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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 473-477, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793457

RESUMO

Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 478-482, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793462

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can spread rapidly in prisons and can be introduced by staff members and newly transferred incarcerated persons (1,2). On September 28, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) contacted CDC to report a COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison (prison A). During October 6-20, a CDC team investigated the outbreak, which began with 12 cases detected from specimens collected during August 17-24 from incarcerated persons housed within the same unit, 10 of whom were transferred together on August 13 and under quarantine following prison intake procedures (intake quarantine). Potentially exposed persons within the unit began a 14-day group quarantine on August 25. However, quarantine was not restarted after quarantined persons were potentially exposed to incarcerated persons with COVID-19 who were moved to the unit. During the subsequent 8 weeks (August 14-October 22), 869 (79.4%) of 1,095 incarcerated persons and 69 (22.6%) of 305 staff members at prison A received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of specimens from 172 cases among incarcerated persons showed that all clustered in the same lineage; this finding, along with others, demonstrated that facility spread originated with the transferred cohort. To effectively implement a cohorted quarantine, which is a harm reduction strategy for correctional settings with limited space, CDC's interim guidance recommendation is to serial test cohorts, restarting the 14-day quarantine period when a new case is identified (3). Implementing more effective intake quarantine procedures and available mitigation measures, including vaccination, among incarcerated persons is important to controlling transmission in prisons. Understanding and addressing the challenges faced by correctional facilities to implement medical isolation and quarantine can help reduce and prevent outbreaks.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quarentena , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
3.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e249-e259, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being recently released from prison or discharged from hospital, or being dispensed opioids, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics have been associated with an increased risk of fatal drug overdose. This study aimed to examine the association between these periods and non-fatal drug overdose using a within-person design. METHODS: In this self-controlled case series, we used data from the provincial health insurance client roster to identify a 20% random sample of residents (aged ≥10 years) in British Columbia, Canada between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017 (n=921 346). Individuals aged younger than 10 years as of Jan 1, 2015, or who did not have their sex recorded in the client roster were excluded. We used linked provincial health and correctional records to identify a cohort of individuals who had a non-fatal overdose resulting in medical care during this time period, and key exposures, including periods of incarceration, admission to hospital, emergency department care, and supply of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), opioids for pain (unrelated to MOUD), benzodiazepines, and antipsychotics. Using a self-controlled case series, we examined the association between the time periods during and after each of these exposures and the incidence of non-fatal overdose with case-only, conditional Poisson regression analysis. Sensitivity analyses included recurrent overdoses and pre-exposure risk periods. FINDINGS: We identified 4149 individuals who had a non-fatal overdose in 2015-17. Compared with unexposed periods (ie, all follow-up time that was not part of a designated risk period for each exposure), the incidence of non-fatal overdose was higher on the day of admission to prison (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 2·76 [95% CI 1·51-5·04]), at 1-2 weeks (2·92 [2·37-3·61]), and 3-4 weeks (1·34 [1·01-1·78]) after release from prison, 1-2 weeks after discharge from hospital (1·35 [1·11-1·63]), when being dispensed opioids for pain (after ≥4 weeks) or benzodiazepines (entire use period), and from 3 weeks after discontinuing antipsychotics. The incidence of non-fatal overdose was reduced during use of MOUD (aIRRs ranging from 0·33 [0·26-0·42] to 0·41 [0·25-0·67]) and when in prison (0·12 [0·08-0·19]). INTERPRETATION: Expanding access to and increasing support for stable and long-term medication for the management of opioid use disorder, improving continuity of care when transitioning between service systems, and ensuring safe prescribing and medication monitoring processes for medications that reduce respiratory function (eg, benzodiazepines) could decrease the incidence of non-fatal overdose. FUNDING: Murdoch Children's Research Institute and National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e240-e248, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass incarceration has collateral consequences for community health, which are reflected in county-level health indicators, including county mortality rates. County jail incarceration rates are associated with all-cause mortality rates in the USA. We assessed the causes of death that drive the relationship between county-level jail incarceration and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective, longitudinal study, we assessed the association between county-level jail incarceration rates and county-level cause-specific mortality using county jail incarceration data (1987-2017) for 1094 counties in the USA obtained from the Vera Institute of Justice and cause-specific mortality data for individuals younger than 75 years in the total county population (1988-2018) obtained from the US National Vital Statistics System. We fitted quasi-Poisson models for nine common causes of death (cerebrovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory disease, diabetes, heart disease, infectious disease, malignant neoplasm, substance use, suicide, and unintentional injury) with county fixed effects, controlling for all unmeasured stable county characteristics and measured time-varying confounders (county median age, county poverty rate, county percentage of Black residents, county crime rate, county unemployment rate, and state incarceration rate). We lagged county jail incarceration rates by 1 year to assess the short-term, by 5 years to assess the medium-term, and by 10 years to assess the long-term associations of jail incarceration with premature mortality. FINDINGS: A 1 per 1000 within-county increase in jail incarceration rate was associated with a 6·5% increase in mortality from infectious diseases (risk ratio 1·065, 95% CI 1·061-1·070), a 4·9% increase in mortality from chronic lower respiratory disease (1·049, 1·045-1·052), a 2·6% increase in mortality induced from substance use (1·026, 1·020-1·032), a 2·5% increase in suicide mortality (1·025, 1·020-1·029), and smaller increases in mortality from heart disease (1·021, 1·019-1·023), unintentional injury (1·015, 1·011-1·018), malignant neoplasm (1·014, 1·013-1·016), diabetes (1·013, 1·009-1·018), and cerebrovascular disease (1·010, 1·007-1·013) after 1 year. Associations between jail incarceration and cause-specific mortality rates weakened as time lags increased, but to a greater extent for causes of death with generally shorter latency periods (infectious disease and suicide) than for those with generally longer latency periods (heart disease, malignant neoplasm, and cerebrovascular disease). INTERPRETATION: Jail incarceration rates are potential drivers of many causes of death in US counties. Jail incarceration can be harmful not only to the health of individuals who are incarcerated, but also to public health more broadly. Our findings suggest important points of intervention, including disinvestment from carceral systems and investment in social and public health services, such as community-based treatment of substance-use disorders. FUNDING: US National Institute on Drug Abuse (National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20471, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a screening tool designed to identify detained people at increased risk for COVID-19 mortality, the COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (development) and a case-control sample (validation). SETTING: The two largest Swiss prisons. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Development sample: all male persons detained in Pöschwies, Zurich (n = 365); (2) Validation sample: case-control sample of male persons detained in Champ-Dollon, Geneva (n = 192, matching 1:3 for participants at risk for severe course of COVID-19 and participants without risk factors). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CIRA combined seven risk factors identified by the World Health Organization and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as predictive of severe COVID-19 to derive an absolute risk increase in mortality rate: Age ≥60 years, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, immunodeficiency and cancer. RESULTS: Based on the development sample, we proposed a three-level classification: average (<3.7), elevated (3.7-5.7) and high (>5.7) risk. In the validation sample, the CIRA identified all individuals identified as vulnerable by national recommendations (having at least one risk factor). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity (1) and specificity (0.97). The CIRA had even higher capacity in discriminating individuals vulnerable according to clinical evaluation (a four-level risk categorisation based on a consensus of medical staff). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity and specificity (both 1). When considering the individuals classified as extremely high risk by medical staff, the category “high risk” had a high discriminatory capacity (sensitivity =0.89, specificity =0.97). CONCLUSIONS: The CIRA scores have a high discriminative ability and will be important in custodial settings to support decisions and prioritise actions using a standardised valid assessment method. However, as knowledge on risk factors for COVID-19 mortality is still limited, the CIRA may be considered preliminary. Underlying data will be updated regularly on the website (http://www.prison-research.com), where the CIRA algorithm is freely available.


