereotypes by using the masked and unmasked priming technique. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants were presented with an Italian third-person singular pronoun (lui or lei) that were preceded by either a grammatically-marked (e.g., passeggeraFEM, pensionatoMASC) or stereotypically-associated (e.g., insegnanteFEM, conducenteMASC) role noun. Participants were required to judge the grammatical gender of the personal pronoun ignoring the preceding word. This word was presented in a masked or unmasked way. The results revealed slower reaction times and larger N400, in both the masked and unmasked conditions, when the pronouns were preceded by gender-incongruent than gender-congruent grammatical and stereotypical primes. A P300 effect also emerged in both masked and unmasked conditions for the grammatical gender mismatch between the antecedent and the pronoun. These results provide evidence that gender stereotypes can strongly influence our behavior even under unconscious conditions.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 94-105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128518

RESUMO

Rosner, Lopez-Benitez, D'Angelo, Thomson, and Milliken (2018, see also Collins, Rosner & Milliken, 2018) reported a novel recognition memory effect. In an incidental study phase, participants saw prime-target word pairs and were asked to name aloud just the target. Primes were unmasked, but participants were not required to attend to them. On repeated trials the prime and target were the same word, whereas on not-repeated trials the prime and target were different words. In the following test phase, recognition memory was better for not-repeated targets than for repeated targets. The present study explores whether this effect is influenced by the spacing between primes and targets. The results replicated prior studies in that immediate repetition resulted in a repetition decrement effect, but spaced repetition (by about 10 min) resulted in the opposite effect - better recognition for repeated than not-repeated targets. The results are discussed in relation to deficient processing theories of the spacing effect.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
eNeuro ; 6(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072907

RESUMO

Word familiarity and predictive context facilitate visual word processing, leading to faster recognition times and reduced neuronal responses. Previously, models with and without top-down connections, including lexical-semantic, pre-lexical (e.g., orthographic/phonological), and visual processing levels were successful in accounting for these facilitation effects. Here we systematically assessed context-based facilitation with a repetition priming task and explicitly dissociated pre-lexical and lexical processing levels using a pseudoword (PW) familiarization procedure. Experiment 1 investigated the temporal dynamics of neuronal facilitation effects with magnetoencephalography (MEG; N = 38 human participants), while experiment 2 assessed behavioral facilitation effects (N = 24 human participants). Across all stimulus conditions, MEG demonstrated context-based facilitation across multiple time windows starting at 100 ms, in occipital brain areas. This finding indicates context-based facilitation at an early visual processing level. In both experiments, we furthermore found an interaction of context and lexical familiarity, such that stimuli with associated meaning showed the strongest context-dependent facilitation in brain activation and behavior. Using MEG, this facilitation effect could be localized to the left anterior temporal lobe at around 400 ms, indicating within-level (i.e., exclusively lexical-semantic) facilitation but no top-down effects on earlier processing stages. Increased pre-lexical familiarity (in PWs familiarized utilizing training) did not enhance or reduce context effects significantly. We conclude that context-based facilitation is achieved within visual and lexical processing levels. Finally, by testing alternative hypotheses derived from mechanistic accounts of repetition suppression, we suggest that the facilitatory context effects found here are implemented using a predictive coding mechanism.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(5): 1087-1110, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102173

RESUMO

In the present study, we showed evidence of an integration between two unconscious semantic representations. In experiment 1, two masked Chinese words of the same or different categories ("orange apple" or "grape hammer") were simultaneously presented in the prime, followed by two Chinese words also of same or different categories in the target. We examined possible prime/target visual feature priming, semantic category priming and motor response priming effects. Moreover, two ISI intervals (53, 163 ms) between the prime and the target words were used to examine the positive and negative priming. The results revealed a negative motor response priming and a positive semantic category priming effect independent of the ISI when the target words were of the same category. Experiment 2 eliminated an alternative interpretation of the effect based on different number of category words changed across the prime and the target. Experiment 3 eliminated a potential confound of unequal numbers of trials for motor congruent and incongruent conditions in Experiment 1. Overall, these results indicated an integration between the meanings of the two subliminally perceived words in the prime. The difference between simultaneous and sequential presentations, and the reason why positive priming was not observed when the interval between the prime and the target was short were discussed in the context of unconscious semantic integration.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 96-111, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034858

RESUMO

The extent to which explicit memory (EM) and implicit memory (IM) involve similar or differential neural substrates remains unclear. To address this issue, this study provides a direct, meta-analytic comparison of functional neuroimaging studies involving EM and IM tasks. The meta-analysis comprised two separate meta-analytic comparisons. First, to compare EM and IM in terms of encoding activity, subsequent memory effects (remembered > forgotten) and repetition suppression effects (first > repeated) were directly compared. Second, to compare EM and IM in terms of retrieval activity, retrieval success effects (hit > correct rejection) and repetition suppression effects were directly compared. Based on the notion that reduced activity during repeated processing is a 'by-product' or direct consequence of the stimulus processing performed in the same regions at initial exposure, regions showing repetition suppression were thought to play an important role in both IM-encoding and IM-retrieval activities. The results indicated that subsequent memory and repetition suppression effects had extensive overlaps and no significant separations, suggesting that EM- and IM-encoding activities involve largely common regions. Retrieval success and repetition suppression effects had strong segregations and only modest overlaps, suggesting that EM- and IM-retrieval activities involve largely separate regions. Consistent with these results, Explicit/Implicit Memory Encoding and Retrieval (EIMER), a neurocognitive model of EM and IM that suggests a common-encoding, separate-retrieval hypothesis for EM and IM is proposed herein.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 73(2): 105-117, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896186

