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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49514, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118069

RESUMO

Objetivo: desvelar a percepção das mulheres sobre o acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização. Método: trata-se de um estudo fenomenológico-sociológico, qualitativo, realizado entre novembro de 2018 e novembro de 2019, com 10 mulheres de um estabelecimento prisional feminino de Maceió, Alagoas. Resultados: as participantes possuíam de 22 a 54 anos, ensino fundamental incompleto, pardas, solteiras, já haviam vivenciado a maternidade. Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: percepções do acesso aos serviços de saúde: a invisibilidade das mulheres e acesso aos serviços de saúde como uma ferramenta de ressocialização: elos dilacerados e Trabalho e Educação como alternativa de Fuga do esquecimento, ociosidade e solidão. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a percepção de invisibilidade das mulheres privadas de liberdade e desvinculação do acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização.


Objective: to unveil women's perceptions of access to health services as a tool in the re-socialization process. Method: this qualitative, phenomenological-sociological study was conducted between November 2018 and November 2019 with 10 women at a women's prison in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Results: the participants were 22 to 54 years old, of mixed race, single, had not completed lower secondary school, and had already experienced motherhood. Two thematic categories emerged: "Perceptions of access to health services: women's invisibility" and "Access to health services as a resocialization tool: ties in shreds and Work and Education as an alternative escape route from oblivion, idleness and loneliness. Conclusion: the women deprived of their freedom were found to perceive themselves to be invisible and disconnected from access to health services as a tool in the resocialization process.


Objetivo: revelar las percepciones de las mujeres sobre el acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización. Método: este estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico-sociológico se realizó entre noviembre de 2018 y noviembre de 2019 con 10 mujeres en una cárcel de mujeres en Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Resultados: las participantes tenían entre 22 y 54 años, mestizas, solteras, no habían completado el primer ciclo de secundaria y ya habían experimentado la maternidad. Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: "Percepciones del acceso a los servicios de salud: invisibilidad de las mujeres" y "Acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta de resocialización: lazos en jirones y Trabajo y Educación como vía alternativa de escape al olvido, la ociosidad y la soledad. Conclusión: las mujeres privadas de libertad se percibieron a sí mismas invisibles y desconectadas del acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Prisões , Socialização , Saúde da Mulher , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Iniquidade de Gênero , Liberdade , Solidão
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 806, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran in 2015-16. METHODS: The required data was collected from a database provided by Iranian national bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSSs) on 11,988 prisoners selected from among 55 prisons in 19 provinces in 2015-16. The data on demographics and behavioral variables were collected through interviews and the status of exposure to HBV and HCV were determined using ELISA blood test. A total of 1387 individuals with a history of drug injection in their lifetime were enrolled into the study. Data were analyzed using the survey package in Stata/SE software, Version 14.0. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to investigate the relationships between risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the incarcerated PWID was 36.83 ± 8.13 years. Of all the studied subjects, 98.46% were male and 50.97% were married. The prevalence of HCV and HBV among the subjects were 40.52 and 2.46%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was associated with age ≥ 30 years, being single, illiteracy and low level of education, prison term> 5 years, history of piercing, and extramarital sex in lifetime (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high. In general, it is recommended to adopt measures to screen and treat patients with HCV and vaccinat incarcerated PWID without a history of vaccination against HBV.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 149-166, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191351

RESUMO

Se presenta una reflexión de la valía e importancia de los talleres de filosofía, inscritos en el Proyecto Boecio, que se han llevado a cabo en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, ambos en Ciudad de México. Se mencionarán los contenidos y aprendizajes de dichos talleres, los cuales han sido significativos para las personas privadas de su libertad, para sobrellevar su proceso judicial, y el sobrevivir su "encierro", así como también, la manera en que sus familiares y amistades han sido beneficiados con dichos aprendizajes de sus seres queridos en reclusión, al brindarles herramientas para sobrellevar el estar "encerrados en casa" por la cuarentena de la COVID-19


This is a reflection about the value and importance of the philosophy workshops, registered in the Boethius Project, which have been carried out at the Santa Martha Acatitla's Womens Prison and East Men's Prison both of them in Mexico City. The contents and learning from these workshops will be mentioned, which have been signicant for the people in prison, to survive their judicial process and "confinement", as well as the way in which their family and friends have been benefitied with these learnings from their loved ones in jail, by providing then with tools to support "Stay in home" by the COVID-19 quarantine