Assuntos
/etiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisões , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suíça
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113669, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401092

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the possible impacts on the prison population's mental health in the context of the new COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative study was carried out following a lexical and content analysis using the software IRaMuTeQ, version 0.7 alpha 2, in the speech of the short communication and headlines from newspapers. Three groups emerged from the analysis: "spatial conditions for infection" (39.2% of the text segments); "disease outbreaks in prisons" (30,4%) and "public responsibility" (30,4%). Precarious conditions of prisons, high rate of infections and psychiatric illnesses, and lack of government assistance are issues that should be given special attention in order to formulate health promotion and prevention policies focusing on mental health in prison population.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , /prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Assistência Pública , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Urban Health ; 98(1): 53-58, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337529

RESUMO

People in prison are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to close living conditions and the lack of protective equipment. As a result, public health professionals and prison administrators seek information to guide best practices and policy recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using latent profile analysis, we sought to characterize Texas prisons on levels of COVID-19 cases and deaths among incarcerated residents, and COVID-19 cases among prison staff. This observational study was a secondary data analysis of publicly available data from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TBDJ) collected from March 1, 2020, until July 24, 2020. This project was completed in collaboration with the COVID Prison Project. We identified relevant profiles from the data: a low-outbreak profile, a high-outbreak profile, and a high-death profile. Additionally, current prison population and level of employee staffing predicted membership in the high-outbreak and high-death profiles when compared with the low-outbreak profile. Housing persons at 85% of prison capacity was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 infection and death. Implementing this 85% standard as an absolute minimum should be prioritized at prisons across the USA.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 277-285, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351663

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the dual disproportionality that individuals with serious mental illness and people of color (PoC) occupy in the criminal-legal system.Methods. This study follows a cohort of 623 individuals who screened positive for mental health issues at booking in 8 Midwestern jails in 2017. We followed individuals through the jails' practices of jail-based mental health treatment, and we used Medicaid billing data to assess community-based behavioral health treatment engagement in the postyear period after jail release. The aim was to examine if an individual's race/ethnicity was associated with their access to jail- and community-based mental health treatment.Results. We did not find any racial disparities in jail-based treatment, although 3 community-based outcomes significantly differed. Compared with PoC, White people had 1.9 times greater odds of receiving community-based mental health and substance use treatment and 4.5 times greater odds of receiving co-occurring disorder treatment.Conclusions. Barriers that individuals released from jail face adversely affect PoC, resulting in reduced access to treatment. Critical race theory can expose the assumptions and functions of systems of care and the possible reproduction of implicit bias in potential solutions.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Semergen ; 47(1): 47-55, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Review of control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in penitentiary institutions in Spain and other countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review a comprehensive literature search in Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline and EMBASE was performed using relevant keywords and medical descriptors (MeSH) related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and prisons. National and international recommendations and guides were examined as well as documents published by some countries. RESULTS: The key points of the guides are discussed. The vast majority of recommendations coincide with respect to the measures and procedures that should be used, except for some discrepancy regarding the population screening. Until now, most industrialized countries (except the US and some specific scenarios) have controlled successfully the epidemic in prisons. Less data is found as regards to socioeconomically more disadvantaged countries. CONCLUSIONS: Prisons are prone to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission due to their space limitations and sometimes poor environmental and hygienic conditions. The recommendations of the control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be the same as those outside the prison, but must be adapted to the peculiarities of the prison. The recommendations must be issued by the health administration in coordination with the prison administration. Finally, must be abide by the Mandela Rules or by the Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of United Nations prisoners.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prisões , /epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343796

