Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.121
Filtrar
1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study intends to describe a HIV intake screening strategy in recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal, Brasilia, Brazil. METHODS: We tested 455 recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal in 2016 using rapid tests (RT) applied to oral samples (OS). RESULTS: The estimated frequency of positive tests was 0.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34% to 2.24%). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings reveal the potential significance of detecting new HIV infection cases in a vulnerable population using point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 189-192, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310667

RESUMO

Through the measurement of ethyl glucuronide in hair (hETG), it is possible to assess chronic alcohol abuse over time. In this paper, we present a study on hETG in Italian prison inmates. Analyses were performed by LC-MS according to a previously published method. Results were evaluated using the cut-offs established by the Society of Hair Testing. Positives samples (ETG > 30 pg/mg) accounted for 6% of all subjects, with concentrations ranging from 42 pg/mg up to 270 pg/mg, abstinent subjects (ETG < 7 pg/mg) accounted for 88%, and moderate alcohol consumption (7 < ETG < 30 pg/mg) for 6% of the subjects. No females displayed ETG values above 30 pg/mg. Among positive samples, only two subjects did not declare heavy alcohol consumption and were found strongly positive at 210 and 270 pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study on ETG hair concentration on prison inmates.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos/análise , Cabelo/química , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Adulto Jovem
3.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 332-337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In the United States each year nearly 570,000 people return from state prisons to the community. Prevalence data of chronic health problems for this population are lacking, impeding planning of health care programs to serve people with chronic conditions who are re-entering the community.METHOD We used medication dispensing records as a proxy for diagnoses in assessing the prevalence of 10 major and 20 substituent health conditions among incarcerated people released from the North Carolina state prison system from July 2015 through June 2016.RESULTS Among 20,585 released people, 13% were female; 50% were black; 43% were white; and 4% were aged 55 years or older. Thirty-three percent had ≥ 1 condition and 13% had two or more. The prevalence of chronic health conditions was the following: psychiatric, 15%; cardiovascular, 15%; neurologic, 7%; pulmonary, 6%; diabetes mellitus, 3%; and infectious, 3%. Seventy-one percent of those aged 55 years or older had a chronic medical condition. Among those with a psychiatric condition, 56% had another chronic illness.LIMITATIONS We could not identify unmedicated health conditions; medications prescribed across multiple disease categories were excluded from our analysis.CONCLUSION In North Carolina, at least one in three people released from the state prison system had a chronic health condition, and among those with psychiatric conditions, most had comorbid medical disease. Coordination of health care after release from incarceration is essential to avoid preventable complications and unnecessary utilization of acute care services. Greater eligibility for Medicaid is needed to scale up transition programs for this population.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 363-366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685574

RESUMO

Women who are involved in the criminal justice system experience poorer reproductive health outcomes. Resolving this inequality will require addressing reproductive health disparities facing incarcerated women, improving the health of criminal justice-involved women in the community, and preventing engagement of women with the criminal justice system altogether.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 538-543, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) have been identified as having an important role in improving the health and wellbeing of individuals in prison; however, a lack of information exists on how to strengthen this role. This paper explores the experiences of ACCHO staff in primary health care to individuals inside or leaving prison. METHODS: Nineteen staff from four ACCHOs were interviewed. ACCHO selection was informed by proximity to prisons, town size and/or Local Government Area offending rates. Thematic analysis of the interviews was undertaken. RESULTS: While most ACCHOs had delivered post-release programs, primary health care delivery to prisoners was limited. Three themes emerged: i) a lack of access to prisoners; ii) limited funding to provide services to prisoners; and iii) the need for a team approach to primary health care delivery. CONCLUSION: A holistic model of care underpinned by a reliable funding model (including access to certain Medicare items) and consistent access to prisoners could strengthen ACCHOs' role in primary health care delivery to people inside or leaving prison. Implications for public health: ACCHOs have an important role to play in the delivery of primary health care to prisoners. Existing models of care for prisoners should be examined to explore how this can occur.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Prisioneiros , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1559, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of people are currently suffering from some form of mental disorders. The prevalence of common disorders is twofold higher in prison than general population and the condition is found to be worst in African in general and Ethiopia in particular. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and its correlates among prisoners in Jimma town correctional institution; Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional quantitative study was conducted enrolling 300 prisoners. The participants were recruited using systematic random sampling technique. The World health organization Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scale; was adapted to assess prevalence of mental disorders. Data were collected on interviewer administered basis by trained personnel. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 for widows was used for data analysis. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was conducted to identify the independent predictors of common mental disorders. P-value less than 5% was considered to indicate significant associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of common mental disorder was found to be 62.70, 95% CI; [57.30, 68.50]. Prisoners who had monthly income of 1500-3000birr, AOR = 3.30, 95% CI; [1.25, 8.69] and above 3000birr; AOR = 4.75, 95% CI; [1.57, 14.33], family history of mental illness; AOR = 6.14, 95% CI; [1.65, 22.79] and who ever used Khat; AOR = 4.33, 95% CI; [2.02, 9.27] were more likely to experience common mental disorders. Conversely; having some sort of work in prison; AOR = 0.25, 95% CI; [0.12, 0.54], perceived moderate social support; AOR = 0.094, 95% CI; [0.04-0.215] and perceived moderate strong; AOR = 0.025, 95% CI; [0.009, 0.07] were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of common mental disorder was considerably high as nearly more than three in every five prisoner experience some form of the disorder. Early screening of prisoners up on their arrival, appropriate treatment and follow up should be done. Furthermore; creating prison based jobs that could bring prisoners together and encouraging positive relationships to build social supports as coping strategy is required.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 761, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accessing HIV-related care is challenging for formerly incarcerated people with HIV. Interventions informed by the perspectives of these individuals could facilitate engagement with care and address competing priorities that may act as barriers to this process. METHODS: We used concept mapping to identify and prioritize the main obstacles to engaging with HIV-related care following prison release. In brainstorming sessions, formerly incarcerated people with HIV generated responses to a focused prompt regarding the main barriers to reengaging with care. These were consolidated in 35 statements. Next, participants sorted the consolidated list of responses into groups and rated each from lowest to highest in terms of its importance and feasibility of being addressed. We used cluster analysis to generate concept maps that were interpreted with participants. RESULTS: Overall, 39 participants participated in brainstorming sessions, among whom 18 returned for rating and sorting. Following analysis, a seven-cluster map was generated, with participants rating the 'Practical Considerations' (e.g. lack of transportation from prison) and 'Survival Needs' (e.g. securing housing and food) clusters as most important. Although ratings were generally similar between women and men, women assigned greater importance to barriers related to reconnecting with children. CONCLUSIONS: Using concept mapping, we worked with formerly incarcerated people with HIV to identify and prioritize key challenges related to accessing health and social services following prison release. Transitional intervention programs should include programs and processes that address meeting basic subsistence needs and overcoming logistical barriers related to community re-entry.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Transicional/organização & administração , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário
8.
Public Health Rep ; 134(6): 660-666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The number of adults in the United States being held on probation-persons convicted of crimes and serving their sentence in the community rather than in a correctional facility-approached 4 million at the end of 2016 and continues to grow, yet little is known about the health and well-being of this population. We compared the standardized mortality ratios of persons on probation in the United States with persons in jail, persons in state prison, and the general US population. METHODS: We used administrative data from 2001-2012 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database and indirect standardization techniques to compare the mortality rates of persons on probation in 15 states with the mortality rates of persons in jail, persons in state prison, and the general US population. We applied the age-specific mortality rates of 3 populations (general US population, persons in jail, and persons in state prison) to the age distribution of persons on probation to estimate standardized mortality ratios. RESULTS: Persons on probation died at a rate 3.42 times higher than persons in jail, 2.81 times higher than persons in state prison, and 2.10 times higher than the general US population, after standardizing the age distribution of persons on probation relative to the other 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions should target persons on probation, who have received less attention from the public health community than persons serving sentences in jails and prisons.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190051, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of depression is high in the prison system, and the differences between sex regarding associated risk factors are still not clear. We analyzed the correlated factors of depression among incarcerated men and women in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study with stratified and multi-stage probabilistic sample was performed. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was applied for psychiatric diagnostic classification, as well as a questionnaire on criminal history with 1,192 men and 617 women. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorder was calculated, and association analysis performed by multinomial logistic regression stratified by sex. A dependent variable was categorized into depression, any other mental disorder and no mental disorder (reference). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was of 33.3% -(30.3 - 36.5) in women and 12.9% (11.1 - 15.0) in men. Depression was associated with disciplinary penalty, being in a stable relationship, physical health problems and history of infringement in adolescence in men. Regarding other mental illnesses, the correlated factors were historical transgression during adolescence and re-offense. Among women, depression was associated with physical health problems, drug crimes, violent crimes and being imprisoned. DISCUSSION: Results confirmed the differences between associated factors with depression regarding sex. CONCLUSION: Differences in the profile between men and women require effective specialized programs, considering the need for coping strategies for incarcerated men and health-related rehabilitation for women with depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Med J Aust ; 211(9): 414-420, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among people at increased risk of infection in Australia; to estimate the residual risk of infection among potential solid organ donors in these groups when their antibody and nucleic acid test results are negative. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports of the incidence and prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV in groups at increased risk of infection in Australia. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, government and agency reports, Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine conference abstracts, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, and National Health and Medical Research Council grants published 1 January 2000 - 14 February 2019; personal communications. DATA SYNTHESIS: Residual risk of HIV infection was highest among men who have sex with men (4.8 [95% CI, 2.7-6.9] per 10 000 antibody-negative persons; 1.5 [95% CI, 0.9-2.2] per 10 000 persons who are both antibody- and nucleic acid-negative). Residual risk of HCV infection was highest among injecting drug users (289 [95% CI, 191-385] per 10 000 antibody-negative persons; 20.9 [95% CI, 13.8-28.0] per 10 000 antibody- and nucleic acid-negative persons). Residual risk for HBV infection was highest among injecting drug users (98.6 [95% CI, 36.4-213] per 10 000 antibody-negative people; 49.4 [95% CI, 18.2-107] per 10 000 persons who were also nucleic acid-negative). CONCLUSIONS: Absolute risks of window period viral infections are low in people from Australian groups at increased risk but with negative viral test results. Accepting organ donations by people at increased risk of infection but with negative viral test results could be considered as a strategy for expanding the donor pool. REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42017069820.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Austrália/epidemiologia , DNA Viral , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , RNA Viral , Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
11.
Br J Nurs ; 28(17): 1105, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556726
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489097

RESUMO

Introduction: The prison population in low-income countries is a group vulnerable to undernutrition, particularly incarcerated women. The aim of the study is to assess the nutritional status of women in prison and to determine the social profile and prison conditions related to undernutrition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 women prisoners in Antanimora prison located in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. All women detained for 3 months or more at the time of the survey were included in the study. Data collection was conducted in May and June 2013. A survey of women and anthropometric measurements were carried out to collect the data. Results: The proportion of undernourished female prisoners is 38.4%. Five percent of pregnant and lactating women and 44.3% of non-lactating and non-pregnant women are undernourished. The factors related to undernutrition of women prisoners are: taking two meals a day instead of three meals (p = 0.003), insufficient energy intake (p < 0.001), incarceration duration of more than 10 months (p < 0.001), absence of family visits (p = 0.013) and lack of financial assistance from family (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Improving the prisoners' diets and assistance from family both help to fight against prisoner undernutrition in prisons.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 703, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem in correctional settings. HCV treatment is often not possible in U.S. jails due to short lengths of stay. Linkage to care is crucial in these settings, but competing priorities complicate community healthcare engagement and retention after incarceration. METHODS: We conducted a single arm clinical trial of a combined transitional care coordination (TCC) and patient navigation intervention and assessed the linkage rate and factors associated with linkage to HCV care after incarceration. RESULTS: During the intervention, 84 participants returned to the community after their index incarceration. Most participants were male and Hispanic, with a history of mental illness and a mean age of 45 years. Of those who returned to the community, 26 (31%) linked to HCV care within a median of 20.5 days; 17 (20%) initiated HCV treatment, 15 (18%) completed treatment, 9 (11%) had a follow-up lab drawn to confirm sustained virologic response (SVR), and 7 (8%) had a documented SVR. Among those with follow-up labs the known SVR rate was (7/9) 78%. Expressing a preference to be linked to the participant's existing health system, being on methadone prior to incarceration, and feeling that family or a loved one were concerned about the participant's wellbeing were associated with linkage to HCV care. Reporting drinking alcohol to intoxication prior to incarceration was negatively associated with linkage to HCV care. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that an integrated strategy with combined TCC and patient navigation may be effective in achieving timely linkage to HCV care. Additional multicomponent interventions aimed at treatment of substance use disorders and increasing social support could lead to further improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04036760 July 30th, 2019 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Navegação de Pacientes , Prisões , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 702, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern globally. In Ireland, like other European countries, people who use drugs (PWUD) and prisoners carry a larger HCV disease burden than the general population. Recent advances in HCV management have made HCV elimination across Europe a realistic goal. Engaging these two marginalised and underserved populations remains a challenge. The aim of this review was to map key findings and identify gaps in the literature (published and unpublished) on HCV infection in Irish PWUD and prisoners. METHODS: A scoping review guided by the methodological framework set out by Levac and colleagues (based on previous work by Arksey & O'Malley). RESULTS: A total of 58 studies were identified and divided into the following categories; Epidemiology, Guidelines and Policy, Treatment Outcomes, HCV-related Health Issues and qualitative research reporting on Patients' and Health Providers' Experiences. This review identified significantly higher rates of HCV infection among Irish prisoners and PWUD than the general population. There are high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection in both groups. There is poor engagement by Irish PWUD with HCV services and barriers have been identified. Prison hepatology nurse services have a positive impact on treatment uptake and outcomes. Identified gaps in the literature include; lack of accurate epidemiological data on incident infection, untreated chronic HCV infection particularly in PWUD living outside Dublin and those not engaged with OST. CONCLUSION: Ireland like other European countries has high levels of undiagnosed and untreated HCV infection. Collecting, synthesising and identifying gaps in the available literature is timely and will inform national HCV screening, treatment and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 218-226, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older people and their proportion of the prison population in high-income countries is increasing substantially. This pattern is mirrored by the age profile in forensic hospital services, and both trends seem counter to the age-crime curve concept. How do we understand this and what are the mental health needs of this growing group? AIM: The aim of this review is to identify existing research robust enough to inform policy and practice in relation to mental health in older offenders and the knowledge gaps that should drive future research. METHODS: A keyword-based search strategy of the databases Embase, PsychINFO, Medline, and grey literature 2008-2018. Article selection was limited to empirical research with the potential to inform policy or practice and findings synthesised narratively. RESULTS: Much of the research in this field focuses on prevalence and the increased psychiatric morbidity of the older offender population. Older prisoners and those older patients in secure hospitals have needs that differ in some respects from their younger counterparts and community-dwelling older people. There are few studies of interventions for mental health in older prisoners or into the challenges of timely release given their complex needs. Discharge of older individuals from secure settings is also an area where further research is required in order to inform policy and service provision. CONCLUSIONS: The older population in prisons and secure settings is growing, and there is much concern as to how far facilities and services have been able to identify and meet the mental health needs of those of older age. Cooperation between researchers and services and between disciplines will be essential if we are to secure a more robust evidence base in this respect. Engaging service users in such research and considering the whole criminal justice pathway including diversion remains a priority.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 102, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For a large part of the prisoners population, the prevalence of many diseases and the number of risk factors are greater than for the general population. In this work, we present an analysis of the prevalence of epilepsy and its co-occurrence with alcohol dependence among prisoners in a Polish penitentiary. METHODS: One and multidimensional logistic regression was used to present the relationship between epilepsy and the co-occurrence of alcohol dependence and of other variables like: the prisoners' age, their classification, the unit type, the length of the stay in the penitentiary, and professional activity. RESULTS: More than 7% of the prisoners had epilepsy. The prevalence was significantly higher in the 40-49 age group and among prisoners aged 50 and older. For prisoners suffering from alcohol dependence, the probability of epilepsy was over four times higher than for prisoners who did not suffer from that condition (OR [95%CI] = 4.09 [1.82-9.17], p = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that the prevalence of epilepsy and alcohol dependence in the studied prisoner population was much higher than in the general population of Poles and that alcohol dependence was strongly correlated with epilepsy, independent from other variables. The research allowed to assess the size of the analyzed problem among convicts, however, bearing in mind the multifactorial etiology of epilepsy, the cause and effect relationship between exposure to alcohol and its occurrence would require further in-depth analytical studies taking into account other etiological factors of this disease.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Prison Health ; 15(3): 244-249, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329037

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prison populations are considered at elevated risk of blood borne virus (BBV) transmission. Between December 2015 and February 2016, four new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed across two male vulnerable prisoner (VP) custodial units in Wales, UK. Cases were identified through routine BBV testing. The paper aims to discuss these issues. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: As a result of identifying four new HIV cases, targeted BBV testing across the VP units using dried blood spot testing for HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and Hepatitis B was undertaken. FINDINGS: A total of 617 men were offered testing, 256 (41 per cent) were tested. No further cases of HIV were identified. Eight men were identified as HCV antibody positive. There was no evidence to suggest the four original cases of HIV were linked. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Embedding universal BBV screening within prison health provision will ensure timely identification of cases. Further research is needed to better understand BBV transmission risks within subsets of the prison population such as the VP and sex offending groups. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Little is known about the prevalence of BBVs in vulnerable prison populations. The findings add to the knowledge available for practitioners in the field.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Conscientização , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
18.