Es presenta una reflexió de la importància dels tallers de filosofia, inscrits en el Projecte Boeci, que s'han dut a terme en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, tots dos a Ciutat de Mèxic. Es parlarà dels continguts I aprenentatges d'aquests tallers, els quals han estat significatius per a les persones privades de la seva llibertat, per suportar el seu procés judicial, I sobreviure el seu "tancament", així com també, la manera en què els seus familiars I amistats s'han beneficiat d'aquests aprenentatges dels seus éssers estimats en reclusió, en poder brindar-los eines per a suportar l'estar "tancats a casa" per la quarantena de la COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisões/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Bioética , México
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142740

RESUMO

(1) Background: The emergency linked to the spread of COVID-19 in Italy has led to inevitable consequences on the penitentiary system. The risks of this emergency in prisons is mainly related to the problem of persistent overcrowding that makes social distancing difficult and the isolation of any contagion hard to arrange. The Department of Protection for Adults and Minors of the ASL Salerno Criminal Area has taken steps in order to perform screening operations and minimize the risks for prisoners and operators. (2) Methods: We conducted a two-phase observational study. In the first phase, we offered and then executed serum COVID-19 screening to all the convicted inmates. For those who had a doubtful or positive result, a swab was executed in the shortest time possible. In the second phase, a pharyngeal swab was offered and executed to all the police officers, the penitentiary administrative staff and the medical personnel working in the prison. (3) Results: In the first phase, we executed 485 COVID-19 blood tests on prisoners, 3 (0.61%) of which were positive. The three positive inmates underwent nasopharyngeal swabbing, which ultimately were negative. After that, we executed 276 nasopharyngeal swabs on the prison personnel, penitentiary administrative staff and medical personnel-all were negative. (4) Conclusion: All tests (blood tests and swabs) that were carried out on the prisoners and on the staff were negative for COVID-19. We believe that all prisons in Italy and in the world should take action to ensure preventive and control measures in order to safeguard the health of the prison population and of all the people who work there.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prisões
5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108147, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138930

RESUMO

Many states have responded to the spread of COVID-19 by implementing policies which have led to a dramatic reduction in jail populations. We consider the benefits associated with providing the population of individuals who would, but for these policies, be incarcerated with substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We discuss problems that may prevent this population from receiving SUD treatment as well as policies which may mitigate these problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Humanos , Políticas , Prisioneiros , Governo Estadual
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1625-1630, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151915

RESUMO

Correctional and detention facilities have been disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of shared space and movement of staff members and detained persons within facilities (1,2). During March 1-April 30, 2020, at Cook County Jail in Chicago, Illinois, >900 COVID-19 cases were diagnosed across all 10 housing divisions, representing 13 unique buildings.† Movement within the jail was examined through network analyses and visualization, a field that examines elements within a network and the connections between them. This methodology has been used to supplement contact tracing investigations for tuberculosis and to understand how social networks contribute to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (3-5). Movements and connections of 5,884 persons (3,843 [65%] detained persons and 2,041 [35%] staff members) at the jail during March 1-April 30 were analyzed. A total of 472 (12.3%) COVID-19 cases were identified among detained persons and 198 (9.7%) among staff members. Among 103,701 shared-shift connections among staff members, 1.4% occurred between persons with COVID-19, a percentage that is significantly higher than the expected 0.9% by random occurrence alone (p<0.001), suggesting that additional transmission occurred within this group. The observed connections among detained persons with COVID-19 were significantly lower than expected (1.0% versus 1.1%, p<0.001) when considering only the housing units in which initial transmission occurred, suggesting that the systematic isolation of persons with COVID-19 is effective at limiting transmission. A network-informed approach can identify likely points of high transmission, allowing for interventions to reduce transmission targeted at these groups or locations, such as by reducing convening of staff members, closing breakrooms, and cessation of contact sports.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prisões , Busca de Comunicante , Visualização de Dados , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Rede Social
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1686-1690, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180752

RESUMO

Large indoor gatherings pose a high risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and have the potential to be super-spreading events (1,2). Such events are associated with explosive growth, followed by sustained transmission (3). During August 7-September 14, 2020, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (MeCDC) investigated a COVID-19 outbreak linked to a wedding reception attended by 55 persons in a rural Maine town. In addition to the community outbreak, secondary and tertiary transmission led to outbreaks at a long-term care facility 100 miles away and at a correctional facility approximately 200 miles away. Overall, 177 COVID-19 cases were epidemiologically linked to the event, including seven hospitalizations and seven deaths (four in hospitalized persons). Investigation revealed noncompliance with CDC's recommended mitigation measures. To reduce transmission, persons should avoid large gatherings, practice physical distancing, wear masks, stay home when ill, and self-quarantine after exposure to a person with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persons can work with local health officials to increase COVID-19 awareness and determine the best policies for organizing social events to prevent outbreaks in their communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Maine/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035215

RESUMO

We examine how solitary confinement correlates with self-reported adverse physical health outcomes, and how such outcomes extend the understanding of the health disparities associated with incarceration. Using a mixed methods approach, we find that solitary confinement is associated not just with mental, but also with physical health problems. Given the disproportionate use of solitary among incarcerated people of color, these symptoms are most likely to affect those populations. Drawing from a random sample of prisoners (n = 106) in long-term solitary confinement in the Washington State Department of Corrections in 2017, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assessments; and systematic reviews of medical and disciplinary files for these subjects. We also conducted a paper survey of the entire long-term solitary confinement population (n = 225 respondents) and analyzed administrative data for the entire population of prisoners in the state in 2017 (n = 17,943). Results reflect qualitative content and descriptive statistical analysis. BPRS scores reflect clinically significant somatic concerns in 15% of sample. Objective specification of medical conditions is generally elusive, but that, itself, is a highly informative finding. Using subjective reports, we specify and analyze a range of physical symptoms experienced in solitary confinement: (1) skin irritations and weight fluctuation associated with the restrictive conditions of solitary confinement; (2) un-treated and mis-treated chronic conditions associated with the restrictive policies of solitary confinement; (3) musculoskeletal pain exacerbated by both restrictive conditions and policies. Administrative data analyses reveal disproportionate rates of racial/ethnic minorities in solitary confinement. This analysis raises the stakes for future studies to evaluate comparative prevalence of objective medical diagnoses and potential causal mechanisms for the physical symptoms specified here, and for understanding differential use of solitary confinement and its medically harmful sequelae.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde das Minorias , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Prisões , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1569-1570, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119564

RESUMO

On August 11, 2020, a confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a male correctional facility employee (correctional officer) aged 20 years was reported to the Vermont Department of Health (VDH). On July 28, the correctional officer had multiple brief encounters with six incarcerated or detained persons (IDPs)* while their SARS-CoV-2 test results were pending. The six asymptomatic IDPs arrived from an out-of-state correctional facility on July 28 and were housed in a quarantine unit. In accordance with Vermont Department of Corrections (VDOC) policy for state prisons, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the six IDPs on their arrival date and tested for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, at the Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On July 29, all six IDPs received positive test results. VDH and VDOC conducted a contact tracing investigation† and used video surveillance footage to determine that the correctional officer did not meet VDH's definition of close contact (i.e., being within 6 feet of infectious persons for ≥15 consecutive minutes)§,¶; therefore, he continued to work. At the end of his shift on August 4, he experienced loss of smell and taste, myalgia, runny nose, cough, shortness of breath, headache, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal symptoms; beginning August 5, he stayed home from work. An August 5 nasopharyngeal specimen tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR at a commercial laboratory was reported as positive on August 11; the correctional officer identified two contacts outside of work, neither of whom developed COVID-19. On July 28, seven days preceding his illness onset, the correctional officer had multiple brief exposures to six IDPs who later tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; available data suggests that at least one of the asymptomatic IDPs transmitted SARS-CoV-2 during these brief encounters.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prisões , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vermont/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Soins ; 65(845): 14-19, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862957

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the work of nurses practising in the prison environment when distributing treatments. Based on an ethnographic approach, observations of healthcare spaces in prisons and interviews were carried out with health professionals and sick prisoners. The analysis of the distribution of treatments is an interesting activity to highlight the role of nurses in a confined space. It appears that their work is punctuated by surveillance activities, in particular on the cell threshold where opportunities for interaction that shape the status of prisoner and/or patient play out. The therapeutic relationship is difficult to establish and often remains tainted by suspicion, which partly prevents the deployment of nursing care.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Enfermagem , Prisões , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876243