RESUMO

In a simplified repetition blindness (RB) paradigm, university students named target words (C2) that were presented for 72 ms and followed by a pattern mask. A prime word (C1) that was identical or unrelated to the target was read silently at the beginning of each trial, and there was an intervening distractor item displayed for 120 ms between prime and target. When the distractor was a word, there was a large repetition cost for target accuracy at both prime durations (Experiments 1A and 1B). The cost with word distractors was not abolished when instructions about repeats were given (Experiments 2A and 2B). When the distractor was selected from a set of random-letter strings, there was a repetition benefit in target accuracy for a 120-ms prime and no effect for a 480-ms prime (Experiments 3A and 3B). The cost of distractor lexicality implicates competitive effects in event registration and ordering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1589-1608, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864108

RESUMO

The human visual system has an extraordinary capacity to compute three-dimensional (3D) shape structure for both geometrically regular and irregular objects. The goal of this study was to shed new light on the underlying representational structures that support this ability. Observers (N = 85) completed two complementary perceptual tasks. Experiment 1 involved whole-part matching of image parts to whole geometrically regular and irregular novel object shapes. Image parts comprised either regions of edge contour, volumetric parts, or surfaces. Performance was better for irregular than for regular objects and interacted with part type: volumes yielded better matching performance than surfaces for regular but not for irregular objects. The basis for this effect was further explored in Experiment 2, which used implicit part-whole repetition priming. Here, we orthogonally manipulated shape regularity and a new factor of surface diagnosticity (how predictive a single surface is of object identity). The results showed that surface diagnosticity, not object shape regularity, determined the differential processing of volumes and surfaces. Regardless of shape regularity, objects with low surface diagnosticity were better primed by volumes than by surfaces. In contrast, objects with high surface diagnosticity showed the opposite pattern. These findings are the first to show that surface diagnosticity plays a fundamental role in object recognition. We propose that surface-based shape primitives-rather than volumetric parts-underlie the derivation of 3D object shape in human vision.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
18.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1262-1282, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820777

RESUMO

In the contingent-capture protocol, singleton cues that have a target's searched-for feature capture attention, but cues that do not have the target's searched-for feature do not, a result labeled the contingent-capture effect. The contingent-capture effect is usually regarded as evidence for the observers' ability to establish search settings for certain nonspatial features in a top-down manner. However, in recent years it has become increasingly clear that selection history is also a powerful mediator of attentional capture. In this vein, it has been suggested that contingent-capture effects could emerge as a result of (intertrial) priming: The idea is that features that have been encountered previously in the target are primed, so that cues that have these features automatically capture attention in a subsequent encounter. Here we tested a strong version of the priming account of the contingent-capture effect. We wanted to know whether cues that had target features would capture attention when the corresponding features were not part of the instructions (i.e., when the corresponding features were task-irrelevant). The results suggested that a strong version of the priming account of contingent capture is not supported. In five experiments, we found little evidence that the contingent-capture effect could be explained by (intertrial) priming of task-irrelevant features alone. These results show that processes beyond priming through task-irrelevant features are critical for contingent-capture effects.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
19.
Exp Psychol ; 66(1): 12-22, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777513

RESUMO

Whenever individuals reveal personally relevant information to a stranger, they have to remember their self-disclosure for future interactions. Relying on instance-based theories of automaticity, we hypothesized that knowledge about having revealed private information to someone unfamiliar is retrieved automatically whenever this person is encountered again. In two studies, participants were orally interviewed by two different persons and instructed to be honest to one of them and to lie to the other. This instruction was either related to the identity of the interviewers (Experiment 1) or their gender (Experiment 2). Afterward, the target words honest and dishonest had to be identified in a categorization task in which pictures of the interviewers and of unknown persons served as task-irrelevant prime stimuli. In line with the hypothesis, results revealed congruence effects, indicating faster identification of the target word honest following the picture of a person whom one had told the truth.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Autorrevelação , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Psychol ; 143: 41-52, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772402

RESUMO

Two studies using event-related potentials ERPs) combined with emotional versions of 2-back tasks were performed to examine the effects of negative context on working memory (WM) updating task performance among anxiously attached individuals. One study also assessed the soothing effect of priming memories of attachment security on task performance. Three types of information, including negative attachment pictures, general negative pictures and neutral pictures, were used as materials in the present study. Impairment in WM updating capacity was found in the context of negative attachment pictures in both studies, and the ERP results revealed the following dynamic process: the participants showed enhanced attention to negative attachment stimuli during the initial encoding stage, as expressed by a larger P1, but undue immersion in negative emotion led to a reduced P300 during the elaborate stage. However, security priming was useful in reducing mood disturbance in the context of a WM updating task, and the participants performed better on the task after secure attachment activation. The implications of these findings for emotional WM updating capacity and information processing patterns among anxiously attached individuals are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
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