Int J Prison Health ; 15(3): 250-261, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in older and younger prisoners, and compared if age group is associated with risks of polypharmacy and DDIs. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: For 380 prisoners from Switzerland (190 were 49 years and younger; 190 were 50 years and older), data concerning their medication use were gathered. MediQ identified if interactions of two or more substances could lead to potentially adverse DDI. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and generalised linear mixed models. FINDINGS: On average, older prisoners took 3.8 medications, while younger prisoners took 2.1 medications. Number of medications taken on one reference day was higher by a factor of 2.4 for older prisoners when compared to younger prisoners (p = 0.002). The odds of polypharmacy was significantly higher for older than for younger prisoners (>=5 medications: odds ratio = 5.52, p = 0.035). Age group analysis indicated that for potentially adverse DDI there was no significant difference (odds ratio = 0.94; p = 0.879). However, when controlling for the number of medication, the risk of adverse DDI was higher in younger than older prisoners, but the result was not significant. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Older prisoners are at a higher risk of polypharmacy but their risk for potentially adverse DDI is not significantly different from that of younger prisoners. Special clinical attention must be given to older prisoners who are at risk for polypharmacy. Careful medication management is also important for younger prisoners who are at risk of very complex drug therapies.


Assuntos
Interações de Medicamentos , Polimedicação , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suíça/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Prison Health ; 15(3): 232-243, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The imprisoned population is increasing worldwide and is overrepresented in the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to explore the HIV vulnerability of female Filipinos who are pre-trial prisoners, as the specific needs of imprisoned women are poorly understood and fewer resources are granted to pre-trial detainees, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study was based on a Qualitative Descriptive Design. In total, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with prisoners and NGO directors. Data were analysed through Framework Analysis, using the individual, social and community categories of the Modified Socio-Ecological Model. FINDINGS: Results from this study suggest that the prison environment and management practices maximise the HIV vulnerability in the sample. This vulnerability is shaped by low HIV knowledge, combined with the existence of multiple social vulnerabilities prior to incarceration. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: HIV care in Filipino prisons needs urgent attention from government and international organisations, as it is a major public health and human rights concern. International goals of ending the epidemic by 2030 cannot be reached if efforts are not translated into action within this setting. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In the Philippines, few studies have addressed this issue and little is known about the conditions of Filipino prisons. This paper aims to fill a gap in literature regarding the vulnerability of imprisoned women in LMICs, which is even more limited in examining pre-trial detention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 655, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although significant improvement in efficacy measured by a sustained virological response, the high acquisition costs of direct-acting antivirals limit the access for patients and influence the costs of healthcare resource utilisation in hepatitis C. It is important to have the latest estimates of prevalence, especially in high-risk groups, for cost of illness, cost-effectiveness and budget impact studies. METHODS: Original studies on the estimates of the prevalence among general and high-risk groups in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) were retrieved from Medline and Embase for the period from 2015 to 2018. All included studies were evaluated for risk of selection bias and summarised together in a narrative form. Results from previous reviews and updated searches were compared per country among different populations, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 3871 studies identified, 46 studies were included: 20 studies were used for the estimate of the general population; 3 for men who have sex with men (MSM); 6 for prisoners; and 17 for people who inject drugs (PWID). Compared with the results reported in previous systematic reviews, the updated estimates were lower than previously in most available countries. Anti-HCV general population prevalence estimates ranged from 0.54 to 1.50% by country. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV was found among PWID (range of 7.90-82.00%), followed by prisoners (7.00-41.00%), HIV-positive MSM (1.80-7.10%), HIV-negative MSM (0.20-1.80%), pregnant women (0.10-1.32%) and first-time blood donors (0.03-0.09%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the heterogeneity in anti-HCV prevalence across different population groups in EU/EEA. The prevalence also varies widely between European countries. There are many countries that are not represented in our results, highlighting the need for the development of robust epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA