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3.
Science ; 370(6513): 179-180, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033210
5.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 11-20, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988183

RESUMO

Man’s social nature and capabilities set him up as a creator of culture. Culture is inherent to its human nature and encompasses all the dimensions of its person, its biology, its intelligence, its affectivity and also its ethical dimension. There is no other being in our world that creates and transmits culture; culture is of man and for man. Therefore, it unites us to past generations and at the same time commits us to the future, since we assume the legacy of human history and develop our own to launch it into the future to create and participate in cultural advancement and progress.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Ética , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 31-42, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988184

RESUMO

Sin in its original form constitutes a deviation from human behavior. Christian doctrine incorporates into the Judeo-Christian tradition the deadly sins that we all know (and their demons), as well as the virtues that are supposed to defeat or at least neutralize: 1) pride / humility, 2) greed / generosity, 3) lust / chastity, 4) anger / patience, 5) gluttony / temperance, 6) envy / charity and 7) laziness / diligence. In this same line of thought, to sin would be to abuse the freedom of God. According to John Bossy, the seven deadly sins would be the expression of a social and community ethic with which the Catholic Church tried at the time to contain violence and heal the troubled medieval society. Sins and their penance were originally a healthy warning of how to manage one’s individual and social behavior (Savater, 2013). That which Modern society allows as lawful or not, has “overcome” the conduct and moral republicanism of our days (1). Morality is one of the most sophisticated features of human judgment, behavior, and mind. An individual who deviates from violent morality, rules and civil rights, even affecting the individual liberties of others, sometimes even aggressively. A scientific approach to the origins of evil refers us to the exciting analysis of the molecular, epigenetic, phylogenetic and cellular determinants of the neurobiology of sin. This formidable adventure of thought constitutes a harmonious path traveled by moral philosophy and the neurosciences of that long stretch that is between the error of Prometheus and the error of Descartes.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Cristianismo , Princípios Morais , Virtudes , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Filogenia
7.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 49-61, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988186

RESUMO

When bioethics, by its multidisciplinary and pluralist nature, calls on many constitutive sources, moral and religious thought as philosophy find all the more their place that bioethics is a culture of discussion to make, if not emerge, less to reconstruct or adapt to their time, values whose history is linked to that of religions and philosophical trends. This brief text has only the interest of synthesizing this contribution in the light of what bioethics is today, a phenomenon in which everyone can find an anchor where, as in the labyrinth of Theseus, he will be able to find his way by following a guideline.


Assuntos
Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Princípios Morais , Religião , Humanos , Filosofia
8.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 928-936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880410

RESUMO

The abortion drug RU 486 is widely available across the developed world, and its benefits and efficacy for women have been well established over the 40 years since its development. However, access to RU 486 for women in Australia has been a vexed issue since the mid-1990s. Because of pro-life politics under the Howard Government, importation of the drug into Australia was severely hampered, resulting in Australia lagging behind the rest of the developed world in access to medical abortions. This article highlights the history of RU 486, the current state of abortion laws in Australia and the issues that the politics of the 1990s still cause for Australian women who seek a medical abortion (especially those living remotely). Finally, it proposes some options that could alleviate some of the difficulties faced by those who seek access to RU 486.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Mifepristona , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Política , Gravidez
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 274: 19-28, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990662

RESUMO

This chapter aims at providing the student with a general overview of the appropriate structure and ethics healthcare organizations are based on, the concept of ethical leadership, the importance of having clear statements of mission, vision and value in healthcare organizations and the Health Promotion Charters implemented in a Globalized World.