RESUMO

Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social
15.
JAMA ; 324(10): 941-942, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897349
16.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e257-e260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe how the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has affected opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programs in jails and prisons. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted an online survey of 19 carceral systems that provided methadone and/or buprenorphine treatment for incarcerated populations before COVID-19. Eleven survey items examined challenges and changes to these programs as a result of the pandemic. Sixteen of 19 programs (84%) responded to the survey. RESULTS: Ten out of 16 systems reported downsizing their OAT programs. Seven of 16 systems made changes to medication dispensation processes. Half of systems report challenges implementing physical distancing (n = 8), and/or obtaining personal protective equipment (n = 8). In 13 out of 16 systems some OAT program participants were released early due to COVID-19 infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: Jails and prisons with existing OAT programs have curtailed their operations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the robust evidence base around OAT for treating opioid use disorder and averting overdose deaths, guidance is needed on maintaining and ramping up medication access as carceral facilities grapple with implementing COVID-19 mitigation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prisões , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1327, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adversity experienced during childhood manifests deleteriously across the lifespan. This study provides updated frequency estimates of ACEs using the most comprehensive and geographically diverse sample to date. METHODS: ACEs data were collected via BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Data from a total of 211,376 adults across 34 states were analyzed. The ACEs survey is comprised of 8 domains: physical/emotional/sexual abuse, household mental illness, household substance use, household domestic violence, incarcerated household member, and parental separation/divorce. Frequencies were calculated for each domain and summed to derive mean ACE scores. Findings were weighted and stratified by demographic variables. Group differences were assessed by post-estimation F-tests. RESULTS: Most individuals experienced at least one ACE (57.8%) with 21.5% experiencing 3+ ACEs. F-tests showed females had significantly higher ACEs than males (1.64 to 1.46). Multiracial individuals had a significantly higher ACEs (2.39) than all other races/ethnicities, while White individuals had significantly lower mean ACE scores (1.53) than Black (1.66) or Hispanic (1.63) individuals. The 25-to-34 age group had a significantly higher mean ACE score than any other group (1.98). Generally, those with higher income/educational attainment had lower mean ACE scores than those with lower income/educational attainment. Sexual minority individuals had higher ACEs than straight individuals, with significantly higher ACEs in bisexual individuals (3.01). CONCLUSION: Findings highlight that childhood adversity is common across sociodemographic, yet higher in certain categories. Identifying at-risk populations for higher ACEs is essential to improving the health outcomes and attainment across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Divórcio , Características da Família , Transtornos Mentais , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872124

RESUMO

This article contributes to the study of inequality in the biological welfare of Chile's adult population during the nitrate era, ca. 1880s-1930s, and in particular focuses on the impact of socioeconomic variables on height, making use of a sample of over 20,000 male inmates of the capital's main jail. It shows that inmates with a university degree were taller than the rest; that those born legitimate were taller in adulthood; that those (Chilean born) whose surnames were Northern European were also taller than the rest, and in particular than those with Mapuche background; and that those able to read and write were also taller than illiterate inmates. Conditional regression analysis, examining both correlates at the mean and correlates across the height distribution, supports these findings. We show that there was more height inequality in the population according to socioeconomic status and human capital than previously thought, while also confirming the importance of socioeconomic influences during childhood on physical growth.


Assuntos
Estatura/etnologia , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Chile , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1466-1472, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876010

RESUMO

In many low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in prisons is high, exposing incarcerated populations to an elevated risk of TB infection. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among HIV-negative male inmates of a high TB burden prison to determine whether isoniazid given twice weekly (900 mg) for 12 months prevents TB infection. The primary outcome was QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Plus (QFT) conversion to ≥ 0.35 international units per milliliter (IU/mL) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included alternative QFT thresholds (≥ 0.7, ≥ 2.0, and ≥ 4.0 IU/mL). In total, 467 participants were randomly assigned to intervention (N = 258) or control (N = 209). In an interim analysis of participants who had completed 6 months of follow-up (N = 170), QFT conversion occurred in 20.8% (19/91) and 21.5% (17/79) of participants in intervention and control arms (efficacy: 2.9%, P = 0.91), respectively. The trial was then stopped according to the trial protocol, and the remaining participants prematurely discontinued. In an analysis of secondary outcomes, the intervention arm had significantly lower rates of conversion at a cutoff of ≥ 2.0 IU/mL (efficacy: 82.6%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, 900 mg of isoniazid, administered twice a week, did not effectively prevent QFT conversion at a cutoff point ≥ 0.35 IU/mL in a trial of QFT-negative inmates. Higher QFT cutoffs are associated with sustained conversion and greater protection. Future clinical trials that evaluate protection for latent infection should use the highest cutoff than that recommended by the manufacturer.


Assuntos
Isoniazida , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Primária , Prisioneiros , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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