RESUMO

Although prisoners are considered a vulnerable population, no data repository currently exists to monitor the COVID-19 incidence in Nigerian prisons. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 within the Nigerian prison system, prisons should develop detailed COVID-19 response protocols, implement enhanced point-of-care testing, and initiate contact tracing with meticulous data collection.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , /diagnóstico , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Nigéria , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the level and temporal trends of homicide impunity in Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study that calculated two impunity indexes by dividing the total number of homicides committed in a 5-year period by the number of individuals arrested for murder (homicide impunity) or any other cause (general impunity) two years after this period. The Prais-Winsten linear regression model with serial autocorrelation correction was used to estimate the temporal trend of the impunity indexes. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, 328,714 homicides were recorded in Brazil, but only 84,539 prisoners were serving sentences for this kind of crime in 2016. This shows that the number of homicides in Brazil exceeded in 244,175 the number of individuals in prisons for this crime. The impunity index ranged from 3.9 in 2006 to 3.3 in 2014. All states reached values above 1. Rio de Janeiro stood out negatively, with values above 20. São Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Distrito Federal showed the lowest impunity indexes for homicide, with values below 2. Eight states showed a downward trend in the overall impunity index. CONCLUSIONS: Most Brazilian states presented extremely high impunity indexes values. However, from 2010 to 2012, Brazilian society started to effectively combat impunity for serious violent crimes, including homicide. In São Paulo, this positive trend arose in the mid-1990s and that state currently shows impunity indexes values similar to those of developed countries.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Prisioneiros , Brasil/epidemiologia , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B infection among women deprived of liberty in the state of Roraima, Brazil, and its correlation with perceptions, knowledge and behavioral factors. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, with simple systematic sampling, conducted at the Public Female Prison in Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in 2017. A total of 168 inmates (93.8% of the population) were evaluated by in-person interviews and rapid tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) was 20.2%, being 4.7% HIV, 15.5% syphilis, and 0.0% hepatitis B. Multivariate analysis confirmed as risk factors for acquiring an STI: being over 30 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.57; 95%CI 1.03-6.40); low schooling (adjusted OR: 2.77; 95%CI 1.08-5.05); little knowledge about condom use (adjusted OR: 2.37; 95%CI 1.01-7.31); and believing that there is no risk of contracting syphilis (adjusted OR: 2.36; 95%CI 1.08-6.50). CONCLUSION: The population deprived of liberty is a group of highly vulnerable to STI. The high prevalence of these infections can be explained by knowledge deficits on the subject, distorted perceptions and conditions peculiar to imprisonment, which result in risky behavior. We emphasize the need to implement educational programs for preventing, diagnosing and treating STI for this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 806, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran in 2015-16. METHODS: The required data was collected from a database provided by Iranian national bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSSs) on 11,988 prisoners selected from among 55 prisons in 19 provinces in 2015-16. The data on demographics and behavioral variables were collected through interviews and the status of exposure to HBV and HCV were determined using ELISA blood test. A total of 1387 individuals with a history of drug injection in their lifetime were enrolled into the study. Data were analyzed using the survey package in Stata/SE software, Version 14.0. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to investigate the relationships between risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the incarcerated PWID was 36.83 ± 8.13 years. Of all the studied subjects, 98.46% were male and 50.97% were married. The prevalence of HCV and HBV among the subjects were 40.52 and 2.46%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was associated with age ≥ 30 years, being single, illiteracy and low level of education, prison term> 5 years, history of piercing, and extramarital sex in lifetime (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high. In general, it is recommended to adopt measures to screen and treat patients with HCV and vaccinat incarcerated PWID without a history of vaccination against HBV.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007668, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with poor mental health, criminality, substance use and relationship difficulties. This review updates Gibbon 2010 (previous version of the review). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 13 other databases and two trials registers up to 5 September 2019. We also searched reference lists and contacted study authors to identify studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of adults, where participants with an AsPD or dissocial personality disorder diagnosis comprised at least 75% of the sample randomly allocated to receive a psychological intervention, treatment-as-usual (TAU), waiting list or no treatment. The primary outcomes were aggression, reconviction, global state/functioning, social functioning and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 19 studies (eight new to this update), comparing a psychological intervention against TAU (also called 'standard Maintenance'(SM) in some studies). Eight of the 18 psychological interventions reported data on our primary outcomes. Four studies focussed exclusively on participants with AsPD, and 15 on subgroups of participants with AsPD. Data were available from only 10 studies involving 605 participants. Eight studies were conducted in the UK and North America, and one each in Iran, Denmark and the Netherlands. Study duration ranged from 4 to 156 weeks (median = 26 weeks). Most participants (75%) were male; the mean age was 35.5 years. Eleven studies (58%) were funded by research councils. Risk of bias was high for 13% of criteria, unclear for 54% and low for 33%. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) + TAU versus TAU One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for physical aggression (odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.07; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. One study (39 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for social functioning (mean difference (MD) -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.21 to 2.01; very low-certainty evidence), measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ; range = 0-24), for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. Impulsive lifestyle counselling (ILC) + TAU versus TAU One study (118 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU for trait aggression (assessed with Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form) for outpatients at nine months (MD 0.07, CI -0.35 to 0.49; very low-certainty evidence). One study (142 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU alone for the adverse event of death (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.54; very low-certainty evidence) or incarceration (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) for outpatients between three and nine months follow-up. Contingency management (CM) + SM versus SM One study (83 participants) found evidence that, compared to SM alone, CM + SM may improve social functioning measured by family/social scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI; range = 0 (no problems) to 1 (severe problems); MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.02; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at six months. 'Driving whilst intoxicated' programme (DWI) + incarceration versus incarceration One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between DWI + incarceration and incarceration alone on reconviction rates (hazard ratio 0.56, CI -0.19 to 1.31; very low-certainty evidence) for prisoner participants at 24 months. Schema therapy (ST) versus TAU One study (30 participants in a secure psychiatric hospital, 87% had AsPD diagnosis) found no evidence of a difference between ST and TAU for the number of participants who were reconvicted (OR 2.81, 95% CI 0.11 to 74.56, P = 0.54) at three years. The same study found that ST may be more likely to improve social functioning (assessed by the mean number of days until patients gain unsupervised leave (MD -137.33, 95% CI -271.31 to -3.35) compared to TAU, and no evidence of a difference between the groups for overall adverse events, classified as the number of people experiencing a global negative outcome over a three-year period (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.19). The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was very low. Social problem-solving (SPS) + psychoeducation (PE) versus TAU One study (17 participants) found no evidence of a difference between SPS + PE and TAU for participants' level of social functioning (MD -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.43 to 2.23; very low-certainty evidence) assessed with the SFQ at six months post-intervention. Dialectical behaviour therapy versus TAU One study (skewed data, 14 participants) provided very low-certainty, narrative evidence that DBT may reduce the number of self-harm days for outpatients at two months post-intervention compared to TAU. Psychosocial risk management (PSRM; 'Resettle') versus TAU One study (skewed data, 35 participants) found no evidence of a difference between PSRM and TAU for a number of officially recorded offences at one year after release from prison. It also found no evidence of difference between the PSRM and TAU for the adverse event of death during the study period (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.05 to 14.83, P = 0.94, 72 participants (90% had AsPD), 1 study, very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very limited evidence available on psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. Few interventions addressed the primary outcomes of this review and, of the eight that did, only three (CM + SM, ST and DBT) showed evidence that the intervention may be more effective than the control condition. No intervention reported compelling evidence of change in antisocial behaviour. Overall, the certainty of the evidence was low or very low, meaning that we have little confidence in the effect estimates reported. The conclusions of this update have not changed from those of the original review, despite the addition of eight new studies. This highlights the ongoing need for further methodologically rigorous studies to yield further data to guide the development and application of psychological interventions for AsPD and may suggest that a new approach is required.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dirigir sob a Influência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recompensa , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876243

RESUMO

Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social
19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720954687, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease which usually presents with respiratory symptoms. This virus is disseminated through respiratory droplets, and, therefore, individuals residing in close quarters are at a higher risk for the acquisition of infection. The prison population is at a significantly increased risk for infection. METHODS: Prisoners from the Montford Correctional facility in Lubbock, Texas, hospitalized in the medical intensive care unit at University Medical Center between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020 were compared to community-based patients hospitalized in the same medical intensive care unit. Clinical information, laboratory results, radiographic results, management requirements, and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 15 community-based patients with a mean age of 67.4 ± 15.5 years were compared to 5 prisoners with a mean age of 56.0 ± 9.0 years. All prisoners were men; 10 community-based patients were men. Prisoners presented with fever, dyspnea, and GI symptoms. The mean number of comorbidities in prisoners was 2.4 compared to 1.8 in community-based patients. Prisoners had significantly lower heart rates and respiratory rates at presentation than community-based patients. The mean length of stay in prisoners was 12.6 ± 8.9 days; the mean length of stay in community-based patients was 8.6 ± 6.5. The case fatality rate was 60% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prisoners were younger than community-based patients but required longer lengths of stay and had the same mortality rate. This study provides a basis for comparisons with future studies which could involve new treatment options currently under study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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