Assuntos
Bioética , Liderança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Princípios Morais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Defining Issues Test (DIT) aimed to measure one's moral judgment development in terms of moral reasoning. The Neo-Kohlbergian approach, which is an elaboration of Kohlbergian theory, focuses on the continuous development of postconventional moral reasoning, which constitutes the theoretical basis of the DIT. However, very few studies have directly tested the internal structure of the DIT, which would indicate its construct validity. OBJECTIVES: Using the DIT-2, a later revision of the DIT, we examined whether a bi-factor model or 3-factor CFA model showed a better model fit. The Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral judgment development, which constitutes the theoretical basis for the DIT-2, proposes that moral judgment development occurs continuously and that it can be better explained with a soft-stage model. Given these assertions, we assumed that the bi-factor model, which considers the Schema-General Moral Judgment (SGMJ), might be more consistent with Neo-Kohlbergian theory. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset collected from undergraduate students. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) via weighted least squares. A 3-factor CFA based on the DIT-2 manual and a bi-factor model were compared for model fit. The three factors in the 3-factor CFA were labeled as moral development schemas in Neo-Kohlbergian theory (i.e., personal interests, maintaining norms, and postconventional schemas). The bi-factor model included the SGMJ in addition to the three factors. RESULTS: In general, the bi-factor model showed a better model fit compared with the 3-factor CFA model although both models reported acceptable model fit indices. CONCLUSION: We found that the DIT-2 scale is a valid measure of the internal structure of moral reasoning development using both CFA and bi-factor models. In addition, we conclude that the soft-stage model, posited by the Neo-Kohlbergian approach to moral judgment development, can be better supported with the bi-factor model that was tested in the present study.


Assuntos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 18-29, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994613

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate how New Zealand newsprint media shapes discourse about dementia through its framing of the causes, effects and solutions, and who bears responsibility for the disease. METHODS: Using New Zealand's three largest daily newspapers, we examined i) the coverage of dementia between 2012-2016, ii) the framing of causes and effects of dementia, and iii) the most frequent associations of causes and effects of dementia. We integrated the findings to assess the moral evaluation of dementia in New Zealand newsprint media. RESULTS: Of the 361 articles extracted all presented effects of dementia, 35% discussed causes and 7% mentioned solutions for dementia. Medical causes dominated over health behavioural and societal causes, and effects were mostly the negative impact on the individual, family and society. Modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for society whereas non-modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for the individual and/or their family. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2012-16 New Zealand newsprint media largely portrayed dementia from a 'powerless victim' frame. Further research is required to assess whether, since 2016, there has been a shift towards media framing of dementia as potentially preventable and a social justice issue.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Nova Zelândia , Estigma Social
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3309, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the main ethical problems and how these relate to the moral sensitivity of nurses working in a general medicine ward. METHOD: this qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was conducted in a university hospital located in the south of Brazil. A total of 18 nurses working in a general medicine ward were interviewed. A semi-structured interview script was used, and data were analyzed using discursive textual analysis. RESULTS: nurses considered the main ethical problems to include conflicts at the institutional level, situations involving conflicts with patients and/or family members, and conflicts within the staff. The perception of nurses and how they deal with these problems relate to moral sensitivity. Two categories emerged: experiencing ethical problems, and relationship with moral sensitivity. CONCLUSION: because of the multidimensional nature of moral sensitivity, it trains and enables nurses to recognize and deal with ethical problems faced in clinical practice so that nurses become able to make fair and prudent decisions, improving the quality of nursing care.


Assuntos
Ética em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Brasil , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Princípios Morais
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201245, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962541

RESUMO

The intensifying pace of research based on cross-cultural studies in the social sciences necessitates a discussion of the unique challenges of multi-sited research. Given an increasing demand for social scientists to expand their data collection beyond WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic) populations, there is an urgent need for transdisciplinary conversations on the logistical, scientific and ethical considerations inherent to this type of scholarship. As a group of social scientists engaged in cross-cultural research in psychology and anthropology, we hope to guide prospective cross-cultural researchers through some of the complex scientific and ethical challenges involved in such work: (a) study site selection, (b) community involvement and (c) culturally appropriate research methods. We aim to shed light on some of the difficult ethical quandaries of this type of research. Our recommendation emphasizes a community-centred approach, in which the desires of the community regarding research approach and methodology, community involvement, results communication and distribution, and data sharing are held in the highest regard by the researchers. We argue that such considerations are central to scientific rigour and the foundation of the study of human behaviour.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Nurs Sci Q ; 33(4): 307-308, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940155

RESUMO

The paper consists of reflections on the corona pandemic and nursing knowledge as practice. Nurses have been so appreciated by the public during this time that they are referred to as heroes. The moral injustice of taking nurses who come so willing to serve and not provide protective gear for their practice is addressed.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Princípios Morais , Enfermagem , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
18.
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